Hak-hak Asasi Manusia

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    HAK-HAK ASASI MANUSIAKonsep, Tipologi, Perkembangan

    Samsuri

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    Konsep Hak Asasi Manusia

    Ciri-ciri HAM: - tidak perlu diberikan, dibeli atau diwarisi; -

    berlaku untuk semua orang tanpa membedakan jenis kelamin,ras, agama, pandangan politik, asal-usul sosial atau bangsa; - tidakbisa dilanggar.

    Perkembangan (Barat):

    - Magna Charta Libertatum (1215 di Inggris)melawan kekuasan

    mutlak raja, melarang penahanan, penghukuman, danperampasan benda secara sewenang-wenang.

    - Habeas Corpus (1679) dokumen peradaban hukum, orangyang ditahan harus dihadapkan dalam waktu 3 hari kepadaseorang hakim dan diberitahu atas tuduhan apa ia ditahan.

    - Bill of Rights (1689) hak hak parlemen di Inggris- Dclaration des droits des hommes et de citoyen pernyataanhak-hak asasi manusia dan warga negara dari Revolusi Perancis1789 mengenalkan prinsip liberte, egalite, fraterniti.

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    Konvensi Hak Asasi Manusia

    Konvensi HAM internasional perjanjian internasionalyang memberikan standar tingkah laku bagi tiap-tiappemerintahan suatu negara untuk melaksanakanPERJANJIAN (AGREEMENT), KOVENAN, atau PAKTA tentangHAM.

    Era Liga Bangsa-bangsa Konvensi Perbudakan (1926)

    Era Perserikatan Bangsa-bangsa (PBB) DeklarasiUniversal HAM (DUHAM) 1948, bersifat tidak mengikat

    Kovenan Internasional: (1) Kovenan internasional tentang

    hak sipil dan politik; (2) kovenan internasional tentang hakekonomi, sosial dan budaya (1966). Mengikat bagi negara-negara yg telah meratifikasinya. Kedua dokumen ini dikenalsebagai International Bill of Human Rights.

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    Deklarasi Universal Hak Asasi Manusia PBB (Universal Declarationof Human Rights, 10 Desember 1948)

    Kovenan internasional tentang hak sipil dan politik, kovenaninternasional tentang hak ekonomi, sosial dan budaya (1966)

    Konvensi internasional tentang hak-hak khusus (1976)

    Konvensi hak-hak politik perempuan (UU No. 68 Tahun 1958)

    Konvensi tentang Penghapusan segala bentuk diskriminasiterhadap Perempuan (CEDAW, 1979 UU No. 7 tahun 1984)

    Konvensi tentang Hak-hak Anak

    Konvensi anti-apartheid dalam Olahraga

    Vienna Declaration (1993)

    Konvensi menentang penyiksaan dan perlakuan atau hukumanyang lain yang kejam, tidak manusiawi dan merendahkanmartabat manusia

    Konvensi tentang penghapusan segala bentuk diskriminasi rasial

    Konsep Hak Asasi Manusia

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    Konsep Hak Asasi Manusia

    Empat kelompok HAM

    1. Hak-hak asasi Negatif (Liberal): melindungikehidupan pribadi manusia terhadap campurtangan negara dan kekuatan sosial lainnya

    2. Hak-hak asasi Aktif (Demokrasi): keyakinan akankedaulatan, hak rakyat memerintah diri sendiri

    3. Hak-hak asasi positif : menuntut prestasi negara

    berupa pelayanan publik4. Hak-hak asasi Sosial: perluasan pahamkewajiban negara

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    Universal Declaration of Human Rights 1948

    Article 1

    All human beings are born free and equal in dignity and rights. They are endowed with reason and conscience andshould act towards one another in a spirit of brotherhood.

    Article 2

    Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as

    race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

    Furthermore, no distinction shall be made on the basis of the political, jurisdictional or international status of the

    country or territory to which a person belongs, whether it be independent, trust, non-self-governing or under anyother limitation of sovereignty.

