Groupware for Collaborative Tailoring Groupware for Collaborative Tailoring Dissertation zur Erlangung

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of Groupware for Collaborative Tailoring Groupware for Collaborative Tailoring Dissertation zur...

  • Groupware for Collaborative Tailoring

    Dissertation

    zur Erlangung des Grades eines Doktors der Naturwissenschaften des Fachbereichs Informatik der

    FernUniversität in Hagen

    vorgelegt von Lic. Inform. Alejandro Fernandez

    Hagen, April 2005

  • ii

    To Analia and Magdalena.

  • Acknowledgments

    Now, while I make the last corrections to this document, I look back and try to summarize the past years. It was February 2001 when we (my wife and I) landed in Frankfurt airport. We had clear goal, getting our Ph.d. I just did the research and the writing; she did everything else. Of course, we received a little bit of help (well, maybe more than just a bit).

    I thank my advisors, Jörg Haake and Adele Goldberg for their continuous support and guidance.

    Thanks Jörg. You are a great boss and advisor. I wish I ever acquire your ability to explain the most complex concepts with a simple drawing. I wish I ever have your patience with students and colleagues and your ability to see the best in them and help them develop it. Your a great motivator.

    Adele, what can I say. . . I never imagined I could meet you, and suddenly you became my fairy godmother. I guess it is partly your fault that I got this far. You planted the seed of my work (present and future) when you pointed me to Donald Schön’s work on Reflection in Action, Hutchins work on Dis- tributed Cognition, Richard Gabriel’s work on Software Habitability, and Peter and Trudy Johnson-Lenz definition of groupware. I am the luckiest student on Earth to have you as my teacher, mentor and friend. ”Thanks” will never be enough.

    Anyone who says that Germans are cold and distant, has not met my Ger- mans. Of course they don’t go around dancing, kissing and hugging. They sim- ply take you with the families, without much noise, and make you feel at home. Thanks to the Schuckmanns, the Schümmers (both branches), and the Tandlers. Thanks to the Kässefondue troupe, to the IViewers and the Go4groupers. I re- gret of only one thing: I should have taught them more Spanish.

    Working in the Concert division of Fraunhofer IPSI as been an experience I will never forget. Concert taught me the real meaning of the term collaborative work, with and without computer support. Thanks to all of your for the many hours of reflection about team work that nurtured my work. I miss the talks we had in the balcony or by the espresso machine.

    Although I was many kilometers away, I never felt far from LIFIA. Gustavo, thanks for helping me with my lack of self-confidence. Alice, thanks for you visits in Darmstadt. They helped me feel part of the team. Fede, Richard, Diego, Diego and Lea, thanks for keeping my chair in the groupware group warm.

    Thanks to my sister for taking good care of my parents while I was abroad. Thanks to my family in law for letting me take their Precious away.

    iii

  • iv

  • Abstract

    In everyday work, teamwork in the presence of the tools, the resources, and the processes that enable work is mostly transparent to the workers. They center their attention on performing work. However, a noticeable change in the work conditions, in the required quality of the product, or in the perceived results of work, may be experienced as a breakdown that brings teamwork to the center of attention. To deal with breakdowns it is currently common practice to include tailoring facilities in groupware systems. The extent to which these facilities are provided, and the way in which they are implemented, determine the power users have to change the groupware system. Determining these facilities has been the focus of most research on tailorability in CSCW. How collaborative tailoring (defined as, collaboration for and in tailoring) can be facilitated remains as yet undetermined.

    This thesis tackles the problem of the lack of computer support for dis- tributed team members that need to perform tailoring in the context of team- work. The challenge of tailoring in the context of teamwork is to understand and support the needs of the group members, from the moment they encounter a breakdown during work until they have enacted the changes they deem nec- essary.

    This thesis is based on the premise of participation as a means to achieve acceptance of change. The approach to support collaborative tailoring of team- work presented in this thesis consists of a method for collaborative breakdown handling, a selection of specific groupware tools to be used for the deliberation activities defined by the method, and guidance in the form of scaffoldings for the application of the method. Breakdowns can also occur during tailoring. To deal with breakdowns that occur during tailoring, the method, the tools, and the scaffolding can be tailored. The proposed support for collaborative tailor- ing of teamwork is delivered as a stand-alone groupware system for collaborative tailoring. The system can be deployed along existing groupware systems, thus extending them with support for collaborative tailoring.

    This thesis exceeds related work by approaching tailoring of teamwork as a social system with a model that explains tailoring as the result of collaborative breakdown handling. The requirements of communication, collaboration, co- operation and coordination, and negotiation observed in the social system are supported by the corresponding technical system. The approach in this thesis is not limited to its application in a particular scenario or groupware system. The only requirement is that the target system/scenario can be tailored. The approach has been conceived to enable and support its own evolution as the result of its tailoring.

    v

  • vi

  • Contents

    1 Introduction 1

    2 Problem Analysis 7 2.1 Scenario . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7

    2.1.1 The Virtual Organization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 2.1.2 The Product of Work . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2.1.3 A Work Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1.4 Tools and Resources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.1.5 Breakdowns: a Driver of Change . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

    2.2 Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.1 The Distributed Team . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.2 Focusing Communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.2.3 The Product of Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.2.4 Work Processes, Resources, Tools, and Communication . 18

    2.3 Collaborative Tailoring of Teamwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.3.1 Teamwork Support for Breakdown Handling . . . . . . . . 22 2.3.2 Triggering Breakdown Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.3.3 Definition of the Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.3.4 Diagnosis of the Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.3.5 Design of a Solution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.3.6 Treatment of the Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.3.7 Follow-Up Evaluation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.3.8 Summary of Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    3 State of the Art 35 3.1 Tailorable Groupware . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 3.2 Understanding Tailoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 3.3 Collaboration in Tailoring . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 3.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

    4 Approach 43 4.1 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.2 Guidance and Coordination Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

    4.2.1 The Specification of the Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 4.2.2 The Scaffolding Server . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4.2.3 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62

    4.3 Triggering Breakdown Handling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 4.3.1 Presentation of the Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

    vii

  • viii CONTENTS

    4.3.2 Overview of the Triggering Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4.3.3 Participant: Reporter . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.3.4 Participant: Moderator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4.3.5 Activity: Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4.3.6 Artifact: Breakdown Report . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 4.3.7 Tool: Breakdown Landscape . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.3.8 Activity: Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.3.9 Activity: Publish . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 4.3.10 Activity: Aggregate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 4.3.11 Activity: Select . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 4.3.12 Participant: Manager . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.3.13 Tool: Breakdown In-box . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 4.3.14 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

    4.4 Defining the Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.4.1 Overview of the Definition Phase . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.4.2 Activity: Invite . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 4.4.3 Participant: Contributor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 4.4.4 Artifact: Effort Estimate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.4.5 Activity: Estimate Effort . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 4.4.6 Tool: Co-Estimation Tool . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 4.4.7 Generic Architecture for Loosely Coupled Deliberation

    Tools . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 4.4.8 Tool: Breakdown Landscape (continua