Heat Pump Technology Development in Japan ... 2009/09/24 آ  Hot water AC Hot water Heating Commercial

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  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Heat Pump Technology Development in Japan

    Naoki Shikazono Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Collaborative Research Center for Energy Engineering (CEE) The University of Tokyo

    shika@feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp http://www.feslab.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp/index.html

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Contents

    Topics on heat pump system development in Japan

    CO2 heat pump Extremely high COP / APF

    Technological needs for future development Low pressure drop cycle Heat transfer enhancement

  • Sep. 24, 2009 TEPCO HP http://www.mof.go.jp/singikai/zaisanfollow_up/siryou/20080515/tepco.pdf

    CO2 Emission Reduction Potential of Heat Pump in Japan

    Drying

    Temp. rise

    AC

    Hot water

    AC

    Hot water

    Heating

    Commercial

    Total ▲130 Mt-CO2 Civilian ▲100 Mt-CO2, Industrial ▲30 Mt-CO2

    100 Mt-CO2 Civilian

    130 Mt-CO2 Total

    Total CO2 emission 1261 Mt-CO2 @ 1990

    Industrial + Civilian

    Residential

    Industrial

    Transport

    Others

    104 t-CO2

    104 t-CO2

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Expected Share of Residential Hot Water Heater

    0

    10000

    20000

    30000

    40000

    50000

    60000

    2005 2010 2015 2020 2025 2030 2035

    Year

    S to

    c k

    ( 1 0 0 0 u

    n it s)

    Heat pump

    Latent heat recovery boiler

    Fuel cell

    Electric heater

    Conventional boiler

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Cost vs. Amount of CO2 Reduction

    地球温暖化問題に関する懇談会,中期目標検討委員会(第7回)資料より作成 http://202.232.58.50/jp/singi/tikyuu/kaisai/dai07tyuuki/07gijisidai.html

    -2,000

    0

    2,000

    4,000

    6,000

    8,000

    0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000

    Total CO2 reduction 10 4 t-CO2

    C os

    t  (B

    il li o n Y

    e n )

    Wind power

    PV

    Air conditioning

    Business use hot water system

    Household hot water system

    Solar heat

    IT Network

    Household wall insulation

    Display

    Top runner appliances

    Next gen. automobiles

    Industrial enegy saving BEMS

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Gas Boiler vs. Heat pump

    Corona CHP-D456A CTU-DH3026A2 (300L) ・ Capacity Q = 4.5kW ・ Catalogue price ¥787,500 ・ Market price C ≒ ¥400,000-subsidy ¥41,000 ・ ΔT ≒ 10℃ ・ Q/ΔT ≒ 450 W/℃ ・ C/Q ≒ 80,000 ¥/kW ・ Weight W = 59 + 81 = 140 kg ・ C/W ≒ 2,500 ¥/kg

    Rinnai RUF-A2400AG ・ Capacity Q ≒ 40kW ・ Catalogue price ¥359,520 ・ Market price C ≒ ¥130,000 ・ ΔT ≒ 1,500℃ ・ Q/ΔT ≒ 30 W/℃ ・ C/Q ≒ 3,250¥/kW ・ Weight = 29.5 kg ・ C/W ≒ 4,500 ¥/kg

    650×820×300 59kg

    1635×1090×450 81kg

    510×600×240 29.5kg

    http://www.corona.co.jp/question/index_catalog_dl.htmlhttp://rinnai.jp/catalog_download/

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    CO2 & R410A

    CO2

    R410A

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    CO2 Heat Pump

    (90 ℃-20 ℃)×460 kg×4.179 kJ/kg℃=134.6 MJ 134.6 MJ / (8 h × 3600 sec/h) = 4.7 kW

    90 ℃ 460 L

    4.5 kW

    http://www.corona.co.jp/question/catalog_dl/juusetsu/catalog/0909ecocute.pdf

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Midnight Power Demand

    CO2 Heat pump cumulative shipment 電気事業連合会,(社)日本冷凍空調工業会,(財)ヒートポンプ・蓄熱センター

    TEPCO Shin Takasegawa Pumped Hydropower

    1.28×106kW

    (財)日本ダム協会HP http://www.soc.nii.ac.jp/jdf/

    1.8×106 units @Jul. 2009

    Energy consumption ≒ 1 kW/unit 9×106 units@2020 → 9×106 kW midnight power consumption

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Adequate Capacity

    Electric 1 kW + Heat 1.3 kW 200 L tank + Gas boiler4.5 kW 460 L

    PEFCCO2 Heat pump

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Daikin “Altherma” www.daikinaltherma.com

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Improvement of COP (Residential)

    全国地球温暖化防止活動推進センターウェブサイト(http://www.jccca.org/)より

    Heating

    Cooling

    To p

    ru nn

    er p

    ro gr

    am

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Improvement of Components

    C om

    pr es

    so r m

    ot or

    e ff.

