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GRDC GrowNotes Northern Peanuts December 2014

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Know more. Grow more.

Text of GRDC GrowNotes Northern Peanuts December 2014

  • PEANUTS -

    iKnow more. Grow more.

    December 2014

    Know more. Grow more.

    FeedbackTable of Contents

    Know more. Grow more.

    planning/paddock preparation pre-planting planting

    plant growth and physiology nutrition and fertiliser

    weed control insect control nematode control

    diseases harvest post harvest handling and storage

    environmental responses marketing current research

    December 2014

    Peanuts

  • PEANUTS - Contents

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    December 2014

    Table of Contents

    A Introduction

    A.1 Agronomy at a glance ..................................................................................... viii

    A.2 Crop overview .................................................................................................. ix

    A.3 Executive summary ........................................................................................... x

    A.4 Keywords ......................................................................................................... xi

    1 Planning/Paddock preparation

    1.1.1 Peanut production season plan ...............................................................1

    Pre-season.................................................................................................................. 2

    Ground preparation ..................................................................................................... 2

    Week 0: planting ......................................................................................................... 2

    Week 1: cracking ......................................................................................................... 3

    Weeks 2 and 3: crop establishment............................................................................. 3

    Weeks 4 and 5: flowering ............................................................................................ 3

    Weeks 6 and 7: main flowering .................................................................................... 3

    Weeks 8 and 9: pegging ............................................................................................. 4

    Weeks 10 and 11: pegging and pod-setting ................................................................ 4

    Weeks 12 and 13: canopy closure and pod-setting ..................................................... 4

    Weeks 14 and 15: Pod-filling ....................................................................................... 4

    Weeks 16 and 17: pod-filling and early maturity........................................................... 4

    Weeks 18 and 19: maturity and digging ...................................................................... 4

    Weeks 20 and 21 ........................................................................................................ 5

    Harvest ....................................................................................................................... 5

    Pre-cleaning ................................................................................................................ 5

    Curing ......................................................................................................................... 5

    1.2 Paddock selection .............................................................................................6

    1.2.1 Rotations ................................................................................................6

    1.2.2 Soils ........................................................................................................6

    1.3 Paddock history ................................................................................................7

    1.3.1 Paddock history trials ..............................................................................8

    1.3.2 Pesticide history ....................................................................................12

    1.4 Benefitsofpeanutsasarotationcrop .............................................................12

    1.5 Disadvantagesofpeanutsasarotationcrop .................................................13

    1.6 Pre-plant weed control ....................................................................................13

    1.7 Potential crop contaminants ............................................................................13

    1.8 Seedbed requirements ....................................................................................13

    1.9 Soil moisture ..................................................................................................14

    1.9.1 Dryland .................................................................................................15

    1.9.2 Irrigation ...............................................................................................15

    What will Irrigation do? .............................................................................................. 15

    Irrigation systems ...................................................................................................... 17

    1.10 Yield and targets .............................................................................................18

    Contents

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    December 2014

    Table of Contents

    1.10.1 Seasonal outlook...................................................................................19

    1.10.2 Fallow moisture and double-cropping ....................................................19

    1.10.3 Water-useefficiency ..............................................................................20

    1.10.4 Nitrogen-useefficiency ..........................................................................22

    1.11 Diseasestatusofpaddock ..............................................................................22

    1.12 Insectstatusofpaddock .................................................................................23

    2 Pre-planting

    2.1 Varietalperformanceandratingsyield ...............................................................1

    2.1.1 Hi Oleic varieties ......................................................................................3

    2.1.2 Yielding ability .........................................................................................3

    2.2 Qualityofplantingseed ....................................................................................5

    2.2.1 Growingpeanutsforseed .......................................................................5

    Clean land ................................................................................................................... 6

    Clean machinery ......................................................................................................... 6

    Irrigation ...................................................................................................................... 6

    Supplementary calcium ............................................................................................... 6

    Maturity ....................................................................................................................... 6

    Digging and threshing ................................................................................................. 7

    Drying ......................................................................................................................... 7

    Peanut seed contracts ................................................................................................ 7

    3 Planting

    3.1 Seed dressings .................................................................................................1

    3.2 Inoculation ........................................................................................................2

    3.3 Germination ......................................................................................................2

    3.4 Reduced tillage .................................................................................................2

    3.5 Timeofplanting ................................................................................................3

    3.6 Seeding rate ......................................................................................................3

    3.7 Sowing depth ....................................................................................................4

    3.8 Rowconfiguration .............................................................................................5

    3.9 Sowing equipment ............................................................................................7

    3.9.1 Press-wheels ..........................................................................................8

    3.9.2 Planters ...................................................................................................9

    4 Plant growth and physiology

    4.1 Botanical types .................................................................................................2

    4.2 Growth and development ..................................................................................3

    4.2.1 Germination and emergence ...................................................................3

    4.2.2 Vegetative growth ....................................................................................4

    4.2.3 Flowering ............................................................................