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Lecture 7 Lecture 7 Growth and Growth and Development Development Growth Growth Irreversible change in Mass Irreversible change in Mass Development Development Irreversible change in State Irreversible change in State Embryogenesis Embryogenesis Juvenile Juvenile Adult Vegetative Adult Vegetative Adult Reproductive Adult Reproductive

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Page 1: Growth&Development

Lecture 7Lecture 7Growth and Growth and DevelopmentDevelopment GrowthGrowth

– Irreversible change in MassIrreversible change in Mass DevelopmentDevelopment

– Irreversible change in StateIrreversible change in State EmbryogenesisEmbryogenesis JuvenileJuvenile Adult VegetativeAdult Vegetative Adult ReproductiveAdult Reproductive

Page 2: Growth&Development

GrowthGrowth

ComponentsComponents 1. Cell 1. Cell DivisionDivision 2. Cell 2. Cell EnlargementEnlargement 3. Cell 3. Cell DifferentiationDifferentiation

Page 3: Growth&Development

Cell DivisionCell Division

MeristematicMeristematic Cells (Stem Cells) Cells (Stem Cells) PrimaryPrimary

– Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM)Shoot Apical Meristem (SAM)– Root Apical Meristem (RAM)Root Apical Meristem (RAM)

SecondarySecondary– Axillary BudsAxillary Buds– Vascular CambiumVascular Cambium– Cork CambiumCork Cambium– Pericycle (root)Pericycle (root)

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Cell EnlargementCell Enlargement

Adjacent to MeristemsAdjacent to Meristems InternodeInternode growth - Shoot growth - Shoot Zone of ElongationZone of Elongation - Root - Root Turgor PressureTurgor Pressure

HH22O UptakeO Uptake Cell Wall LooseningCell Wall Loosening new cell wallsnew cell walls

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Cell DifferentiationCell Differentiation

Cessation of Cell EnlargementCessation of Cell Enlargement Secondary cell wallsSecondary cell walls Xylem - Vascular tissueXylem - Vascular tissue FibersFibers Epidermal cellsEpidermal cells root hairsroot hairs leaf hairsleaf hairs guard cellsguard cells Leaves, FlowersLeaves, Flowers Fruit, Tubers, Bulbs, etc.Fruit, Tubers, Bulbs, etc.

Page 6: Growth&Development

Types of GrowthTypes of Growth

1. 1. DeterminantDeterminantTerminal shoot apex flowersTerminal shoot apex flowers

2. 2. IndeterminantIndeterminantAxillary buds flowerAxillary buds flowerTerminal buds vegetativeTerminal buds vegetative

3. 3. MonocarpicMonocarpicFlower once then dieFlower once then die

4. 4. PolycarpicPolycarpicFlower repeatedly over several Flower repeatedly over several

seasonsseasons

Page 7: Growth&Development

Types of GrowthTypes of Growth

5. 5. AnnualAnnual

MonocarpicMonocarpic

Flower in one season and then Flower in one season and then diedie

6. 6. BiennialBiennial

MonocarpicMonocarpic

Flower in second season and Flower in second season and then diethen die

Page 8: Growth&Development

Types of GrowthTypes of Growth

7. 7. Herbaceous PerennialHerbaceous Perennial PolycarpicPolycarpic DeterminantDeterminant

Flower early and then go dormantFlower early and then go dormant

Flower BulbsFlower Bulbs IndeterminantIndeterminant Flower throughout seasonFlower throughout season Shoot dies in FallShoot dies in Fall

Page 9: Growth&Development

Types of GrowthTypes of Growth

8. 8. Woody PerennialWoody Perennial PolycarpicPolycarpic IndeterminantIndeterminant

flower only once per flower only once per yearyear

Biennial BearingBiennial Bearingflower and set fruit flower and set fruit

every every other yearother year Mast FloweringMast Flowering

more prolific in some more prolific in some years years than in othersthan in others

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DormancyDormancy

EcodormancyEcodormancy– Imposed by EnvironmentImposed by Environment– Temperature, Daylength, etc.Temperature, Daylength, etc.

ParadormancyParadormancy– Physiological DormancyPhysiological Dormancy– Apical DominanceApical Dominance

EndodormancyEndodormancy– True DormancyTrue Dormancy– Seeds, Terminal BudsSeeds, Terminal Buds

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PLANT GROWTH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORSREGULATORS

1. 1. EndogenousEndogenous– a. Substance produced by a plant that a. Substance produced by a plant that

affects the pattern of growth and affects the pattern of growth and development.development.

– b. Production by the plant is regulated by b. Production by the plant is regulated by the environment.the environment.

2. 2. ExogenousExogenous– a. Substance applied to the plant that a. Substance applied to the plant that

alters growth and development in the same alters growth and development in the same way that endogenous substances do.way that endogenous substances do.

