HASRAT MOHANI

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    CONTENTS

    S. No. TOPICS PAGE #

    1 Family background of Maulana Hasrat Mohani 2

    2 Birth and education 2

    3 Maulana Hasrat Mohani as a journalist 3

    4 Maulana Hasrat Mohani as a poet 3

    5 Spiritual status of Maulana Hasrat Mohani 4

    6 Maulana Hasrat Mohani in politics 7

    7Maulana Hasrat MohaniPioneer of Complete

    Independence Movement8

    8 Struggle against Saudi attack on Hijaz-e-Muqaddas 10

    9 Maulana Hasrat Mohani in jail 11

    10 Struggle after independence 14

    11 Literary works 16

    12 Death of Maulana Hasrat Mohani 16

    13 Successor of Maulana Hasrat Mohani in politics 17

    14 Conclusion 18

    15 Notes and references 19

    POLITICAL STRUGGLE OFMAULANA HASRAT MOHANI

    IN THE LIGHT OF HIS POETRY)

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    POLITICAL STRUGGLE OFMAULANA HASRAT MOHANI

    IN THE LIGHT OF HIS POETRY)

    FAMILY BACKGROUND OF MAULANA HASRAT MOHANI:

    The real name of Maulana Hasrat Mohani was Syed Fazl-ul-Hasan. Hasrat was his

    pen name. He was commonly known with his pen name instead of his real name. In his own

    words:

    1 He was an eminent poet of Urdu language, a brave freedom fighter, a fearless

    journalist, a true politician and a bold parliamentarian. He was really a versatile personality.

    He belongs to the respectable family of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be

    upon him). His ancestors came to India from Naishapur (Iran).

    BIRTH AND EDUCATION:

    Maulana Hasrat Mohani was born in 1878 at Mohan in the Unnao district of United

    Provinces.2He passed his Middle Examination in 1894 and stood first in the whole province

    and passed his Matriculation Examination with first division and obtained scholarship. He

    completed the education of Arabic and Persian in Fatehpur Haswa. Keeping in view his

    excellent educational record, Dr. Sir Ziauddin Ahmed3

    invited him to take admission in

    Aligarh.4So he took admission in Muhammadan Anglo Oriental (M.A.O.) College Aligarh

    for graduation and passed his B.A. examination in 1903 with distinction.

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    His poetry is a mirror of struggle for independence, his response on different political events

    and hardships faced by him in freedom movement. He used his poetry to awaken Muslims to

    start struggle against British Imperialism. To say that Hasrat is the greatest poet of his times

    may seem to be an exaggeration to some, but nobody will in fairness, deny to him the

    attributes of being the greatest reformer of Urdu poetry.

    His beautiful Ghazal is very popular in sub-continent.6A Naat composed by him is given below which depicts deep love of the poet for

    the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him), his Ahle Bait and Aulia-e-Kiram:

    7

    In recognition of his splendid poetic work, the title of Raees-ul-Mutaghazzileen (

    ) was conferred on him. Raees-ul-Mutaghazzileen means the head of ghazal composers.

    SPIRITUAL STATUS OF MAULANA HASRAT MOHANI:

    Maulana Hasrat Mohani was a pious man. He introduced himself as follows:

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    I am a conservative Sunni and Sufi. I consider Tasawwuf as essence of

    religion. And the result of Tasawwuf, as I think, is passion of extreme

    love.8

    He was a disciple of Hazrat Shah Abdur Razzaq Farangi Mahalli in Qadria Sufi

    Order. In 1917, when he was shifted to Lucknow jail, he described its reason in the following

    couplets:

    9

    Maulana Hasrat Mohani had great love of Ghaus-ul-Azam Hazrat Sheikh Syed Abdul

    Qadir Jilani. This love is depicted from many Ghazals of Hasrat Mohani, for instance, the

    following one is a master piece:

    01

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    After the death of Shah Abdur Razzaq, Maulana Hasrat Mohani became disciple of

    his son Hazrat Shah Abdul Wahhab Farangi Mahalli.

    11

    In Sabarmati jail, he was blessed with the munificence of Aulia-e-Kiram. He

    described the event as follows:

    1

    He performed hajj eleven times and visited Madina Munawwara twelve times. The

    Holy Prophet (peace & blessings be upon him) blessed him with his sacred sight in the dream

    many times. In July 1946, he went Bombay to attend the session of Muslim League Council.

