hemant mittal

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JOINT LIABILITIES UNDER CRIMINAL LAW vkijkf/kd fof/k ds vUrxZr la;qDr nkf;RoegkRek T;ksfr jko Qqys foofo|ky; t;iqj] ,dsMeh vkWQ yk] dh ,y-,y-,e- izFke lsesLVj izkstsDV gsrq

SUBMITTED TO Dr. Sanjula Thanvi Associate Professor MJRP Academy Of Law

SUBMITTED BY Pramod Kumar Sharma L.L.M. 1st Semester Roll No.

egkRek T;ksfr jko Qqys foofo|ky;

t;iqj jktLFkku 2010&11Mahatma Jyoti Rao Phoole University, Jaipur ( Rajasthan) Dr. Sanjula Thanvi Associate Professor MJRP, Academy Of Law

CERTIFICATE

This is to certify that PRAMOD KUMAR SHARMA has successful completed his project report on JOINT LIABILITIES UNDER CRIMINAL LAW. Further it is certified that the study is original and has not been submitted in any other university in India or abroad for L.L.M. 1st semester.

DATE: PLACE:

Dr. Sanjula Thanvi Supervisor

fo"k; lwph (INDEX)v/;k;&1izLrkouk la;qDr nkf;Ro f}rh;d nkf;Ro nkf;Ro D;k gS nkf;Ro dh ifjfLFkfr;ka fonskh dgkor nkf;Ro fuHkkus dh ftEesnkjh

v/;k;&2O;k[;k& /kkjk 34 Hkk-n-la- mn~ns; fl)kUr Hkkx ysuk ekeyk rRo {ks= lkekU; vkk; lkekU; vkk;% dSls lkfcr fd;k tkrk gS dksbZ lkekU; vkk; ugha Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrk dh /kkjk 34 vkSj /kkjk 149 esa varj /kkjk 149 ds LFkku ij /kkjk 34 ds v/khu nks"k flf)

ekeys feydj ngst e`R;q dkfjr djuk ywV ,oa vigj.k lkewfgd d``R; nqfoZfu;ksx jktekxZ ij lg;ksx ls ywV cykRdkj ds ekeys foks"k fopkj.k laO;ogkj ds nkSjku lkekU; vkk; dk fodflRk gksuk /kkjk 34 esa vkjksfir u gksuk igys ls lkspk&le>k lkekU; vkk; bafXyk ekeys

v/;k;&3O;k[;k& /kkjk149 rRo /kkjk 34 rFkk /kkjk 149 {ks= lkekU; mn~ns; dh iwfrZ djus esa 'keuh;rk lkekU; mn~ns; dk vxzlkj.k tkrh; cyok lkEiznkf;d cyok Hkk-n-la-

fof/k fo:) teko&izfrj{kk vf/kdkj ls ijs izR;sd lnL; }kjk d`R; dk djuk vko;d ugha gS lkekU; mn~ns; dk u gksuk fof/k fo:) teko rFkk ,d lk{kh

v/;k;&4vid`R; fof/k ds vUrxZr la;qDr vid`R; dkkZ la;qDr nkf;Ro dh ifjfLFkfr;ka la;qDr rFkk Lora= vid`R; dkkZvkas esa varj la;qDr vid`R; dkkZ ds nkf;Ro dh izd`fr% la;qDr ,oa izFkd nkf;Ro la;qDr vid`R; dkkZvksa ds chp vaknku fof/k lq/kkj vf/kfu;e]1935 Hkkjrh; fof/k mRrjksRrj dk;Zokgh dk vf/kdkj flfoy nkf;Ro vaknku ] vf/kfu;e 1978