– b. May be the same or different chemically b. May be the same or different chemically from the endogenous substancefrom the endogenous substance

Page 12: Growth&Development

PLANT GROWTH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORSREGULATORS 3. 3. HormoneHormone

– a. Substance that acts in very low a. Substance that acts in very low concentration (micro-molar or less)concentration (micro-molar or less)

– b. Produced in one part of plant and b. Produced in one part of plant and act in another (translocatable)act in another (translocatable)

– c. Has the same response in many c. Has the same response in many different plant speciesdifferent plant species

Page 13: Growth&Development

PLANT GROWTH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORSREGULATORS A. A. PrimaryPrimary 1. Auxins1. Auxins 2. Cytokinins2. Cytokinins 3. Gibberellins3. Gibberellins 4. Abscisic Acid4. Abscisic Acid 5. Ethylene5. Ethylene

Page 14: Growth&Development

PLANT GROWTH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORSREGULATORS B. B. SecondarySecondary - newly discovered - newly discovered 1. Jasmonic Acid1. Jasmonic Acid 2. Brassinosteroids2. Brassinosteroids 3. Juglone3. Juglone 4. Salicylic Acid4. Salicylic Acid 5. Polyamines5. Polyamines

Page 15: Growth&Development

PLANT GROWTH PLANT GROWTH REGULATORSREGULATORS C. C. OthersOthers - not yet confirmed or - not yet confirmed or

understoodunderstood 1. Peptide Hormones 1. Peptide Hormones

animals maybe plantsanimals maybe plants 2. Oligosaccharides 2. Oligosaccharides

cell wall signalingcell wall signaling 3. Phospholipids 3. Phospholipids

inositol phosphates, diacylglyceridesinositol phosphates, diacylglycerides 4. mRNA or Protein4. mRNA or Protein

Florigen (floral induction)Florigen (floral induction)

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Natural AuxinNatural Auxin

1. Endogenous1. Endogenous Indole Acetic AcidIndole Acetic Acid

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Auxin DiscoveryAuxin Discovery

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Auxin DiscoveryAuxin Discovery

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Auxin DiscoveryAuxin Discovery

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Synthetic AuxinsSynthetic Auxins

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AuxinAuxin SynthesisSynthesis a. Young developing leavesa. Young developing leaves b. Terminal buds, growing axillary budsb. Terminal buds, growing axillary buds c. Seedsc. Seeds TransportTransport a. a. BasipetalBasipetal away from tipaway from tip b. b. Apoplastic Apoplastic outside cellsoutside cells c. c. SymplasticSymplastic through cells and plasmodesmatathrough cells and plasmodesmata d. d. Phloem Phloem – Conjugated Forms - – Conjugated Forms -

GlycosidesGlycosides

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Auxin ActionAuxin Action

Mechanism of ActionMechanism of Action a. a. BindBind Receptor Protein Plasma Receptor Protein Plasma

membranemembrane b. b. TransportTransport into cell into cell c. c. ActivateActivate ATPase in Plasma membrane ATPase in Plasma membrane d. d. H+H+ ion extrusion ion extrusion e. e. acidifyacidify cell wall cell wall f. break f. break hemicellulose-pectinhemicellulose-pectin bonds bonds g. cellulose g. cellulose microfibrilsmicrofibrils slide apart slide apart h. h. cell enlargescell enlarges

Page 23: Growth&Development

Auxin Polar TransportAuxin Polar Transport

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Auxin Cell Wall Auxin Cell Wall LooseningLoosening

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Auxin ResponsesAuxin Responses

Cell EnlargementCell Enlargement Shoot GrowthShoot Growth InternodesInternodes TubersTubers BulbsBulbs Root GrowthRoot Growth Storage RootsStorage Roots Adventicious RootsAdventicious Roots Fruit GrowthFruit Growth Strawberry - Receptacle enlargementStrawberry - Receptacle enlargement Apical DominanceApical Dominance Auxin:Cytokinin RatioAuxin:Cytokinin Ratio High - Dormant Axillary BudsHigh - Dormant Axillary Buds Low - Axillary Bud GrowthLow - Axillary Bud Growth

Page 26: Growth&Development

Auxin Agricultural Auxin Agricultural UsesUses Rooting of CuttingsRooting of Cuttings PropagationPropagation Greenhouse and Nursery CropsGreenhouse and Nursery Crops Hormodin, Rootone, etc.Hormodin, Rootone, etc. Commercial preps of 2,4-DCommercial preps of 2,4-D HerbicideHerbicide High Concentration 2,4-DHigh Concentration 2,4-D Dicots more sensitiveDicots more sensitive Monocots less sensitiveMonocots less sensitive Weed control in cereal crop productionWeed control in cereal crop production Prevent AbscissionPrevent Abscission of Leaves and Fruit of Leaves and Fruit Older leaves Older leaves Ripe FruitRipe Fruit Endogenous production of IAA stopsEndogenous production of IAA stops Replaced by exogenous NAAReplaced by exogenous NAA