    In the way he said to Maulana Jamal Mian Farangi Mahalli:

    Listen gentleman! We shall get Pakistan soon. Now we should think

    about future.

    Maulana Jamal Mian asked how he is so confident about Pakistan. He said that he

    was blessed with the sacred sight of the Holy Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him). On

    the next day, during meeting of the Council he presented the idea of establishing Constituent

    Assembly of Pakistan and to start making constitution of Pakistan. Quaid-i-Azam did not

    allow him to present this resolution. He tried again and again but was not allowed to do so.

    Maulana Jamal Mian asked him to leave it. He said that people did not know the reason why

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    he was stressing but Jamal Mian is aware of the dream, so he should not suggest leaving the

    idea.13

    After creation of Pakistan, we have wasted a long time in the making of constitution.

    Would that this work started in the presence and guidance of Quaid-i-Azam as suggested by

    Maulana Hasrat Mohani, we could have a better and in-time constitution to run the country

    and could avoid martial laws again and again.

    Due to his high spiritual status, Maulana Hasrat Mohani was allowed by his Murshid

    to make disciples in Qadria and Chishtia Sufi Orders.

    MAULANA HASRAT MOHANI IN POLITICS:

    Maulana Hasrat Mohani was a great leader of our independence movement. He

    performed his role in the movement with full courage and honesty.

    04

    He completed his education from Aligarh College but he opposed Aligarh Movement

    and advocated active participation in politics. He started his political activities in May 1904

    by participating in Bombay session of Indian National Congress (INC) as a delegate.

    In 1905, he attended All India Industrial Conference and became a preacher of

    Swadeshi Movement. He was the pioneer of Swadeshi Movement in sub-continent and he

    considered it a main source of industrial development of the country. In his opinion, the

    economy of Britishers could be ruined by the use of local products. He himself opened a store

    of local products in Mohan in 1913.

    Maulana Hasrat Mohani kept himself away from All India Muslim League (AIML)

    because loyalty towards British was part of its manifesto. In 1913, AIML changed its

    constitution and demanded self-government. At this stage, Maulana Hasrat Mohani joined

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    Muslim League and worked on different posts. He became president of All India Muslim

    League in 1923 for two years.

    He went round the country, toured rural communities, addressed public meetings and

    presided over conferences to explain the program and policy of Muslim League. His role in

    converting Muslim league into a common-man party from the party of feudals is remarkable.He actively participated in Khilafat Movement as well, but never crossed the limits of

    Islamic Shariah like other Khilafat leaders.

    He was a simple man and used to travel in third class. He visited Bombay as the

    president of Khilafat Conference in 1923 and purchased third class ticket. Maulana Shaukat

    Ali insisted him to travel in second class with Bi Amman but he was firm on his principles.

    So he refused to use Khilafat Fund on himself and to travel in second class.15

    MAULANA HASRAT MOHANIPIONEER OF COMPLETE

    INDEPENDENCE MOVEMENT:

    According to Maulana Hasrat Mohani, independence was the birth right of every

    nation and India was no exception to it. He started the movement of Complete Independence

    at the time when Indian National Congress and All India Muslim League were advocating for

    dominion status.

    Khilafat Committee held its meeting in Ahmadabad on December 26, 1921. Maulana

    Hasrat Mohani presented his resolution of Complete Independence in Subject Committee.

    Hakeem Ajmal Khan, the president of Subject Committee, agreed with it. But on the next

    day, in the open session, Hakeem Ajmal Khan did not allowed Maulana Hasrat Mohani to

    present the resolution. Hakeem Ajmal Khan was criticized by the participants and he left the

    session. After the session, Maulana Hasrat Mohani asked the participants to keep sitting and

    pass the resolution. More than half participants stayed there and passed the Complete

    Independence resolution.16

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    The British Government tried to introduce self governing institutions gradually in

    India through Montague-Chelmsford Reforms. These reforms could not satisfy political

    demands in India. As there was no clue of complete independence in these reforms, Maulana

    Hasrat Mohani rejected them and wrote:

    3

    In his inaugural speech, Dr. Mukhtar Ahmed Ansari criticized these reforms in

    eleventh annual session of All India Muslim League held in Delhi on December 30, 1918.24

    On this oc