    (% )

    C om

    pr es

    so r

    ad . e

    ff. (%

    )

    Fa n

    m ot

    or e

    ff. (%

    )

    総合資源エネルギー調査会省エネルギー基準部会エアーコンディショナー判断基準小委員会

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    COP Improvement

    R410A

    A B

    COP = A/B

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Increase of HEX Area and Air flow rate

    ~1985 Mid 90’s Late 90’s Present

    日経ものづくり,2004.08日経メカニカル,537,44, 1999

    Early 00’s

    大塚,2008

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Heat Load and Rated Capacity

    2.8kW Air conditionerDistrict Cooling

    田中,2003 井上,エネルギー・資源, 25-5, 2004, pp.321-324.

    R at

    ed

    Load

    H ou

    rs [h

    /y ea

    r]

    C um

    ul at

    iv e

    ho ur

    s [h

    ]

    Cumulative Cooling

    Cumulative Electric power

    H ou

    rs [h

    /y ea

    r]

    Heating

    Cooling

    C om

    pr es

    so r e

    ff. [

    % ]

    Compressor efficiency

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    H ea

    t L oa

    d (k

    W h)

    Outdoor Temperature (℃)

    Heating load

    Cooling load

    nConsumptioEnergyTotal

    DurationLoad APF eTemperatur

    ∑ × =

    Rated Operation (Heating) Rated Operation(Cooling)

    Annual Performance Factor (APF)

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Comparison of Target Levels

    エネルギー白書2008より

    Australia

    China

    Thailand

    USA,Can. Korea

    Japan

    3.0 5.0 7.0 9.0 11.0

    Capacity kW

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0

    6.0

    7.0

    1.0

    A P

    F or

    C O

    P

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    COP Improvement

    R410A

    A B

    COP = A/B

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    冷房運転時圧力測定点

    凝縮器

    膨張弁

    室外機

    ガス

    室内機

    サービスバルブ

    P1

    P2

    接続配管

    5m

    調整絞

    Gas bypass cycle

    Indoor Unit Outdoor Unit

    Cooling

    Evaporator

    Condenser

    Comp.

    Liquid

    Gas

    Gas Liquid Separator

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    Principle of Gas-Liquid Separation Using Surface Tension

    Contracted section

    Expanded section

    Expanded section: Only liquid phase remains inside the grooves Contracted section:Introduce both gas and liquid phases into the grooves

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    0.0

    0.2

    0.4

    0.6

    0.8

    1.0

    1.2

    1.4

    1.6

    1.8

    0 10 20 30 40 50 60

    Gas Weber number Weg

    Dimensionless Separation Limit

    R e f*

    = R

    e f 13

    0. 0l

    n Bo (

    )+ 56

    .3

    D im

    en si

    on le

    ss L

    iq ui

    d Fl

    ow R

    at e

    Dimensionless Gas Flow Rate σ

    ρ bj We ggg

    2

    b: Groove width

    Sameshima, Shikazono & Iwata, 2008

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    R410A prototype

    Two phase flow inlet

    D Introducing guide

    Micro Grooves

    Liquid outlet

    L

    Separating plate of gas and liquid

    Gas outlet

    A A A-A Cross section

    (4kW Class)

    φD L Volume This Study 25.40 62 31.4cc

    Volume: 1/7 of conventional gas liquid separator

    25.4mm

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    φ45φ38.1φ35φ25.4

    4kW 8kW 12.5kW 16kW

    Capacity variation

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    0.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0

    10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 110 Flow Rate G (kg/s)

    g L / G

    L ( %

    16kW8kW4kW

    Cooling g L (kg/s) : Liquid flow rate in gas outlet G L (kg/s) : Total Liquid flow rate

    ×10ー3

    Gas Bypass Ratio = 60%

    Standard flow rate

    Performance in R410A cycle

    Amount of entrained liquid in the gas exit

  • Sep. 24, 2009

    冷房運転時圧力測定点

    凝縮器

    膨張弁

    室外機

    ガス

    室内機

    サービスバルブ

    P1

    P2

    接続配管

    5m

    調整絞

    0

    0.1

    0.2

    0.3

    0.4

    20 25 30 35

    室内機吸込空気温度(℃)

    低 圧

    側 圧

    力 損

    失 ( M

    P a)

    前歴 (気液分離器無)

    気液分離器付き

    圧力損失低減効果

    Pressure Drop Reduction

    Indo

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