v/;k;&5vkijkf/kd fof/k ds vUrxZr la;qDr nkf;Ro ij fu"d"kZ

v/;k;&1

JOINT LIABILITIES UNDER CRIMINAL LAW vkijkf/kd fof/k ds vUrxZr la;qDr nkf;Ro

izLrkouk la;qDr nkf;Ro %& la;qDr nkf;Ro ,d izdkj dk vkHkkj ;k dkZO; gSA ftlds fy;s ,d ls vf/kd O;fDr ftEesnkj gS vFkkZRk la;qDr nkf;Ro ,d ,slk nkf;Ro gS ftlds vUrxZr ,d ls vf/kd O;fDr;ksa ds ij ftEesnkjh mRrjnk;h gSA la;qDr vkSj vusd izdkj ds nkf;Ro ,d izdkj dh ck/;rk gS mu yksxksa ds ij] tks fd Lo;a ;k la;qDr :i ls vius }kjk fd;s x;s dk;Z ds fy;s ftEesnkj gS vkSj vxj dksbZ O;fDr vius nkf;Ro dks iwjk ugha djrk gS rc og O;fDr nwljs ds ij okn nk;j dj ldrk gS vkSj vius uqdlku dh HkjikbZ dkuwu ds vUrxZr U;k;ky; ls djk ldrk gS fdUrq fdlh Hkh gkyr esa nqxquh HkjikbZ izkIr ugha dh tk ldrh gSA dsoy lEiw.kZ uqdlku dh gh HkjikbZ djokbZ tk ldrh gSA izkFkfed nkf;Ro %& ( Primary liabilities ) izkFkfed nkf;Ro ,d ,slk nkf;Ro gS ftlds fy;s O;fDr lh/kk&lk/kk ftEesnkj gS vkSj ;g f}rh;d nkf;Ro ls fHkUurk izdV djrk gSA f}rh;d nkf;Ro %& ( Secondary liabilities ) fnrh;d nkf;Ro ds vUrxZr vxj lh/ks ftEesnkj O;fDr viuk nkf;Ro ugha fuHkk ikrk gS ;k nkf;Ro fuHkkus ls badkj djrk gS ;k Hkkj dks nwljs O;fDr ds vuqlkj fuHkkus esa vlQy jgrk gSA rc ;g nwljs lEcfU/kr O;fDr;ksa ij ftEesnkjh lkfcr djokrk gS vkSj bl izdkj dk nkf;Ro fuHkkuk gh f}rh;d nkf;Ro dgykrk gSA nkf;Ro D;k gS %& fof/k ds vuqlkj *nkf;Ro* 'kCn vius vki esa ,d egRoiw.kZ 'kCn gSA ftldk eryc gS& dkuwuh ftEesnkjh

vFkkZr fof/kd ftEesnkjh] ftlds vUrxZr ,d O;fDr vius } kjk fd;s x;s dk;Z vkSj vijk/kksa ds fy;s nkf;Ro fuHkkus ds fy;s Lo;a ftEesnkj gS vkSj vxj ftEesnkj O;fDr viuh ftEesnkjh ;k nkf;Ro ugha fuHkkrk gS ;k nkf;Ro fuHkkus esa vlQy jgrk gS rc mlds f[kykQ okn yk;k tk ldrk gS vkSj U;k;ky; }kjk uqdlku dh HkjikbZ izkIr dj ldrk gSA mnkgj.k%& jkdsk viuh dkj dks nkSMkrk gqvk ,d tSCzk dzkWflax lMd ikj djus dk LFkku ikj djrk gS vkSj lMd ikj dj jgh fukk dks VDdj ekj dj ?kk;y dj nsrk gSA tcfd fukk tSCzk dzkWflax ls jksM ikj dj jgha FkhA jkdsk dk nkf;Ro ;k dkZO; ;k ftEesnkjh Fkh fd lMd ikj dj jgh fukk dh j{kk djus dk] ftls fd jkdsk us ykijokgh ls xkMh pykdj] ugha fuHkk;k vc jkdsk ij fukk dh pksVksa dk nkf;Ro gS vkSj fukk vius vf/kdkj jkdsk ds ij okn nk;j djds U;k;ky; ls uqdlku dh HkjikbZ djk ldrh gS vkSj jkdsk ds nkf;Ro uk fuHkk;s tkus ij] nkf;Ro dh iwfrZ jkdsk ds firk ls djokbZ tk ldrh gS D;ksafd dkj jkdsk ds firk ds uke jftLVMZ gS A firk us gkaykfd Lo;a dksbZ uqdlku dkfjr ugha fd;k gS fdUrq *fof/kd nkf;Ro* ds vUrxZr mUgsa nkf;Ro fuHkkuk iMsxkA,d izksfefk;jh uksV dks gLrk{kj djus okys O;fDr ds ij /ku pqdkus dk nkf;Ro gS vkSj nkf;Ro iwjk uk djus ij xkjUVj ds :i esa lggLrk{kj djus okys O;fDr ds ij /ku pqdkus dk nkf;Ro gksrk gSA nkf;Ro dh ifjfLFkfr;ka %& (Associated concepts)nkf;Ro dh fuEufyf[kr ifjfLFkfr;ka gS %&

