Health Digital Storytelling Projects

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This article was downloaded by: [University of Nebraska, Lincoln]On: 09 October 2014, At: 11:10Publisher: RoutledgeInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registered office: Mortimer House,37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UKAmerican Journal of Health EducationPublication details, including instructions for authors and subscription information:http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujhe20Health Digital Storytelling ProjectsMandi Dupain PhD a & Loral L. Maguire ba Department of Wellness & Sport Sciences , Millersville University , Box 1002, 1 SouthGeorge Street, Millersville , PA , 17551-0302b Professional Training & Education , Millersville University , Box 1002, 1 South GeorgeStreet, Millersville , PA , 17551-0302Published online: 23 Jan 2013.To cite this article: Mandi Dupain PhD & Loral L. Maguire (2007) Health Digital Storytelling Projects, American Journal ofHealth Education, 38:1, 41-43, DOI: 10.1080/19325037.2007.10598941To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2007.10598941PLEASE SCROLL DOWN FOR ARTICLETaylor & Francis makes every effort to ensure the accuracy of all the information (the Content) containedin the publications on our platform. However, Taylor & Francis, our agents, and our licensors make norepresentations or warranties whatsoever as to the accuracy, completeness, or suitability for any purpose of theContent. Any opinions and views expressed in this publication are the opinions and views of the authors, andare not the views of or endorsed by Taylor & Francis. The accuracy of the Content should not be relied upon andshould be independently verified with primary sources of information. Taylor and Francis shall not be liable forany losses, actions, claims, proceedings, demands, costs, expenses, damages, and other liabilities whatsoeveror howsoever caused arising directly or indirectly in connection with, in relation to or arising out of the use ofthe Content.This article may be used for research, teaching, and private study purposes. Any substantial or systematicreproduction, redistribution, reselling, loan, sub-licensing, systematic supply, or distribution in anyform to anyone is expressly forbidden. Terms & Conditions of access and use can be found at http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/loi/ujhe20http://www.tandfonline.com/action/showCitFormats?doi=10.1080/19325037.2007.10598941http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/19325037.2007.10598941http://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionshttp://www.tandfonline.com/page/terms-and-conditionsAmerican Journal of Health Education January/February 2007, Volume 38, No. 1 41INTRODUCTIONEducators continually look for creativeways to engage their students in the mate-rial they are teaching. With the advent ofnew media and various software programs,teachers have many more options at theirdisposal. One powerful way to motivate stu-dents to understand an academic conceptand to showcase their creativity is throughdigital storytelling. While there are manyways of describing what digital storytellingis, the majority of definitions incorporatethe use of multimedia tools, includinggraphics, audio, video, and animation to tella story. Mellon defines digital storytellingas the application of multimedia softwaretechniques to the telling of stories.1Digital storytelling, which has recentlybecome popular in the business communityas a way of advertising, has its roots in edu-cation where teachers from all levels areemploying the strategy in areas such as his-tory, literature, writing, and science. Learn-ing becomes student-centered in that stu-dents conduct research online, analyze, andsynthesize information, and artisticallycommunicate their findings in a digitalstory. The digital story not only reflects theirunderstanding of the subject, but also al-lows for peer-to-peer learning in a way thatencourages personality and creativity tocome alive. The purpose of this teachingidea is to provide health educators with ateaching technique to help their studentsunderstand a health concept.DIGITAL STORYTELLING, LEARNING,AND RETENTIONResearch suggests that students learnbest when they are actively involved in thelearning process.2,3,4,5 Regardless of the sub-ject matter, students working in smallgroups tend to learn more of what is taughtand retain it longer than when the samecontent is presented in other instructionalformats.6Digital storytelling projects in the cur-ricula have the potential to increase aHealth Digital Storytelling ProjectsMandi Dupain and Loral L. MaguireMandi Dupain, PhD, is an assistant professorin the Department of Wellness & Sport Sciences,Millersville University, Box 1002, 1 SouthGeorge Street, Millersville, PA 17551-0302; E-mail: mdupain@millersville.edu. Loral L.Maguire is assistant director of professionaltraining & education, Millersville University,Box 1002, 1 South George Street, Millersville,PA 17551-0302.students retention rate and comprehensionof course material due to active learning.Active learning involves activity-basedlearning experiences: input, process andoutput. According to Edgar Dales research,effectiveness of learning is due to the me-dia involved in the learning experiences.Developed in 1969, Dales Cone of Experi-ence is a model that reflects retention ratesin students based on different presentationmethods. Porta uses Dales model to positthe importance of visualizing andstorytelling, as well as the importance ofmedia.7 The digital storybook assignmentTeaching IdeasDownloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 11:10 09 October 2014 Mandi Dupain and Loral L. Maguire42 American Journal of Health Education January/February 2007, Volume 38, No. 1uses the teach others/immediate usemethod of learning. As illustrated in Fig-ure 1, this method achieves an average re-tention rate of 90%.8OBJECTIVES AND ASSESSMENTTECHNIQUEObjectives for the digital storybookproject are two-fold. Students will be ableto a) gather and process information relat-ing to a health concept; and b) develop adigital storytelling project that illustrates ahealth concept by using Windows MovieMaker 2.0.MATERIALS AND RESOURCESIn designing the digital storytellingproject, students use Windows MovieMaker 2.0 and iMovie