Page 27: Growth&Development

Auxin Agricultural Auxin Agricultural UsesUses Chemical ThinningChemical Thinning Differential sensitivity of developing fruitDifferential sensitivity of developing fruit High Concentration of NAA causes High Concentration of NAA causes

abscissionabscission Induction of Ethylene SynthesisInduction of Ethylene Synthesis Tissue Culture PropagationTissue Culture Propagation Auxin:Cytokinin RatioAuxin:Cytokinin Ratio High - RootsHigh - Roots Low - ShootsLow - Shoots Equal - CallusEqual - Callus

Page 28: Growth&Development

CytokininsCytokinins

Adenine + RiboseAdenine + Ribose– AdenosineAdenosine

ATP, ADP, AMPATP, ADP, AMP DNA, RNA DNA, RNA NucleotidesNucleotides

– NAD, NADP, FADNAD, NADP, FAD CytokininsCytokinins

– Cis & Trans Cis & Trans ZeatinZeatin– + Ribose + Ribose

Zeatin RibosideZeatin Riboside

N

N N

N

NH2

Adenine

ATP

DNA

RNA

NAD(P)

N

N N

N

N-CH2-C=C-CH2-OH

CH3

(Ribose)

(ribose)

Zeatin (Riboside)

(Adenosine)

Page 29: Growth&Development

CYTOKININS CYTOKININS

(IPA)

Page 30: Growth&Development

CytokininsCytokinins

SynthesisSynthesis– Root ApexRoot Apex

TransportTransport– Upward in XylemUpward in Xylem

Page 31: Growth&Development

CytokininsCytokinins

ResponsesResponses Stimulate Cell DivisionStimulate Cell Division Apical DominanceApical Dominance High Auxin in Shoot ApexHigh Auxin in Shoot Apex High Cytokinin in Root ApexHigh Cytokinin in Root Apex Gradient Between:Gradient Between: High Auxin:CytokininHigh Auxin:Cytokinin Dormant Axillary BudsDormant Axillary Buds Low Auxin:CytokininLow Auxin:Cytokinin Branch GrowthBranch Growth

Page 32: Growth&Development

CytokininsCytokinins

SyntheticSynthetic Cytokinins Cytokinins KinetinKinetin DNA degredationDNA degredation Benzyladenine (BA or 6-Benzyl amino Benzyladenine (BA or 6-Benzyl amino

purine)purine) Agricultural UsesAgricultural Uses LimitedLimited Induction of Axillary Buds Induction of Axillary Buds Roses, ChrysanthemumRoses, Chrysanthemum MicropropagationMicropropagation Shoot proliferation in Tissue CultureShoot proliferation in Tissue Culture

Page 33: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

Family of more than Family of more than 70 structures70 structures like like thisthis

SynthesisSynthesis Fungal productFungal product Gibberella fugikuroiGibberella fugikuroi Many other pathogensMany other pathogens Plant ProductPlant Product Normal growth and elongatonNormal growth and elongaton

Page 34: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

O

C=O

HO OH

CH2

C

OHO

CH3

GA1

Page 35: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

InactiveInactive ActiveActive

Page 36: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

SynthesisSynthesis– Starts in Plastids (Carotenoid Pathway)Starts in Plastids (Carotenoid Pathway)– Modified in ERModified in ER– Completed in CytoplasmCompleted in Cytoplasm

Tissue LocalizationTissue Localization– SAM, Young Leaves, Apical InternodesSAM, Young Leaves, Apical Internodes– Developing Fruit, Germinating SeedDeveloping Fruit, Germinating Seed– RootsRoots

TransportTransport– Xylem and PhloemXylem and Phloem

Page 37: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

ResponsesResponses Cell ElongationCell Elongation DwarfDwarf cultivars cultivars eg. Peas (Little Marvel)eg. Peas (Little Marvel) Dwarfing rootstocksDwarfing rootstocks apples, pears, peachesapples, pears, peaches height from rootsheight from roots fruit quality from scionfruit quality from scion Seed DormancySeed Dormancy High ABAHigh ABA Reversed by GA applicationReversed by GA application Synthesis of GA by embryoSynthesis of GA by embryo

Page 38: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

Page 39: Growth&Development

GibberellinsGibberellins

Agricultural Agricultural UsesUses

1. Thompson 1. Thompson Seedless GrapesSeedless Grapes Principal usePrincipal use Parthenocarpic FruitParthenocarpic Fruit 2. 2. Seed GerminationSeed Germination Malting BarleyMalting Barley Precocious germinationPrecocious germination 3. 3. Male FlowerMale Flower production production Monoecious & Dioecious Monoecious & Dioecious

