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    ESC101NFundamentals of Computing

    Arnab Bhattacharya

    [email protected]

    Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpurhttp://www.iitk.ac.in/esc101/

    1st

    semester, 2010-11

    Tue, Wed, Fri 0800-0900 at L7

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 1 / 14

    http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/[email protected]://www.iitk.ac.in/esc101/http://www.iitk.ac.in/esc101/http://localhost/var/www/apps/conversion/tmp/scratch_6/[email protected]://find/http://goback/
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    Structures

    Structuresare customized data typesIt is declared using the keyword struct

    struct Point{

    double x ;

    double y ;

    };

    struct Point is a structure having two variables x and yVariables in a structure are called membersA variable of the type structure can be defined using

    struct P oi nt p ;

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 2 / 14

    http://find/
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    Structures

    Structuresare customized data typesIt is declared using the keyword struct

    struct Point{

    double x ;

    double y ;

    };

    struct Point is a structure having two variables x and yVariables in a structure are called membersA variable of the type structure can be defined using

    struct P oi nt p ;

    A structure type can be explicitly defined using typedeft y pe d ef s t ru c t P o in t p oi n t ;

    point becomes an alias for struct PointA structure variable can then simply be defined as

    p oi nt s ;

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 2 / 14

    http://find/
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    Members

    Structures can be initialized during declaration

    po int p = {4.0 , -3.0};

    By default, they are initialized to 0 (or \0)

    Same as array

    Its members can be explicitly assigned values

    . notation to access membersstructure variable.member name

    p .x = 4.0;

    p .y = -3.0;

    Members behave just like ordinary variablesSize of a structure is the combined size of its members

    Example: Size of point is 8 + 8 = 16 bytes

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 3 / 14

    http://find/
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    Functions returning structures

    Since structures are variables, a function can return them

    p oi nt c o py _p oi n t ( p oi nt s )

    {p oi nt p ;

    p . x = s . x ;

    p . y = s . y ;

    return p ;

    }

    This can also be used to create structures

    q = f (9.0 , -3.0) ;

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 4 / 14

    http://find/
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    Functions returning structures

    Since structures are variables, a function can return them

    p oi nt c o py _p oi n t ( p oi nt s )

    {p oi nt p ;

    p . x = s . x ;

    p . y = s . y ;

    return p ;

    }

    This can also be used to create structures

    q = f (9.0 , -3.0) ;

    Copying can also be done simply by

    q = p ;A structure is just a variable

    Different from array

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 4 / 14

    http://find/http://goback/
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    Functions returning structures

    Since structures are variables, a function can return them

    p oi nt c o py _p oi n t ( p oi nt s )

    {p oi nt p ;

    p . x = s . x ;

    p . y = s . y ;

    return p ;

    }

    This can also be used to create structures

    q = f (9.0 , -3.0) ;

    Copying can also be done simply by

    q = p ;

    A structure is just a variableDifferent from array

    Structures cannot be compared

    if ( q = = p ) // e rr or

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 4 / 14

    http://find/
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    Passing structures to functions

    Since structures are variables, they can be passed to functions

    Modifying the elements of a structure inside a function is temporary

    void m o di f y ( p o in t p , double c , double d )

    {

    p . x = c ;

    p . y = d ;

    }

    The following code prints 5.0 and 3.0

    po int q = {5.0 , -3.0};

    modify (q , 9.0 , 1.0) ;

    p ri nt f ( % l f % lf \ n , q .x , q . y );

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 5 / 14

    http://find/
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    Pointers to structures

    A pointer to a structure can be defined

    p oi nt * ptr , p ;

    ptr = & p;

    When a pointer to structure is passed to a function, modifying theelements of the structure inside the function becomes permanent

    void m o di f y ( p o in t * p , double c , double d )

    {

    p - > x = c ;

    p - > y = d ;

    }

    The following code prints 9.0 and 1.0

    po int q = {5.0 , -3.0};

    modify (& q , 9.0 , 1.0) ;

    p ri nt f ( % l f % lf \ n , q .x , q . y );

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 6 / 14

    http://find/
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    Pointers to structures

    A pointer to a structure can be defined

    p oi nt * ptr , p ;

    ptr = & p;

    When a pointer to structure is passed to a function, modifying theelements of the structure inside the function becomes permanent

    void m o di f y ( p o in t * p , double c , double d )