technology to createa narrative presentation that contains text,images, video, and sound illustrating ahealth concept. Windows Movie Maker 2.0is a free home video editing system thatships with Windows XP. It can be found inthe Windows Start menu under Accessories> Entertainment. If not found there, it canbe obtained online from www.microsoft.com/downloads. iMovie is an alternativevideo editing system that comes free withthe Apple operating system and can be usedto complete the digital storybook.TARGET POPULATIONThe digital storytelling project is bestsuited for senior high school and collegestudents.PROCEDUREThe project, which can be easily com-pleted within three weeks, begins with stu-dents forming groups of four and selectinga topic related to a health concept. Projecttopics may include, but are not limited to,blood pressure testing, cardio-respiratoryassessment, flexibility assessment, bodycomposition assessment, weight manage-ment, stress, diabetes, depression, muscu-lar strength assessment, and muscular en-durance assessment. Each group thenprepares a storyboard for their digitalstorytelling project. A storyboard is a hand-drawn rough draft of how to organize thedigital storytelling project and a list of itscontents. This storyboard helps the studentfigure out what media (i.e., video, still pho-tos, graphics, etc.) and text to use for eachpart of the project. The instructor shouldreview each storyboard to be sure that thecontent has been planned and is accurate.Examples of storyboards can be foundonline at www.mcli.dist.maricopa.edu/authoring/studio/guidbook/images/storyboard3.gif, www.sotherden.com/video101/storyboard.htm, and pblmm.k12.ca.us/TechHelp/Storyboarding. html.After the storyboard has been reviewed,the group writes a script for the narrationof the digital storytelling project. They prac-tice reading it in order to prepare for thetaping of the narration. Finally, the groupproduces their digital storytelling projectusing Windows Movie Maker 2.0. A typicaldigital storytelling project will run for 1015 minutes.ASSESSMENT TECHNIQUEGrading for digital storybook projectsemploys a rubric. The main areas of assess-ment include the content, organization ofthe content, media resources, effectiveness,and presentation. All members of the groupreceive the same assessment score as deter-mined by criteria from the grading rubricpresented in Figure 2.CONCLUSIONThe results of digital storytelling projectsare exciting and rewarding. Students havefound this exercise to be very informativeboth as constructors of the digital story-telling project and observers of their peers.There has also been an apparent improve-ment in the students skills and abilities withunderstanding health concepts. The digitalstorytelling project adds a practical experi-ence that supplements the lecture material.Digital storytelling projects are a powerfulway to motivate students to understand anacademic concept while building their nar-rative presentation. The method allows forpeer-to-peer learning and also fosters anincreased ownership in learning the coursematerial. The potential for increased reten-tion rates and comprehension of coursematerial is found in digital storytellingFigure 1. Dales Learning PyramidAbilene Christian University, Adams Center for Teaching ExcellenceDownloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 11:10 09 October 2014 Mandi Dupain and Loral L. MaguireAmerican Journal of Health Education January/February 2007, Volume 38, No. 1 43Figure 2. Digital Storybooks Grading RubricContent: Content: MediaScore Material Organization Resources Effective PresentationExcellentGoodFairPoorUnsatisfactoryExtremely thorough;displays evidence ofextensive research;presents accurateinformation withappropriate re-sourcesAdequate summaryof information;demonstratesreasonable researchPresents limitedamount of informa-tion with accuratesourcesLimited information;demonstrates littleevidence of researchRequired informationwas missingMaterial is extremelywell organized;format is logical andeasy to follow; ideasflowed from one ideato anotherShares researchthrough an orga-nized and clearpresentation; mostparts flow to oneanotherOrganization lacks inconsistency; littlecontinuityRequired informationextremely unclearNo evidenceSupporting resourcesare appropriate totopic; method ofutilizing media is veryeffectiveAppropriate selectionand use of mediaresourcesSelection and use ofmedia resources isvery limitedLittle use of appropri-ate media resourcesRequired informationwas missingCaptures theinterest of theaudiencePresents aclear messagefor audienceMessagedifficult todecipherLittle evidenceof creativeenergyNo evidenceClever, creativeand exception-ally appealingdelivery ofrequiredcomponentsClear andadequate displayof requiredinformationRequiredinformation waspartially fulfilledRequiredinformation wasincomplete,ineffective, andreflected littleeffortRequiredinformation wasmissingprojects as they promote cooperative andactive learning.REFERENCES1. Mellon CA. Digital storytelling: Effectivelearning through the Internet. Educational Tech-nology. 1999;39:4650.2. Anaya G. College experiences and studentlearning: The influence of active learning, col-lege environments, and co-curricular activities.Journal of College Student Development.1996;37:611622.3. Hall RH, Watkins SE, Ercal F. The Horseand the Cart in Web-Based Instruction: Preva-lence and Efficacy. New Orleans: Annual Meet-ing of the American Educational Research As-sociation; 2000. ERIC Document ReproductionService ED 443425.4. Huxham M. Learning in lectures: Do in-teractive windows help? Active Learning inHigher Education. 2005;6:1731.5. Sivan A, Leung RW, Woon C, Kember D.An implementation of active learning and itseffect on the quality of student learning. Inno-vations in Education and Training International.2000;37:381389.6. Davis BG. Tools for Teaching. San Fran-cisco: Jossey-Bass Publishers; 1993.7. Porta A. Thinking outside the box: Thebrain and teacher education. Montessori Life.2000;12:3637.8. Abilene Christian University. Active learn-ing online- Why use active learning? Adams Cen-ter for Teaching Excellence. Available at: http://w w w . a c u . e d u / c t e / a c t i v e l e a r n i n g /whyuseal2.htm. Accessed April 19, 2005.Dupain, 2004Downloaded by [University of Nebraska, Lincoln] at 11:10 09 October 2014

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