Guia Amos v16

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Guia para Amos v16

Text of Guia Amos v16

Amos 16.0 Users Guide

James L. Arbuckle

For more information, please contact: Marketing Department SPSS, Inc. 233 S. Wacker Dr., 11th Floor Chicago, IL 60606-6307, U.S.A. Tel: (312) 651-3000 Fax: (312) 651-3668 URL: http://www.spss.com Amos Development Corporation 1121 N. Bethlehem Pike, Suite 60 - #142 Spring House, PA 19477, U.S.A. URL: http://amosdevelopment.com

SPSS is a registered trademark and the other product names are the trademarks of SPSS Inc. for its proprietary computer software. Amos is a trademark of Amos Development Corporation. No material describing such software may be produced or distributed without the written permission of the owners of the trademark and license rights in the software and the copyrights in the published materials. The SOFTWARE and documentation are provided with RESTRICTED RIGHTS. Use, duplication, or disclosure by the Government is subject to restrictions as set forth in subdivision (c)(1)(ii) of the Rights in Technical Data and Computer Software clause at 52.227-7013. Contractor/manufacturer is SPSS Inc., 233 S. Wacker Dr., 11th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6307. General notice: Other product names mentioned herein are used for identification purposes only and may be trademarks of their respective companies. Access, Excel, Explorer, FoxPro, Microsoft, Visual Basic, and Windows are registered trademarks of Microsoft Corporation. Microsoft Visual Basic and Windows screen shots reproduced by permission of Microsoft Corporation. Amos 16.0 Users Guide Copyright 19952007 by Amos Development Corporation All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 1234567890 10 09 08 07

ISBN-13: 978-1-56827-394-5 ISBN-10: 1-56827-394-0

ContentsPart I: Getting Started 1 Introduction 1

Featured Methods. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 About the Tutorial . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 About the Examples. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 About the Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Other Sources of Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Acknowledgements. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

2

New Features

7

Mixture Modeling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Changes to the Program . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

3

Tutorial: Getting Started with Amos Graphics

9

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 About the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .10 Launching Amos Graphics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .11 Creating a New Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .12 Specifying the Data File . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Specifying the Model and Drawing Variables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .13 Naming the Variables. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .14 Drawing Arrows . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .15 Constraining a Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .16

iii

Altering the Appearance of a Path Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Setting Up Optional Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Performing the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Viewing Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Printing the Path Diagram. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Copying the Path Diagram . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Copying Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

Part II: Examples 1 Estimating Variances and Covariances 25

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 About the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Bringing In the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Analyzing the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Viewing Graphics Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Viewing Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Optional Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Distribution Assumptions for Amos Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Modeling in VB.NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Modeling in C# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Other Program Development Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42

2

Testing Hypotheses

43

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 About the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Parameters Constraints . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Moving and Formatting Objects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Data Input . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

iv

Optional Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .50 Labeling Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .53 Hypothesis Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .54 Displaying Chi-Square Statistics on the Path Diagram . . . . . . . . . . .55 Modeling in VB.NET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .57

3

More Hypothesis Testing

61

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 About the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Bringing In the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .61 Testing a Hypothesis That Two Variables Are Uncorrelated . . . . . . .62 Specifying the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .62 Viewing Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .64 Viewing Graphics Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .65 Modeling in VB.NET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .67

4

Conventional Linear Regression

69

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 About the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .69 Analysis of the Data. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .70 Specifying the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .71 Identification. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Fixing Regression Weights. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .72 Viewing the Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .74 Viewing Graphics Output. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .76 Viewing Additional Text Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .77 Modeling in VB.NET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .79

v

5

Unobserved Variables

83

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 About the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Model A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Measurement Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Structural Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Specifying the Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Results for Model A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Model B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Results for Model B . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Testing Model B against Model A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Modeling in VB.NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

6

Exploratory Analysis

103

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 About the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Model A for the Wheaton Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Model B for the Wheaton Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Model C for the Wheaton Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Multiple Models in a Single Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Output from Multiple Models . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Modeling in VB.NET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

7

A Nonrecursive Model

131

Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 About the Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Felson and Bohrnstedts Model . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Model Identification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

vi

Results of the Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Modeling in VB.NET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

8

F