PlantsPlants 4. 4. ChillingChilling Requirement Requirement AzaleasAzaleas BiennialsBiennials Biennial BearingBiennial Bearing

Page 40: Growth&Development

EthyleneEthylene

C = CH

H

H

H

Page 41: Growth&Development

EthyleneEthylene

CC22HH44 Gas at room temperatureGas at room temperature SynthesisSynthesis

||HemicelluloseHemicellulose +ATP+ATP ||

Methionine ---> SAM ---> ACC ---> Methionine ---> SAM ---> ACC ---> EthyleneEthylene ---> PG ---> PG 11 2 2 | | 3 3

||GalactoseGalactose 1. S-Adenosyl Methionine1. S-Adenosyl Methionine 2. Amino Cyclo Propane2. Amino Cyclo Propane 3. Polygalacturonase3. Polygalacturonase

Page 42: Growth&Development

EthyleneEthylene

Agricultural UsesAgricultural Uses – Ethaphon - breaks down to form ethyleneEthaphon - breaks down to form ethylene

1. 1. Fruit RipeningFruit Ripening Tomato, Banana, Melon, etc.Tomato, Banana, Melon, etc. Pick unripe and firm for shippingPick unripe and firm for shipping

Spray in store to "ripen"Spray in store to "ripen" Color development and softening Color development and softening Field SprayField Spray

Uniform and synchronous Uniform and synchronous ripeningripening

Canning TomatoesCanning Tomatoes Mechanical HarvestMechanical Harvest

Page 43: Growth&Development

EthyleneEthylene

2. 2. Floral DevelopmentFloral DevelopmentBromeliadsBromeliads

PineapplePineappleBananaBanana

Uniform development of inflorescenceUniform development of inflorescence 3. 3. Sex ExpressionSex Expression

Female FlowersFemale FlowersCurcubitsCurcubitsopposite of GA actionopposite of GA action

4. 4. Degreening of CitrusDegreening of CitrusOranges, Lemons, GrapefruitOranges, Lemons, Grapefruit

Break down ChlorophyllBreak down ChlorophyllLeaves CarotenoidsLeaves Carotenoids

Page 44: Growth&Development

EthyleneEthylene

5. 5. Mechanical HarvestingMechanical HarvestingFormation of Abscission ZoneFormation of Abscission ZoneStimulate Fruit DropStimulate Fruit Drop

Cherries, Walnuts, PecansCherries, Walnuts, Pecans 6. 6. Postharvest Shelf LifePostharvest Shelf Life

block ethylene synthesisblock ethylene synthesisAgNO3 or Silver ThiosulfateAgNO3 or Silver Thiosulfatedelay senescencedelay senescenceCarnationsCarnations

Page 45: Growth&Development

Abscisic AcidAbscisic Acid

CH3CH3

O

OH

CH3

CH3

C

O

OH

Page 46: Growth&Development

Abscisic AcidAbscisic Acid

Natural Plant Natural Plant Growth RetardantGrowth Retardant

Opposes action of GA and Opposes action of GA and AuxinAuxin

SynthesisSynthesis

ChloroplastsChloroplasts

Breakdown product of Breakdown product of CarotenoidsCarotenoids

Page 47: Growth&Development

Abscisic AcidAbscisic Acid

ResponsesResponses Dormancy MaintenanceDormancy Maintenance

high levels in dormant seed and high levels in dormant seed and budsbuds

Drought ResistanceDrought Resistance

causes stomatal closurecauses stomatal closure Agricultural UsesAgricultural Uses

NoneNone

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Synthetic Growth Synthetic Growth RetardantsRetardants

1. 1. DaminozideDaminozide (Alar, B-9) (Alar, B-9)Retard growthRetard growthStimulate FloweringStimulate Flowering

Chrysanthemums, AzaleasChrysanthemums, AzaleasChemical PruningChemical Pruning

AppleAppleEnhance size and colorEnhance size and color

2. 2. ChlormequatChlormequat (CCC, Cycocel) (CCC, Cycocel)Promote branchingPromote branching

Poinsettia, Geraniums, Poinsettia, Geraniums, BouganvilliaBouganvillia

Prevent Lodging of WheatPrevent Lodging of Wheat

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Synthetic Growth Synthetic Growth RetardantsRetardants 3. 3. Ancymidol Ancymidol (A-Rest)(A-Rest)

Height Control of bulb Height Control of bulb produced produced plantsplants

Lily, TulipLily, Tulip 4. 4. PaclobutrazolPaclobutrazol (Bonzai) (Bonzai)

MicropropagationMicropropagation

Stimulates RootingStimulates Rooting