Hedda Gabler. Week7 段馨君 副教授 國立交通大學 人文社會學系. Understanding Modernism. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
1Understanding ModernismJoseph Wood Krutch defined modernism as the self-conscious belief that beginning in the second half of the nineteenth century, artists, scholars, scientists, sociologists and philosophers believed that they had made a radical break with the past and looked forward to a future discontinuous with it.Understanding ModernismThe dramatic revolt against romanticisms unreal or distorted picture of ordinary human striving emerged full-blown in the 1860s as realism.
FragmentationModernism engaged the belief that modern ideas, doubts, and attitudes were somehow radically different and discontinuous with those held in the past.Modernist methods and ideas evolved from the playwrights self-conscious break with the past. For two decades, Henrik Ibsens play were the key to modernism in drama. Modernist TheoryOf crurcial importance was the sense of discontinuity between the old and the new worlds and the impossibility of communication across the chasm that separated one from the other.Hedda Gabler
Original languageNorwegianSubjecta newlywed struggles with an existence she finds devoid of excitement and enchantmentGenreDramaSettingJrgen Tesman's villa, Kristiania,Norway; 1890stitle page of the 1890 text7About the playHedda Gableris aplayfirst published in 1890 byNorwegian playwrightHenrik Ibsen. The play premiered in 1891 inGermanyto negative reviews, but has subsequently gained recognition as a classic ofrealism,nineteenth century theatre, andworld drama. A 1902 production was a major sensation onBroadwaystarring Minnie Maddern Fiskeand following its initial limited run was revived with the actress the following year.
8About the playThe character of Hedda is considered by some critics as one of the great dramatic roles intheatre, the "femaleHamlet," and some portrayals have been very controversial. Depending on the interpretation, Hedda may be portrayed as an idealisticheroine fightingsociety, a victim of circumstance, a prototypicalfeminist, or a manipulativevillain.
The Basic Set
With Window Shutters Closed9About the playHedda's married name is Hedda Tesman; Gabler is her maiden name. On the subject of the title, Ibsen wrote:"My intention in giving it this name was to indicate that Hedda as a personality is to be regarded rather as her father's daughter than her husband's wife."
10CharactersGeorge Tesman - The husband of Hedda, an academicHedda Gabler - The heroineMiss Juliane Tesman (Aunty Juju) - Aunt of GeorgeMrs. Thea Elvsted - Friend of Hedda and George, confidant of EjlertJudge Brack - Friend of the TesmansEjlert Lvborg - George's academic rival whom Hedda previously lovedBertha - Servant to the Tesmans and to George as a child.
Cate Blanchett in Hedda Gabler.11CharactersHedda Gabler- Hedda is the daughter of the famous General Gabler; as a child she was used to luxury and high-class living. As the play begins, she is returning from her honeymoon with Jrgen Tesman, a scholar with good prospects but not as much money as Hedda is accustomed to. Her married name is Hedda Tesman. Hedda is an intelligent, unpredictable, and somewhat dishonest young woman who is not afraid to manipulate her husband and friends.
Pressure Cate Blanchett as Hedda Gabler.12CharactersJrgen Tesman- Tesman is an amiable, intelligent young scholar. He tries very hard to please his young wife, Hedda, and often does not realize that she is manipulating him. In fact, he often seems foolish for his age, and when he annoys Hedda, the audience has reason to sympathize with her. Tesman is hoping for a professorship in history, and at the beginning of the play it seems that his one great rival, Ejlert Lvborg, a notorious alcoholic, no longer stands in Tesman's way. Tesman was raised by his Aunt Julle.
13CharactersJuliane Tesman- Juliane Tesman, or Aunt Julle, is the aunt of Jrgen Tesman. After Tesman's parents died, Aunt Julle raised him. She is well-meaning, and she is constantly hinting that Tesman and Hedda should have a baby. Aunt Julle tries to get along with Hedda, but the difference in their class backgrounds is painfully apparent. Aunt Julle lives with the ailing Aunt Rina, another aunt of Tesman's.
14CharactersJudge Brack- Brack is a judge of relatively inferior rank. He is a friend of both Tesman and Hedda, and he visits their house regularly. He has connections around the city, and is often the first to give Tesman information about alterations in the possibility of his professorship. He seems to enjoy meddling in other people's affairs. He is a worldly and cynical man.
Kate Burton and Harris Yulin inHedda Gabler15CharactersEjlert Lvborg- A genius, Ejlert Lvoborg is Tesman* biggest competitor in the academic world. After a series of scandals related to drinking, he was once a public outcast but has now returned to the city and has published a book to rave reviews. He also has another manuscript that is even more promising. Mrs. Elvsted helped him with both manuscripts. He once shared a close relationship with Hedda.
