Heart-rot and associated fungi in Alnus glutinosa stands in Latvia

Embed Size (px)

Text of Heart-rot and associated fungi in Alnus glutinosa stands in Latvia

  • This article was downloaded by: [Colorado State University]On: 30 September 2013, At: 06:42Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: MortimerHouse, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Scandinavian Journal of Forest ResearchPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/sfor20

    Heart-rot and associated fungi in Alnus glutinosastands in LatviaNatalija Arhipova a b , Talis Gaitnieks b , Janis Donis b , Jan Stenlid a & Rimvydas Vasaitisa

    a Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of AgriculturalSciences, SE-75007, Uppsala, Swedenb Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, LV2169, Salaspils, LatviaAccepted author version posted online: 01 Mar 2012.Published online: 26 Mar 2012.

    To cite this article: Natalija Arhipova , Talis Gaitnieks , Janis Donis , Jan Stenlid & Rimvydas Vasaitis (2012) Heart-rotand associated fungi in Alnus glutinosa stands in Latvia, Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 27:4, 327-336, DOI:10.1080/02827581.2012.670727

    To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2012.670727


    Taylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose ofthe Content. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors,and are not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be reliedupon and should be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shallnot be liable for any losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and otherliabilities whatsoever or howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to orarising out of the use of the Content.

    This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditions


    Heart-rot and associated fungi in Alnus glutinosa stands in Latvia



    1Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden,

    and 2Latvian State Forest Research Institute Silava, LV2169 Salaspils, Latvia

    AbstractThe interest in Alnus glutinosa (L.) Gaertn. as plantation species has increased during last years, but its prospects should beevaluated from the perspective of forest health. The aims of the present study were to: (1) estimate the incidence of stemdecay in Latvian A. glutinosa stands, (2) measure the extent of decay within individual stems and on a stand level and (3)identify decay-causing fungi. In four A. glutinosa stands, 450 trees were randomly sampled with an increment borer and thepresence/absence of decay was recorded. As a result, 112 sound-looking and 338 decayed trees were detected, and acorresponding number of wood samples were collected for fungal isolations. A total of 34 stems with decay symptoms werecut to measure the extent of internal decay. The incidence of decayed stems in studied stands was 75.1% on average. Thelength of the decay column was 7.795.4 m on average, and that of spongy rot was 4.294.5 m on average, implying thatyield losses for fully stocked 80-years-old A. glutinosa stand would comprise 49.2% of the total stand volume, and the lossesfrom spongy rot alone 30.5%. In total, 1134 isolates representing 68 fungal taxa were obtained. The most common decay-causing fungi were Inonotus radiatus and Armillaria sp.

    Keywords: Black alder, Inonotus radiatus, Armillaria, stem decay, wood-inhabiting fungi, yield losses.


    Currently, stands of black alder (Alnus glutinosa (L.)

    Gaertn.) comprise 5.1% (161,200 ha) of the total

    forest area of Latvia (Central Statistical Bureau of

    Latvia, 20082010). In Latvia, A. glutinosa typicallygrows on wet peatlands, usually comprising pure

    stands, or stands mixed with Alnus incana (L.)

    Moench., Betula spp., Populus tremula L. and Picea

    abies (L.) Karst. (Kundzins, 1969; Prieditis, 1993).

    Specific characteristics of this tree species are frost

    and waterlogging tolerance, a strong root system that

    penetrates both vertically and horizontally, adapta-

    tion to various soil conditions, and ability to fix

    nitrogen (McVean, 1953; Wheeler et al., 1986).

    Leaves are also nitrogen-rich and, after being shed,

    increase nitrogen concentration in soil (Cote &

    Camire, 1985; Dawson & Funk, 1981;

    Perez-Corona et al., 2006). A. glutinosa grows well

    on marshlands, riverbanks and other kinds of wet

    sites, and is an excellent pioneer species (Claessens

    et al., 2010; Fremstad, 1983; Obidzinski, 2004).

