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Hawthorn Leaf

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Hawthorn Leaf. History. Originated in Europe and North Africa Widespread in North America. “Hawthorn” “haw” = "hedge.” "thorn" + “hedge” = "thorny hedge.” In old England trees were used as a barrier to keep peasants from entering private land. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Hawthorn Leaf

History and Description of Hawthorn Leaf

Hawthorn Leaf

HistoryOriginated in Europe and North AfricaWidespread in North America.Hawthornhaw = "hedge."thorn" + hedge = "thorny hedge.In old England trees were used as a barrier to keep peasants from entering private land.Now it is used by farmers to mark land.

Chinese CultureHawthorn lead is known in Chinese as Tang-Ben-CoDates back to 659 A.DHawthorn leaf used for heart health, mild laxitive, and aid in stomach ailments.

Natives AmericansUsed in a variety of ways including treatment of: diarrhea, dysentery, diuretic, and wound healing.Natives chewed the leaves and and put it on open wounds to help heal it.

Modern Day Use/DosageScientific studies did not being in the U.S until the 1960s.German physicians prescribe Hawthorn for tx of diminished heart performance, angina, & recovery from a heart attack.Prescribe hawthorns in many forms such as extracts, dietary supplements, & teasTake 160 mg day in two doses

Celtic TraditionHawthorn tree represented a Goddess & Symbolized fertility and abundanceInhabited by fairies and spirits.Flower blossoms were used for decorationTied into cloth or ribbon onto the branches to honor spirits

DescriptionDeciduous shrub or small treeHeight up to 10 meters & 18-20 feet in width.Found inmoist, open places, forests edgesalong shorelines, steam banks, roadsidescoastal bluffs at low to mid elevation.Can live up to 400 years.Fruit usually red or orange in color.Some are black, dark blue, or yellow.

Description1,000 different species & hybrids, but the 2 most common:Crataegus laevigataCrataegus monogynaCan be used interchangeablyHave similar chemical characteristics

Crataegus monogyna

FruitFlower

Leaves

Crataegus laevigata

FruitFlower

Leaves Medical ClaimsHawthorn contains substances that may benefit the heart.Flavonoidsdilate blood vesselsimprove blood flowprotect the blood vessels from damage.Protect against heart diseaseReduce b.p. & cholesterol.

ResearchHeart FailureIn 952 patients after 2 years in those taking 900 mg/day of Hawthorn extractsymptoms improvedWere able to exercise for longer periodsAs effective as low doses of certain heart medications (captopril).

ResearchAngina 60 people with chest pain given the following for 3 weeks:180 mg/day of hawthorn extractOrPlaceboThe group with the extract experiencedimproved blood flow to the heartWere able to exercise for longer periods of time w/o having chest pains

ResearchHigh Blood PressureStudy for diabetics with HTN (Took prescribed medications) were given the following medications for 16 weeks:1,200 mg/day of Hawthorn extractOrPlaceboThose taking extract had lower b.p.

Nutrition Factsflavonoid glycosides

Flavonolsquercitin, hyperoside, kaempferolFlavonesvitexin, apigenin, luteloinoligomeric procyanidinsepicatechin, catechinproanthocyanidins.cyanogenetic, phenolic, saponin and triterpenoid glycosides,Various aminescarboxylic acid,condensed tanninsPhlobapheneSugars

EffectivenessMay be safe for mild forms of heart failureStudies and results areconflicting.Not recommended forChildren or women who are pregnancy or breastfeedingNot enough scientific evidence to determine whether hawthorn works for other heartproblems.

Drug InteractionsDigoxinBeta-blockersCalcium Channel BlockersPhenylephrinereduce effectivenessMedications for male sexual dysfunctionblood pressure dropping too low.Nitratesmay enhance drug (dizziness or lightheadedness)

Side effectsNauseaDizzinessVertigoHeadachesMigrainesHeart palpitations.

Hawthorn leaves and its uses have not been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The supplementation is sold in various forms including a pill form, droplets and in leaves as a whole. They are usually sold where herbal supplements are sold as well as on Amazon in the range of about $10 into about the hundreds of dollars.

Storage of Hawthorn leaves should be in a cool closed container away from light or it could deteriorate overtime and lose nutritional valueStudies show that Hawthorn leaves contain antioxidants. However, even though Hawthorn leaves have shown to reduce blood pressure, it is not yet know by how much and how effective it is in certain doses. Blood pressure in some studies have even shown to increase blood pressure instead of lowering it like expected. In some patients, it may have no effect at all.

In addition to the mentioned side effects, Hawthorn has also shown to cause anxiety in patients. If anxiety occurs, it is recommended to cease usage It also may improve the production and strength of collagen found in joints. This will prevent the damage caused to joints from inflammatory diseases such as arthritis. Hawthorn also has anti-inflammatory effects which may help to counteract the swelling of arthritis. ConclusionThe coined heart healer is known to live up to its name in certain circumstances. But because it affects everyone differently, even though many studies have shown improvement for heart related diseases with use of Hawthorn, it should not be taken with any other medications and physicians should be consulted. No evidence regarding Hawthorn leaves is concrete. ReferencesUniversity of Maryland Medical Centerhttp://www.umm.edu/altmed/articles/hawthorn-000256.htmNatural History Museumhttp://www.nhm.ac.uk/nature-online/british-natural-history/urban-tree-survey/identify-trees/tree-factsheets/f-to-j/hawthorn/index.htmlOhio Public Libraryhttp://www.oplin.org/tree/fact%20pages/hawthorne/hawthorne.htmlTodd Caldecotthttp://www.toddcaldecott.com/index.php/herbs/learning-herbs/360-hawthornNorthern Rockies Natural History Guidehttp://nhguide.dbs.umt.edu/index.php?c=plants&m=desc&id=158Photo CreditsCrataegus monogyna von Jacquin 1775 (Family Rosaceae) http://www.commanster.eu/commanster/Plants/Trees/Trees/Crataegus.monogyna.htmlCrataegus laevigata [oxyacantha] (Poiret 1789) de Candolle 1825 (Family Rosaceae) http://www.commanster.eu/commanster/Plants/Trees/Trees/Crataegus.laevigata.html