Gregor Mendel 1822 – 1884 C.E

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Gregor Mendel 1822 1884 C.E. TECHNIQUE. 1. 2. Parental generation (P). Stamens. Carpel. 3. 4. RESULTS. First filial gener- ation offspring (F 1 ). 5. EXPERIMENT. P Generation (true-breeding parents). . Purple flowers. White flowers. F 1 Generation (hybrids). - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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LE 01-10b

1Gregor Mendel1822 1884 C.E.1

StamensCarpelParentalgeneration(P)TECHNIQUE123422

Firstfilialgener-ationoffspring(F1)RESULTS533

EXPERIMENTP Generation(true-breeding parents)Purpleflowers WhiteflowersF1 Generation (hybrids)All plants hadpurple flowersF2 Generation705 purple-floweredplants224 white-floweredplants44

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Allele for purple flowersHomologouspair ofchromosomesLocus for flower-color geneAllele for white flowers66

P GenerationAppearance:Genetic makeup:Gametes:Purple flowersWhite flowersPPPpppF1 GenerationGametes:Genetic makeup:Appearance:Purple flowersPpPp1/21/2F2 GenerationSpermEggsPPPPPpppPppp3177

PhenotypePurplePurple3PurpleGenotype1WhiteRatio 3:1(homozygous)(homozygous)(heterozygous)(heterozygous)PPPpPpppRatio 1:2:111288

TECHNIQUERESULTSDominant phenotype, unknown genotype:PP or Pp?PredictionsRecessive phenotype, known genotype: ppIf PPIf PporSpermSpermppppPPPpEggsEggsPpPpPpPpPpPppppporAll offspring purple1/2 offspring purple and1/2 offspring white99

EXPERIMENTRESULTSP GenerationF1 GenerationPredictionsGametesHypothesis ofdependentassortmentYYRRyyrrYRyrYyRrHypothesis ofindependentassortmentorPredictedoffspring ofF2 generationSpermSpermYRYRyryrYrYRyRYryRyrYRYYRRYYRRYyRrYyRrYyRrYyRrYyRrYyRrYYRrYYRrYyRRYyRRYYrrYyrrYyrryyRRyyRryyRryyrryyrrPhenotypic ratio 3:1EggsEggsPhenotypic ratio 9:3:3:11/21/21/21/21/4yr1/41/41/41/41/41/41/41/43/49/163/163/161/16Phenotypic ratio approximately 9:3:3:1315108101321010

RrRrSegregation ofalleles into eggsSpermRRRRRRrrrrrr1/21/21/21/2Segregation ofalleles into spermEggs1/41/41/41/41111

RedP GenerationGametesWhiteCRCRCWCWCRCWF1 GenerationPinkCRCWCRCWGametes1/21/2F2 GenerationSpermEggsCRCRCWCWCRCRCRCWCRCWCWCW1/21/21/21/21212

IAIBiABnone(a) The three alleles for the ABO blood groups and their associated carbohydratesAlleleCarbohydrateGenotypeRed blood cellappearancePhenotype(blood group)IAIA or IA iABIBIB or IB iIAIBABiiO(b) Blood group genotypes and phenotypes1313

BbCcBbCcSpermEggsBCbCBcbcBCbCBcbcBBCC1/41/41/41/41/41/41/41/4BbCCBBCcBbCcBbCCbbCCBbCcbbCcBBCcBbCcBbCcbbCcBBccBbccBbccbbcc9: 3: 41414

EggsSpermPhenotypes:Number ofdark-skin alleles:01234561/646/6415/6420/6415/646/641/641/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/81/8AaBbCcAaBbCc1515

Amniotic fluidwithdrawnFetusPlacentaUterusCervixCentrifugationFluidFetalcellsSeveralhoursSeveralweeksSeveralweeks(a) Amniocentesis(b) Chorionic villus sampling (CVS)SeveralhoursSeveralhoursFetalcellsBio-chemicaltestsKaryotypingPlacentaChorionicvilliFetusSuction tubeinsertedthroughcervix

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