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  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area Regional Archaeological Research Design and Management Strategy

    i

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area

    Archaeological Research Design and

    Management Strategy Final

    Department of Planning and Environment

    February 2017

  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area Regional Archaeological Research Design and Management Strategy

    ii

    Document Control Page

    AUTHOR/HERITAGE ADVISOR Anita Yousif, Laressa Berehowyj and Fenella

    Atkinson

    CLIENT Department of Planning and Environment

    PROJECT NAME

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area:

    Archaeological Research Design and

    Management Strategy

    REAL PROPERTY DESCRIPTION Various

    Copyright and Moral Rights Historical sources and reference materials used in the preparation of this report are acknowledged and referenced in figure captions or in text citations. Reasonable effort has been made to identify, contact, acknowledge and obtain permission to use material from the relevant copyright owners.

    Unless otherwise specified in the contract terms for this project EXTENT HERITAGE PTY LTD:

     Vests copyright of all material produced by EXTENT HERITAGE PTY LTD (but excluding pre-existing material and material in which copyright is held by a third party) in the client for this project (and the client’s successors in title);

     Retains the use of all material produced by EXTENT HERITAGE PTY LTD for this project for EXTENT HERITAGE PTY LTD ongoing business and for professional presentations, academic papers or publications.

    EXTENT PTY LTD INTERNAL REVIEW/SIGN OFF

    WRITTEN BY DATE VERSION REVIEWED APPROVED

    Anita Yousif, Laressa Berehowyj and Fenella Atkinson

    31/09/2016 1 Draft Susan McIntyre- Tamwoy

    Anita Yousif, Laressa Berehowyj and Fenella Atkinson

    10/10/2016 Final Draft

    Alan Williams

    Susan McIntyre- Tamwoy, Updated Aboriginal heritage maps to be substituted once data has been received.

    Anita Yousif, Laressa Berehowyj and Fenella Atkinson

    3/02/2017 Final Susan McIntyre- Tamwoy

    Susan McIntyre- Tamwoy

  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area Regional Archaeological Research Design and Management Strategy

    iii

    Executive Summary

    This Regional Archaeological Research Design and Management Strategy (RARDMS) has been

    developed to address recommendations in the Greater Macarthur Investigation Area Aboriginal and

    Historic Heritage Gap Analysis (AHMS, 2017), which includes the need for regional scale cultural

    heritage planning of the Greater Macarthur Investigation Area (GMIA).

    Key elements of the RARDMS are the:

     development of research questions for the GMIA set within the Australian and NSW heritage

    thematic framework.

     identification of predictive models of high, medium and low potential for archaeological sites

    identified for the entire GMIA, which will provide a basis for managing future archaeological

    assessments.

     identification of areas of high conservation value that should be considered for permanent

    conservation in relation to both Aboriginal and historic heritage.

     proposals for the streamlining and improvement of certain aspects of Aboriginal heritage

    assessments including:

    o ensuring adequacy and consistency of due diligence assessments.

    o the establishment of an Aboriginal Cultural Heritage Advisory Committee shared

    across both the Wollondilly and Campbelltown Councils.

    o use of the provisions in section 90R of the National Parks and Wildlife Act, NSW

    1974 (as amended) to ensure that Aboriginal Heritage Impact Permits (AHIPs)

    relating to specific parcels of land are appropriately transferred to new owners as

    necessary.

    o establishment of a Registered Aboriginal Party List for the GMIA (Appendix A).

    o recommendations to keep consultation live to increase efficiency (reducing time

    spent) in the conduct and preparation of required Aboriginal Cultural Heritage

    Assessment Reports (ACHARs).

    o adoption of a modified Aboriginal heritage excavation methodology as a standard in

    the study area where the Code of Practice for Archaeological Investigation of

    Aboriginal Objects in New South Wales (DECCW 2010) would normally apply.

  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area Regional Archaeological Research Design and Management Strategy

    iv

    CONTENTS

    1 INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................. 1

    1.1 Project Background ................................................................................................................. 1

    1.2 Study Area Identification ......................................................................................................... 2

    1.3 Statutory Context .................................................................................................................... 2

    1.4 Project Objectives and Scope ................................................................................................. 2

    1.5 Approach and Methodology .................................................................................................... 3

    1.6 Limitations ............................................................................................................................... 4

    1.7 Authorship and Acknowledgements ........................................................................................ 4

    2 HISTORICAL OVERVIEW .................................................................................. 7

    2.1 Aboriginal History .................................................................................................................... 7

    2.2 Historical Period .................................................................................................................... 14

    3 THE ARCHAEOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL RESOURCE ............................. 16

    3.1 Introduction ............................................................................................................................ 16

    3.2 The Aboriginal Archaeological and Cultural Resource ......................................................... 16

    3.3 The Historical Archaeological Resource ............................................................................... 29

    4 ARCHAEOLOGICAL RESEARCH DESIGN .................................................... 41

    4.1 Aboriginal Archaeology ......................................................................................................... 41

    4.2 Historical Archaeology .......................................................................................................... 51

    5 ARCHAEOLOGICAL MANAGEMENT STRATEGY ........................................ 54

    5.1 General Processes ................................................................................................................ 54

    5.2 Aboriginal Archaeology ......................................................................................................... 55

    5.3 Historical Archaeology .......................................................................................................... 71

    6 REFERENCES.................................................................................................. 78

    7 GLOSSARY ...................................................................................................... 80

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 1. Early colonial ethnographic records. ................................................................................. 12 Table 2. Aboriginal sites summarised by site feature, see also Figure 9. ....................................... 18 Table 3. Summary description of known sites and potential site types. ......................................... 19 Table 4. Zones of historical archaeological potential in the study area. ......................................... 30 Table 5. Aboriginal archaeological research themes & Questions ................................................. 42 Table 6. Management and methodological questions to be considered in Aboriginal cultural values

    assessments ..................................................................................................................... 45 Table 7. Historical archaeological research themes. ...................................................................... 52 Table 8. Preliminary Aboriginal archaeology areas of high conservation value. ............................ 57 Table 9. A summary of criteria and rankings used to determine a site’s significance. ................... 69

  • ARCHAEOLOGICAL & HERITAGE MANAGEMENT SOLUTIONS

    Greater Macarthur Investigation Area Regional Archaeological Research Design and Management Strategy

    v

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1. Regional map showing the location of the Greater Macarthur Investigation Area. ............. 6 Figure 2 Early ethnographic encounters between Europeans and Aboriginal people note

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