    {

    p - > x = c ;

    p - > y = d ;

    }

    The following code prints 9.0 and 1.0

    po int q = {5.0 , -3.0};

    modify (& q , 9.0 , 1.0) ;

    p ri nt f ( % l f % lf \ n , q .x , q . y );

    -> notation to access members using pointersstructure pointer->member name

    ptr->x is same as (*ptr).xArnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 6 / 14

    http://find/
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    Structure operations I

    # i n c l u d e < s t d i o . h ># i n c l u d e < m a t h . h >

    struct Point

    {double x ;double y ;

    }; / / d e fi n in g a s t ru c tu r e

    t y p ed e f s t r uc t P o in t p o i nt ; / / d e fi n in g a n ew t yp e u si ng s t ru c tu r e

    p o in t n e w _ po i n t ( double c , double d ) / / s t ru c tu r e a s r e tu rn v al ue{

    p oi nt p ;

    p . x = c ;p . y = d ;

    return p ;}

    double d i st a nc e ( p oi nt a , p oi nt b ) / / s t ru c tu r e a s p a ra m et e r

    {double d = 0.0;

    d = s qr t( po w( a. x - b .x , 2) + p ow ( a. y - b .y , 2) );

    return d ;}

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 7 / 14

    http://find/
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    Structure operations II

    void m o d i fy _ w r on g ( p o i n t p , double c , double d ){

    p . x = c ; / / m o di f yi n g m e mb e rs i ns i de f u nc t io n i s t e mp o ra r y

    p . y = d ;}

    void m o d i fy _ p o i nt e r ( p o i nt * p , double c , double d ){

    p -> x = c ; / / m o di f yi n g m e mb e rs u si ng s t ru c tu r e p o in t er i s p e rm a ne n tp -> y = d ; / / - > n ot a ti o n

    }

    in t m a i n ( ){

    struct P oi nt p , q ; / / d e c la r i ng u s in g s t r u ct u r ep oi nt s ; / / d e cl a ri n g u si ng t yp ep oi nt t = { 9. 0 , - 5. 0} ; / / i n i t ia l i z in g d u r in g d e c la r a t io n double d ;p o in t * p t r ;

    p r in t f (" % lf % l f \n " , p . x , p . y ); / / b y d ef au lt , v al u es a re 0

    q .x = 4 .0 ; / / a c ce s si n g o r m o di f yi n g t he m e mb e rs i n a s t ru c tu r eq .y = - 3. 0; / / . n o ta ti o n

    d = d is ta nc e (p , q ) ;p r in t f (" D i st a nc e = % l f \n " , d ) ;

    // p = {9.0 , -5.0 }; // e rr or

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 8 / 14

    http://find/
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    Structure operations III

    / / p ri nt f ( "% l f % l f \n " , p . x , p . y );

    p = n e w_ p oi n t (7 .0 , - 1. 0) ;

    p r in t f (" % lf % l f \n " , p . x , p . y );

    m od i f y_ w r on g (q , 7. 0 , -1 .0 ) ;p r in t f (" % lf % l f \n " , q . x , q . y );

    p tr = & p;m o di f y _ p oi n t e r ( pt r , 2. 0 , -5 .0 ) ;p r in t f (" % lf % l f \t % lf % l f \n " , p . x , p . y , p tr - > x , p tr - > y ) ;

    p ri nt f (" S iz e of p i s % d , s iz e o f p tr i s % d \ n ", sizeof ( p ) , sizeof ( p t r ) ) ;

    // if (q == p) // error

    / / p r in tf ( " E q ua l s t r uc t ur e s \ n ") ;

    }

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 9 / 14

    http://find/
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    Nested structures

    A structure can have another structure as its member

    t y pe d ef s t ru c t Line

    {p oi nt p ;

    p oi nt q ;

    } line ;

    Note: typedef definitions can be combined equivalent to

    struct Line

    {

    p oi nt p ;

    p oi nt q ;

    };

    t y pe d ef s t ru c t L in e l in e ;

    Value x of point p of variable l of type line can be accessed as:l.p.x

    The . operator has left-to-right associativity

    Arnab Bhattacharya ([email protected]) ESC101N 2010 I 10 / 14

    http://find/
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    Array of structures

    An array of structures can be simply defined as

    p o in t t [ 3 ];

    Each individual structure is accessed as t[0], etc.

    A member of a structure is acc

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