    Under suitable conditions it can be as productive as

    Fraxinus or Acer, yielding wood of high quality

    (Claessens et al., 2010), usable for wide variety of

    purposes, e.g. sawn timber, pulp and others

    (Claessens et al., 2010; Fennessy, 2004; McVean,


    The combination of rapid early growth with a

    coppicing ability makes A. glutinosa suitable for a

    short rotation forestry (Wittwer & Immel, 1978;

    Wittwer & Stringer, 1985), while the capacity for

    pioneering and nitrogen fixation makes this species

    suitable for afforestation of former agricultural land

    and non-productive sites, as, e.g. reclaimed mining

    areas (Chodak & Niklinska, 2010; Kuznetsova et al.,

    2010; Pregent & Camire, 1985; Torbert et al., 1985;

    Vares et al., 2004; Wittwer & Immel, 1978). The

    species has also been used in mixed forest planta-

    tions to increase overall wood production (Bohanek

    & Groninger, 2005; Chodak & Niklinska, 2010), as

    interplanting with A. glutinosa was shown to have

    positive effects on growth of adjacent trees of other

    Correspondence: Natalija Arhipova, Department of Forest Mycology and Pathology, Uppsala BioCenter, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, PO Box

    7026, SE-75007 Uppsala, Sweden. E-mail: natalija.arhipova@slu.se

    Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 2012; 27: 327336

    (Received 29 August 2011; accepted 22 February 2012)

    ISSN 0282-7581 print/ISSN 1651-1891 online # 2012 Taylor & Francishttp://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02827581.2012.670727




    by [C


    o Stat

    e Univ


    ] at 0

    6:42 3

    0 Sep


    r 201


  • species (Cote & Camire, 1984, 1987; Hansen &

    Dawson, 1982; Paschke et al., 1989; Plass, 1977).

    Consequently, nowadays A. glutinosa is becoming

    increasingly important as a plantation species. Aside

    from commercial forestry, this tree species is im-

    portant for riparian ecosystems and their biodiver-

    sity, providing habitats for specific wetland flora and

    fauna and stabilising riverbanks (Brown et al., 1997;

    Claessens et al., 2010; Popovska et al., 2008;

    Prieditis, 1997).

    The potential of different tree species considered

    for afforestation needs to be evaluated from many

    points of view, and the aspect of forest health is an

    important consideration. As in numerous countries

    with intense management of boreal temperateforests, heart-rot of standing trees is a considerable

    problem also in Latvian forestry. Based on observed

    average heart-rot incidence, spread of the decay

    inside a stem, and applying stand growth models it

    was estimated that in fully stocked stands of P. abies

    volumes of wood, degraded by the heart-rot

    comprise about 20 m3 ha1 at the age of 40 years,

    5560 m3 ha1 at the age of 60100 years and about90 m3 ha1 at the age of 120 years, corresponding to

    616% of a total standing volume (Arhipova et al.,2011a). Similar situation was also observed in fully

    stocked pure stands of A. incana, where volumes of

    decayed wood comprised 32 m3 ha1 at the age

    of 4550 years and 60 m3 ha1 at the age of6065 years, corresponding to about 10% and20% of all standing volume (Arhipova et al.,

    2011b). To date, however, no published data in

    this respect are available for A. glutinosa.

    Generally, A. glutinosa is regarded a short-living

    tree species, starting to die out naturally at about

    60 years of age under Central European conditions

    (Vyhldkova et al., 2005). However, depending on

    the region and growth conditions, the species might

    reach age of 100160 years (Claessens et al., 2010).Some authors noted that A. glutinosa is usually

    attacked by a stem rot at the age of 5070 years,especially on wet sites (Claessens, 2005; Claessens

    et al., 2010; Immler, 2004; Kotar, 2000). Moreover,

    there are observations that a large proportion of trees

    with a diameter at breast height over 30 cm are

    attacked by decay fungi and become susceptible to

    stem-breakage (Ilisson et al., 2004), or have stem

    cavities (Remm et al., 2006). In his review McVean

    (1953) named polypore Inonotus radiatus (Sowerby)