Absolute liability, admission of liability, civil liability, contingent liability, criminal liability, denial of liability, existing liability, fixed liability, incurring liability, joint liability, known liability, legal liability, liability imposed by law, liability insurance, liability without fault, limited liability, manufacturing liability, original liability, pecuniary liability, potential liability, primary liability, secondary liability, several liability, statutory liability, strict liability, tort liability. fons'kh dgkorsa %& (Foreign phrases)- ,d dgkor esa bl izdkj ls dgk x;k gSAQuando de una et eaden re duo oneraailes existunt, unus pro insufficientia alterius, de inteero, onerabitur.tc nks O;fDr;ksa ij fdlh ,d dk;Z ;k lEiw.kZ dk;Z dk nks"k vkjksi.k fd;k x;k gS vkSj muesa ls ,d vius nkf;Ro dks fuHkkus esa vlQy jgrk gS rks nwljs O;fDr dks lEiw.kZ dk;Z ds nkf;Ro dks iwjk djuk gksxkA nkf;Ro fuHkkus dh ftEesnkjh %& 1 dkuwu vkSj U;k; ds fy;s fof/k ds vuqlkj nkf;Ro dk fuHkkuk Hkh ck/;dkjh gSA vius vidR;Z dk;ksZa ds ifj.kkeksa ds fy;s izdV :i esa ;k lkadsfrd :i ls laafonk ds vuqlkj nkf;Ro isSnk gksrk gS vkSj U;k;ky; }kjk iwjk djok;k tk ldrk gSA 2 nkf;Ro dks ,d O;fDr ls nwljs O;fDr dks lkekU; ifjfLFkfr;ksa esa LFkkukUrfjr ugha fd;k tk ldrk gSA 3 ifr viuh iRuh }kjk fd;s x;s lafonk tU; vidR;Z ds fy;s nkf;Ro fuHkkus ds fy;s ftEesnkj gksrk gS vkSj iRuh Hkh eqdnek djus ds fy;s vf/kdkjh gSA vius ifr ds ,MfefuLVsVj ds :i esa tc og dk;Z djrh gSA

4 ekfyd vius ukSdj ds }kjk ukSdjh ds nkSjku fd;s x;s dk;ksZa ds fy;s nkf;Ro fuHkkus ds fy;s iw.kZ :i ls ftEesnkj gSA ysfdu vkijkf/kd dk;ksZa ds fy;s ftEesnkj ekfyd ugha gS vkSj ekfyd us ugha djok;s gSa vkSj foLr`r tkudkjh Hkkjrh; naM lafgrk /kkjk 34 vkSj /kkjk 149 esa nh xbZ gSAtks fd fuEu izdkj ls crkbZ xbZ gSA

v/;k;&2JOINT LIABILITIES UNDER CRIMINAL LAW AS PER INDIAN PENAL CODE, 1860 LkkekU; vkk; dks vxzlj djus esa dbZ O;fDr;ksa }kjk fd;s x;s dk;Z%& tc fd dksbZ vkijkf/kd dk;Z dbZ O;fDr;ksa }kjk vius lc ds lkekU; vkk; dks vxzlj djus esa fd;k tkrk gSA rc ,sls O;fDr;ksa esa ls gj O;fDr ml dk;Z ds fy;s mlh izdkj nkf;Ro ds v/khu gS] ekuks og dk;Z vdsys mlh us fd;k gksA /kkjk 34] Hkkjrh; naM lafgrk] 1860 O;k[;k%& mn~ns; Comment-object%& ;g /kkjk mu ekeyksa ds fuiVkjksa ds fy;s gS ftuesa fdlh ny ds O;fDrxr lnL;ksa ds dk;ksZa dks vyx&vyx djuk dfBu gks ;k ;g lkfcr djuk dfBu gks fd mu lc ds lkekU; vkk; dks vxzlj djus esa muesa ls izR;sd us fdruk Bhd&Bhd Hkkx fy;k FkkA1,sssls ekeyksa esa ftl dkj.kok lHkh dks nks"kh le>k tkrk gS og ;g gS fd lg vijkf/k;ksa dh mifLFkfr mu yksxksa dk tks okLro esa dksbZ dk;Z dj jgs gSa] izksRlkfgr djrh gS] leFkZu djrh gS vkSj laj{k.k nsrh gSA fl)kUr Principle%& ;g /kkjk dsoy lk{; dk ,d fu;e gS vkSj dksbZ ewy vijk/k l`ftr ugha djrhA blfy;s Hkkjrh; naM lafgrk dh /kkjk 34 ykxw gksxh pkgs blds v/khu dskbZ vkjksi u cuk;k x;k gksA ijUrq lk{; ls ;g Li"V gksrk gS fd lkekU;r