    Article 3

    Everyone has the right to life, liberty and security of person.

    Article 4

    No one shall be held in slavery or servitude; slavery and the slave trade shall be prohibited in all their forms.

    Article 5

    No one shall be subjected to torture or to cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or punishment.

    Article 6

    Everyone has the right to recognition everywhere as a person before the law.

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    Article 7

    All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled

    to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such

    discrimination.

    Article 8

    Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental

    rights granted him by the constitution or by law.

    Article 9

    No one shall be subjected to arbitrary arrest, detention or exile.

    Article 10Everyone is entitled in full equality to a fair and public hearing by an independent and impartial tribunal, in the

    determination of his rights and obligations and of any criminal charge against him.

    Article 11

    1. Everyone charged with a penal offence has the right to be presumed innocent until proved guilty according to law

    in a public trial at which he has had all the guarantees necessary for his defence.

    2. No one shall be held guilty of any penal offence on account of any act or omission which did not constitute apenal offence, under national or international law, at the time when it was committed. Nor shall a heavier penalty be

    imposed than the one that was applicable at the time the penal offence was committed.

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    PETA PERKEMBANGAN HAMTAHUN NAMA DEKLARASI KETERANGAN

    1776 RIGHTS OF MINE (LAKI-LAKI)

    1945 FUNDAMENTAL OF HUMAN RIGHTS HAM

    1948 UNIVERSAL DECLARATION OF HUMAN

    RIGHTS (UDHR) PERSERIKATAN BANGSA-

    BANGSA

    PERNYATAAN UMUM HAM

    (DUHAM)

    International Bill of

    Rights (Undang-undang

    Internasional Hak Asasi

    ManusiaKovenan internasional tentang hak sipil

    dan politik (ICPR)

    Kovenan internasional tentang haksosial, ekonomi dan budaya (ICESR)

    Kovenan Internasional:

    -Hak Sipil & Politik

    - Hak Ekonomi, Sosial &Budaya

    1976 Konvensi Internasional Perjanjian Internasional

    tentang Hak-hak Khusus

    Ratifikasi Konvensi

    Jumlah Konvensi PBB

    25 buah

    Negara mengikat

    secara hukum

    1993 Vienna Declaration Deklarasi Wina

    Universalitas HAM dan

    kewajiban negara untuk

    memajukan dan

    melindunginya

    (Fakih, et.al., 2003:51)

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    CHAPTER IV : Human Rights 1.Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide. Paris, 9 December 194841IV318Convention on the Prevention and

    Punishment of the Crime of GenocideIV-1 2.International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. New York, 7 March

    196642IV319International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationIV-2 2.a.Amendment to article 8 of the International Convention on the

    Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination. New York, 15 January 199242aIV320Amendment to article 8 of the International Convention on the Elimination of

    All Forms of Racial DiscriminationIV-2-a 3.International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New York, 16 December 196643IV321International

    Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsIV-3 3.a.Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. New York, 10

    December 200843aIV112Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural RightsIV-3-a 4.International Covenant on Civil and Political

    Rights. New York, 16 December 196644IV322International Covenant on Civil and Political RightsIV-4 5.Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and

    Political Rights. New York, 16 December 196645IV323Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political RightsIV-5 6.Convention on the non-

    applicability of statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanity. New York, 26 November 196846IV324Convention on the non-applicability of

    statutory limitations to war crimes and crimes against humanityIV-6 7.International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. New

    York, 30 November 197347IV325International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of ApartheidIV-7 8.Convention on the Elimination of All

    Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 18 December 197948IV326Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenIV-8

    8.a.Amendment to article 20, paragraph 1 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 22 December

    199548aIV127Amendment to article 20, paragraph 1 of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenIV-8-a 8.b.Optional Protocol

    to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women. New York, 6 October 199948bIV128Optional Protocol to the Convention on the

    Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenIV-8-b 9.Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or

    Punishment. New York, 10 December 198449IV129Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or PunishmentIV-9

    9.a.Amendments to articles 17 (7) and 18 (5) of the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treat