Kate Burton and David Lansbury inHedda Gabler16CharactersMrs. Elvsted- Mrs. Elvsted is a meek but passionate woman. She and her husband hired Ejlert Lvborg as a tutor to their children, and Mrs. Elvsted grew attached to Ejlert, acting as his personal secretary and aiding him in his research and writing. When Ejlert leaves her estate to return to the city, Mrs. Elvsted comes to town and goes to Tesman for help, fearing Ejlert will revert to his alcoholism. Mrs. Elvsted went to school with Hedda and remembers being tormented by her.17CharactersBerte- Berte is George and Hedda Tesman's servant. Formerly, she was the servant in Juliane Tesman's household. She tries very hard to please Hedda, her new mistress, but Hedda is quite dissatisfied with her.Aunt Rina- Aunt Rina is dying at the start of the play. She never appears onstage. She helped Aunt Julle raise Tesman*
19The action takes place in a villa inKristiania(nowOslo). Hedda Gabler, daughter of an aristocratic General, has just returned from her honeymoon with Jrgen Tesman, an aspiring young academic, reliable but not brilliant, who has combined research with their honeymoon. It becomes clear in the course of the play that she has never loved him but has married him for reasons pertaining to the boring nature of her life, and it is suggested that she may be pregnant. The reappearance of Tesman's academic rival, Ejlert Lvborg, throws their lives into disarray. Lvborg, a writer, is also a recoveredalcoholicwho has wasted his talent until now. Thanks to a relationship with Hedda's old schoolmate, The Elvsted (who has left her husband for him), he shows signs of rehabilitation and has just completed a bestseller in the same field as Tesman. The critical success of his recently published work transforms Lvborg into a threat to Tesman, as Lvborg becomes a competitor for the university professorship Tesman had been counting on. The couple are financially overstretched and Tesman now tells Hedda that he will not be able to finance the regular entertaining or luxurious housekeeping that Hedda had been looking forward to.Plot20PlotUpon meeting Lvborg however, the couple discover that he has no intention of competing for the professorship, but rather has spent the last few years labouring with Mrs. Elvsted over what he considers to be his masterpiece, the "sequel" to his recently published work. Hedda, apparently jealous of Mrs. Elvsted's influence over Lvborg, hopes to come between them, and provokes Lvborg to get drunk and go to a party.
Tesman returns home from the party and reveals that he found the manuscript of Lvborg's great work, which the latter has lost while drunk. When Hedda next sees Lvborg, he confesses to her, despairingly, that he has lost the manuscript. Instead of telling him that the manuscript has been found, Hedda encourages him to commitsuicide, giving him apistol. She then burns the manuscript. She tells her husband she has destroyed it to secure their future.21PlotWhen the news comes that Lvborg has indeed killed himself, Tesman and Mrs. Elvsted are determined to try to reconstruct his book from what they already know. Hedda is shocked to discover, from the sinister Judge Brack, that Lvborg's death, in a brothel, was messy and probably accidental (this "ridiculous and vile" death contrasts the "beautiful and free" one that Hedda had imagined for him). Worse, Brack knows where the pistol came from. This means that he has power over her, which he will use to insinuate himself into the household (there is a strong implication that he will force Hedda into a sexual affair). Leaving the others, she goes into her smaller room and ends the play by shooting herself in the temple.
Ibsen's Hedda Gabler (1963 TV - Ingrid Bergman)
22Film-clipDirector: Alex Segal Leading actor: Ingrid Bergman Year: 2007Showing Part: The Tesmans have just returned from their six-month honeymoonFrom 00:52 to 10:57http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qKgcjssJgvYFilm-clipDirector: Alex Segal Leading actor: Ingrid Bergman Year: 2007Showing Part : Hedda's Brack complained to Brack about her marriageFrom 05:00 to 10:00http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tfn7MLoy8Yc&feature=relatedFilm-clipDirector: Henrik IbsenLeading actor: Diana RiggYear: 2009Showing Part: Hedda leaves the room and, after playing the piano for some moments, shoots herselfFrom 03:35 to 07:02http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wTdMLnLTzpM&feature=mfu_in_order&list=UL
Martha Plimptonas Hedda Gabler, Steppenwolf Theater 2001Cate Blanchettas Hedda Gabler, Sydney Theater 200426Critical interpretationJoseph Wood Krutchmakes a connection betweenHedda GablerandFreud, whose first work on psychoanalysiswas published almost a decade later. Hedda is one of the first fully developedneurotic heroines of li