Group Work vs. Cooperative Learning

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    22-Feb-2016

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Group Work vs. Cooperative Learning. Rows and columns all day Teacher gives a task Teacher provides think time Students raise hands Teacher calls on one student One student answers Teacher responds. Teacher gives a task Teacher says: Work together. Help each other. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Student Engagement through Cooperative Learning StructuresGroup Work vs. Cooperative LearningTeacher ATraditionalTeacher BGroup WorkTeacher CCooperative LearningSame: number of students, demographic make-up, lessonRows and columns all dayTeacher gives a taskTeacher provides think timeStudents raise handsTeacher calls on one studentOne student answersTeacher respondsTeacher gives a taskTeacher says:Work together.Help each other.Unstructured interactionTeacher gives a taskTeacher provides think timeStudent-to-student structured interactionREWARDSCooperative learning students are rewarded while they are completing the problem or coming up with ideas. Process-Based Rewards.Frequent Reinforcement. Frequent corrections! FEEDBACKCooperative learning allows for frequent corrections.Traditional Classroom students turn in worksheet and receive corrections the next day at the earliest.In the traditional classroom, it is common for the same subset of students to raise their hand. Resulting the in the same subset of students receiving praise. Often times, these students are the ones that need praising the least. The teacher should be the least active participant in the classroom.14 Basic Principles - PIESPPositive InterdependenceIIndividual AccountabilityEEqual ParticipationSSimultaneous Interaction1. Are students on the same side?2. Does the task require working together?3. Is individual, public performance required?4. Is participation approximately equal?5. What percent of students are overtly interacting at once?Positive Interdependence task must be structured so no one of us can do it alone, but we can do it by working together. Your knowledge and contributions benefit us all. We sink or swim together.Individual Accountability Students work together as a team, but ultimately every individual student is responsible for his or her own performance. We try harder when we know someone will hold us responsible by evaluating our performance. Public accountability if you are having a test that will be graded by you and the results will not be shared, how hard will you study?Equal Participation 1. taking turns 2. time allocation 3. think and write time 4. rules 5. individual accountability 6. rolesSimultaneous interaction - saves time, feedback, rewards Compare to traditional classroom.Discuss how these elements are easily missed during group work2Forming TeamsTeams of Four Allow Pair Work.Teams of Four Avoid Odd Man Out.Teams of Four Optimize Cognitive and Linguistic Mismatch.Teams of Four Increase Variety. Pair work maximizes simultaneous interaction.A triad often results in a pair and an outsider.Research indicates that we learn well from someone only somewhat different from our own level of development. Groups of four provide six lines of communication.The flexible arrangements within a team of four create variety, which enhances interest.3Forming TeamsShoulder PartnersFace PartnersHighLowHigh MediumLow MediumHigh student should always be across from the low student.Show the six lines of communication.Discuss the planning time required for labeling students H, MH, ML, L.Consider: ability, high-stakes testing data, work ethic, ethnicity, genderAvoid high and low student working together by placing them across from each other.4Quiz-Quiz-TradeStudents quiz a partner, get quizzed by a partner, and then trade cards to repeat the process with a new partner.Setup: The teacher prepares a set of question cards for the class, or each student creates a question card.The teacher tells students to Stand up, put a hand up, and pair up.Partner A quizzes B.Partner B answers.Partner A praises or coaches.Partner switch roles.Partners trade cards and thank each other.Repeat steps 1-6 a number of times. Management tips:Teacher make cardsIf students make cards, check them.No groups of three. PatienceAllow students to work out problems/look up answersWatch 4 lone rangerWatch 4 me and my shadowDifferentiation tips:Different cards for different levels colored.Example: Internet safety cards in folder pockets. Yellow.Classbuilder Find someone who blue5Rally VariationsRally RobinTeacher poses a problem to which there are multiple responses or solutions, and provides think time.Students take turns stating responses or solutions. Rally TableThe teacher provides a task to which there are multiple responses, and provides think time.Students take turns passing a paper and pencil, each writing one answer or making a contribution.Rally CoachPartners take turns, one solving a problem while the other coaches.Each pair needs one set of high-consensus problems and one pencil.Partner A solves the first problem.2. Partner B watches and listens, checks, coaches if necessary.3. Partner B solves the next problem. 4. Partner A watches and listens, checks, coaches if necessary, and praises. 5. Partners repeat taking turns solving successive problems. Simultaneous Rally TableTeacher provides a task to which there are multiple responses, and provides think time. Each student has their own paper and pencil. Students respond on their own paper and switch papers after each round.Two StudentsLook at examples of Rally Coach. Pink.Rally Coach Management Tips1. Use only one sheet of paper and pencil to ensure that the partner who coaches,focuses on coaching.2. A sheet defining the roles of each partner may be helpful when first using thisstrategy with students.3. Model good coaching for the students, including the difference between coachingand giving the answer.4. Shoulder partners work better than face partners, making it easier for bothstudents to view the paper.6 Round Table VariationsSingle Round TableThe teacher provides a task to which there are multiple possible responses, and provides think time. Each table has one paper. Each teammate gets one turn to contribute.Continuous Round TableThe teacher provides a task to which there are multiple possible responses, and provides think time. Each table has one paper. Students take turns passing a paper and pencil, each writing one answer or making a contribution.Simultaneous Round TableEach team of four needs four papers and four pencils.The teacher assigns a topic or question and provides think time.All four students respond, simultaneously.The teacher signals time and students pass their papers one person clockwise.Students continue, adding to what was already contributed.Continue, starting at Step 3. Round Table ConsensusThe teacher provides a task to which there are multiple possible responses, and provides think time.Students take turns passing a paper and pencil, each writing one answer or making a contribution. Students must reach a consensus before recording each answer.Simultaneous Round Table Management tips:Label each paper a-dHave students check work of the previous student before beginning their own. Students write in different colors. Students initial their workStudents initial previous students work to show they checked. 7Numbered Heads TogetherTeammates put their heads together to reach consensus on the teams answer. Everyone keeps on their toes because their number may be called to share the teams answer. Setup: Teacher prepares questions or problems to ask teams.Students number off. Teacher poses a problem and gives think time. Students privately write their answers. Students stand up and put their heads together, showing answers, discussing, and teaching each other.Students sit down when everyone knows the answer or has something to share. Teacher calls a number. Students with that number answer simultaneously. Pencils down during think timeBelly workStudents answer simultaneously with whiteboards. 8Timed Pair ShareIn pairs, students share with a partner for a predetermined time while the partner listens. Then partners switch roles. The teacher announces a topic, states how long each student will share, and provides more think time. In pairs, Partner A shares; Partner B listens.Partner B responds with a positive gambit.Partners switch roles. Use timer9Think-Write-RoundRobinThe teacher poses a problem to which there are multiple possible responses or solution, and provides think time.Students independently write their response on their own paper or whiteboard. Students take turns stating responses.Handout in folder pocket.Pencils down10

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