G£©rard Dubois Leveraging Behavioral Insights To Improve ... Leveraging Behavioral Insights. To Improve

  • View
    0

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Text of G£©rard Dubois Leveraging Behavioral Insights To Improve ... Leveraging Behavioral...

  • Leveraging Behavioral Insights To Improve Public Health

    Craig R. Fox

    UCLA mHealth Training Institute August 10, 2016

    Gérard Dubois

  • Neoclassical vs. Behavioral Policy

    • Homo Economicus

    • Three Primary Tools:

    1) Information/Education

    2) Monetary Incentives

    3) Regulation

    • Homer Economicus

    • Expanded Toolset:

    1) Framing, Format, Frequency

    2) Behavioral, Social Incentives

    3) Nudges

  • Three Behavioral Approaches

    I. Information

    II. Incentives

    III. Regulation (nudges)

  • I. Information

    Rational agents have unbiased expectations, process information thoroughly and consistently, and are sensitive to content rather than format.

    Behavioral agents have biased expectations, Limited memory and information processing capacity, and are sensitive to format of information.

  • Behavioral Information Guidelines

    Make all relevant information available

    • Simplify

    • Proper Metrics

    • Timely Reminders & Feedback

  • Old USDA Food Pyramid

  • Simplify: New USDA Food Plate

  • 14 MPG

    Murcielago - Lamborghini 612 Scaglietti - Ferrari 16 MPG

    Focus - Ford 35 MPG

    Civic Hybrid - Honda 45 MPG

    89 G/10K M

    63 G/10K M

  • Gas Consumption as a Function of MPG

    0 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900

    1000 1100

    10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55

    Miles Per Gallon

    Gallons Per 10,000 Miles

  • Old Fuel Economy Label

  • Proper Metrics: New EPA window stickers for 2013 models

  • What Kind of Metrics?

    • N = 610 Passersby recruited to mobile research lab in shopping area were offered free snack for completing a short survey.

    • Random assignment to 1 of 12 calorie labeling conditions.

    Downs, Wisdom & Loewenstein (2015).

  • Menus

    • Control (no information) Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

  • Menus

    • Control (no information)

    • Numerical Values: – Calorie Info Only

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

    Calories

    230

    280

    140

    40

    340

    130

    470

  • Nutrition experts recommend that men should eat about 2,400 calories per day, and women should eat about 2,000 calories per day.

    Menus

    • Control (no information)

    • Numerical Values: – Calorie Info Only

    – Calorie Info + Daily Intake Reference

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

    Calories

    230

    280

    140

    40

    340

    130

    470

  • Menus

    • Control (no information)

    • Numerical Values: – Calorie Info Only

    – Calorie Info + Daily Intake Reference

    – Calorie Info + Daily Snack Intake Reference

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

    Calories

    230

    280

    140

    40

    340

    130

    470

    Nutrition experts recommend 200 calories per day for snacks or dessert (10% of a 2,000 calorie per day diet).

  • Menus

    • Control (no information)

    • Numerical Values: – Calorie Info Only

    – Calorie Info + Daily Intake Reference

    – Calorie Info + Daily Snack Intake Reference

    – % of Daily Calories

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

    % Daily Calories*

    12%

    14%

    7%

    2%

    17%

    7%

    24%

    *Based on nutrition experts’ recommendation a 2,000 calorie per day diet.

  • Menus

    • Control (no information)

    • Numerical Values: – Calorie Info Only

    – Calorie Info + Daily Intake Reference

    – Calorie Info + Daily Snack Intake Reference

    – % of Daily Calories

    – % of Daily Snack Calories

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

    % Daily Snack

    Calories*

    115%

    140%

    70%

    20%

    170%

    65%

    235%

    *Based on nutrition experts’ recommendation of 200 calories per day for snacks or dessert (10% of a 2,000 calorie per day diet).

  • *To burn the calories in the snack (this assumes you burn 10 calories per minute).

    Min. on Treadmill*

    23

    28

    14

    4

    34

    13

    47

    Menus

    • Control (no information)

    • Numerical Values: – Calorie Info Only

    – Calorie Info + Daily Intake Reference

    – Calorie Info + Daily Snack Intake Reference

    – % of Daily Calories

    – % of Daily Snack Calories

    – Minutes on a Treadmill

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

  • Nutrition Grade*

    C

    C

    B

    A

    D

    B

    F

    Menus

    • Heuristic Cues – Nutrition Grade

    *Based on nutrition experts’ recommendation of 200 calories per day for snacks or dessert (10% of a 2,000 calorie per day diet)

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

  • *For someone who eats this snack routinely over time, based on nutrition experts’ recommendation of 200 calories per day for snacks

    or dessert (10% of a 2,000 calorie per day diet)

    Menus

    • Heuristic Cues – Nutrition Grade

    – Expected Body Size

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

    Expected Body Size*

  • Traffic Light

    Rating*

    Menus

    • Heuristic Cues – Nutrition Grade

    – Expected Body Size

    – Traffic Light Rating

    *Based on nutrition experts’ recommendation of 200 calories per day for snacks or dessert (10% of a 2,000 calorie per day diet)

    Item

    Lays Classic Potato Chips

    Snickers candy bar

    York Peppermint Pattie

    Apple Crisps

    Choc. Chip Cookie 2 pack

    Lays Baked Potato Chips

    Hostess apple pie

  • Only best numerical format (% daily snack calories) did as well as heuristic cues…

  • Traffic lights seem especially promising.

  • Reminders: Checklists

  • Reminders to Buckle Up

    Valets at a hotel remind drivers to wear their seat belts • Control: No reminder to wear seat belt • Delayed Reminder: Reminded when valet ticket turned in

    (~5.5 min delay) • Immediate Reminder: Reminded as enter car (~30 sec.)

    Austin, Sigurdsson & Rubin, 2006

  • Reminders Must Be Timely

    Austin, Sigurdsson & Rubin, 2006

    55% 58%

    80%

    0%

    10%

    20%

    30%

    40%

    50%

    60%

    70%

    80%

    90%

    Control Delayed reminder

    Immediate reminder

    % drivers fastened seat belts before car

    in motion

  • Feedback

    Feedback protocols matter! We often miss opportunities to learn from “near misses”

    that are encoded as “non-events”

  • II. Incentives

    Rational agents act to maximize their own self-interest. Self-interest is defined by expected utility of benefits minus costs of acting.

    Behavioral agents are overly sensitive to losses relative to gains and low-probability events. They are also seek belonging and approval from relevant social groups.

  • Behavioral Incentives

    Make all relevant information available

    • Lotteries & Loss Aversion

    • Goals as Reference Points

    • Timely reminders & Feedback

  • Descriptive Perspective: Prospect Theory

  • Behavioral Incentives

    • Probabilistic Incentives (Lotteries)

    • Loss aversion

    • Pre-commitment

    • Social Incentives

  • Warfa