HAWAIIAN HOARY BAT (LASIURUS CINEREUS SEMOTUS ... ... Technical Report HCSU-090 HAWAIIAN HOARY BAT (LASIURUS

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  • Technical Report HCSU-090

    HAWAIIAN HOARY BAT (LASIURUS CINEREUS SEMOTUS) ACTIVITY, DIET AND PREY AVAILABILITY AT THE

    WAIHOU MITIGATION AREA, MAUI

    Corinna Pinzari1, Robert Peck1, Terry Zinn2, Danielle Gross1, Kristina Montoya-Aiona2, Kevin Brinck1, Marcos Gorresen1, and Frank Bonaccorso2

    1Hawaì i Cooperative Studies Unit, University of Hawaì i at Hilo, P.O. Box 44, Hawaì i National Park, HI 96718 2 U.S. Geological Survey, Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center, Kīlauea Field Station,

    P.O. Box 44, Hawaì i National Park, HI 96718

    Hawaì i Cooperative Studies Unit University of Hawaì i at Hilo

    200 W. Kawili St. Hilo, HI 96720

    (808) 933-0706

    June 2019

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    This product was prepared under Cooperative Agreement CA15AC00203 for the Pacific Island Ecosystems Research Center of the U.S. Geological Survey.

    This article has been peer reviewed and approved for publication consistent with USGS Fundamental Science Practices (http://pubs.usgs.gov/circ/1367/). Any use of trade, firm, or product names is for descriptive purposes only and does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Government.

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Tables ..................................................................................................................... iii

    List of Figures .................................................................................................................... iv

    Abstract ............................................................................................................................ 1

    Introduction ...................................................................................................................... 1

    Methods ............................................................................................................................ 2

    Study Area ..................................................................................................................... 2

    Acoustic Monitoring ......................................................................................................... 9

    Bat Capture ...................................................................................................................11

    Insect Sampling .............................................................................................................11

    Bat Diet Sampling and Genetic Analyses ..........................................................................13

    Insect reference library ...............................................................................................13

    Guano collection and DNA extraction ............................................................................15

    Metabarcode sequencing of bat guano .........................................................................17

    Bioinformatic analyses ................................................................................................17

    Results .............................................................................................................................19

    Acoustic Monitoring ........................................................................................................19

    Bat Capture ...................................................................................................................28

    Insect Abundance ..........................................................................................................28

    Insect Reference Library .................................................................................................32

    Bat Diet Composition .....................................................................................................32

    Discussion ........................................................................................................................42

    Acknowledgements ...........................................................................................................46

    Literature Cited .................................................................................................................46

    Appendix I. Bat Acoustic Recording Sites .............................................................................52

    Appendix II. Acoustic Microphone Comparison .....................................................................55

    Appendix III. Insect Capture Data ......................................................................................58

    Appendix IV. Bat Acoustic Data ..........................................................................................60

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1. Site names, coordinates, elevation, general location, sample type. ........................... 4

    Table 2. The primer sets used for bat diet, and for barcodes for the insect reference library. ..16

    Table 3. Bats contributing guano samples for diet analysis. .................................................17

    Table 4. Frequency of bat detections by month for winter 2016, 2017 monitoring periods. .....22

    Table 5. Frequency of bat detection by site for winter 2016 and 2017 monitoring periods. .....22

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    Table 6. Results of regression models of mean number of files per night for winter ...............22

    Table 7. Mean percent of nights with bat detections by month for the winter monitoring. ......24

    Table 8. Mean percent of nights with bat detections by site for the winter monitoring. ..........24

    Table 9. Logistic regression models of bat occurrence per night by site during the winter. .....24

    Table 10. Mean percent of winter nights with feeding buzzes detected by month. .................25

    Table 11. Mean percent of winter nights with feeding buzzes detected by site. ......................25

    Table 12. Models comparing bat feeding activity per night and site during the winter. ...........26

    Table 13. Mean percent of winter nights with multiple bats detected by month. ...................27

    Table 14. Mean percent of winter nights with multiple bats detected by site. ........................27

    Table 15. Model results of winter nights from with multiple bats detections. ........................28

    Table 16. Bats captured in the Waihou Mitigation Area. .................................................. 29

    Table 17. Lepidoptera reared from caterpillars collected on host plants in 2016 and 2017. ......34

    Table 18. Information for insects barcoded for inclusion in the reference library. ...................35

    Table 19. List of prey items identified in bat guano . ...........................................................36

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1. The east Maui study area. .................................................................................... 3

    Figure 2. Sample sites on east Maui, Hawai‘i. .. .................................................................... 5

    Figure 3. Bat acoustic recording site AUW5 and site AUW7. .................................................. 6

    Figure 4. Sample sites associated with the Auwahi Wind Energy facility on east Maui, Hawai‘i. 7

    Figure 5. Bat acoustic recording sites at Auwahi Wind Energy facility. .................................... 8

    Figure 6. Spectrogram of a Hawaiian hoary bat echolocation call-event. ...............................10

    Figure 7. POND2 site in the upper portion of the Waihou Mitigation Area. ............................12

    Figure 8. Methods used to collect Lepidoptera and Coleoptera. . ...........................................14

    Figure 9. Frequency of bat detection by month in the Waihou Mitigation Area. .....................20

    Figure 10. Mean number of nightly bat detections by month for the winters. ........................21

    Figure 11. Mean number of nightly bat detections by site for the winters. .............................21

    Figure 12. Percent of nights with bat occurrence by month for the winter. ...........................23

    Figure 13. Percent of nights with bat occurrence by site for the winter. ...............................23

    Figure 14. Percent of nights with feeding buzz detections by month for winter. ....................24

    Figure 15. Percent of nights with feeding buzz detections by site for the winter. ....................25

    Figure 16. Percent of winter nights with multiple bats detections for the winter. ...................26

    Figure 17. Percent of winter nights with multiple bats detections by site for the winter). .......27

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    Figure 18. Adult Hawaiian hoary bats captured in 2016. ......................................................30

    Figure 19. Adult Hawaiian hoary bats captured in 2017. ......................................................31

    Figure 20. Site capture rates for Lepidoptera in late autumn and early summer. ...................33

    Figure 21. Proportion of arthropod orders identified in the Hawaiian hoary bat guano. ...........38

    Figure 22. Proportion of Lepidoptera families identified in the Hawaiian hoary bat guano. ......39

    Figure 23. Diet composition and proportion of OTUs for individual bats. ................................40

    Appendix I Figure 1. Pu‘u Makua bat acoustic recording site AUW1.

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