% vkkf;r mn~ns; dks ikus ds fy;s iwoZ xfBr ;kstuk FkhA2bl izdkj Hkkjrh; naM lafgrk dh /kkjk 148]302@149 vkSj 307@149 ds v/khu 6 O;fDr vkjksfir FksA ijUrq nks cjh dj fn;s x;s Fks] jks"k pkj vfHk;qDrksa dh bl n.M lafgrk dh /kkjk 34 dh lgk;rk ls gR;k rFkk gR;k ds iz;Ru ds vkjksiksa ds fy;s nks"kflf) dh tk ldrh FkhA3bl /kkjk dk okLro esa ;g vFkZ gS fd ;fn nks ;k vf/kd O;fDr vkk; iwoZd fdlh dk;Z dks feydj djrs gSa rks ;g dk;Z oSlk gh gS tSls fd muesa ls izR;sd us mls O;fDrxr :i ls fd;k gksA 4 vkijkf/kd fof/k 'kkL= dk loZekU; fl)kUr ;g gS fd U;k;ky; lg"kM;a=dkfj;ksa dks vyx&vyx ugha dj ldrs vkSj u gh os ,slh tkWp dj ldrs gSaA vkSj ;fn ,slk djuk laHko Hkh gksrk fd vijk/k esa izR;sd us fdruk Hkkx fy;k Fkk A laxBuksa esa e`R;q dkjd izgkj ;|fi xqV ds ,d lnL; us fd;k gks og fof/k dh n`f"V esa izR;sd mifLFkr vkSj n.Mizsjd O;fDr }kjk fd;k x;k ekuk tkrk gSA tks O;fDr okLro esa okj djrk gS og ml gfFk;kj vkSj gkFk ds vfrfjDr vkSj dqN Hkh ughsa gS ftlls nwljs yksx okj djrs gSaA5 ijUrq og i{kdkj ftls vius lkFkh ds gR;k djus ds vkk; dk laKku ugha gS og naMuh; ugha gS ;|fi mlus vius lkFkh dk dksbZ voS| dk;Z djus esa lkFk fn;k gksA6 ;fn vkijkf/kd dk;Z ,slk dksbZ Lora= vkSj u;k dk;Z Fkk tks dk;Z djus okys ds eu ls gh iw.kZ :i ls gh cu vk;k Fkk] vU; lkFkh dsoy blfy;s n.M ds v/khu ugha gksaxs D;ksafd tc og fd;k x;k Fkk os dk;Z djus okys ds lkFk fdlh fHkUu vkijkf/kd dk;Z esa Hkkx ysus dk vkk; j[krs FksAU;k;ky; /kkjk 34 dk voyEc ys ldrk gSA pkgs vkjksi esa bl /kkjk dk fofk"V :i ls mYys[k u fd;k x;k gksA7 tgkWa ;g fl) gks tk;s fd lHkh us feydj d`R;

fd;k gS vkSj lkekU; vkk; esa Hkh Hkkxhnkj jgs gSaA ogka /kkjk 34 dh enn ls nks"k flf) dh tk ldrh gSA8 Hkkx ysuk ( Participation):-mPpre U;k;ky; us vfHkfu/kkZfjr fd;k gS fd bl /kkjk dk lkj ;g gS fd izuxr O;fDr dk vijk/k ds okLro esa fd;s tkus ds le; 'kkjhfjd :i ls ekStwn gksuk vko;d gSA bldk okLrfod d{k esa ekStwn gksuk vko;d ugha% mnkgj.k ds fy;s og ckgj njokts ij pkSdhnkj dh rjg [kMk jg ldrk gS rkfd og vius lkfFk;ksa dks fdlh [kr