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Grammar 2 - Prepositions and Discourse Markers

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    Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de LnguaInglesa e Novas Tecnologias -

    Gramtica II

    Day I Prepositions and Discourse Markers

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    Preliminary task 1

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    Preliminary task 2

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    Karl Marx and Alexis de Tocqueville agreed both with

    one point: extreme poverty does not lead to uprising nor

    to apathy.

    Karl Marx and A lexis de Tocquevi l le bo th agreed

    on one point : extreme poverty does no t lead to

    up r is ing but rather to apathy.

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    RaIf Dahrendorf brought the issue to the fore once more in a

    recent article. The most critical segment of the population

    by far says he is the one which had begun to make

    progress to new and better conditions, but, at a certainpoint, found the path blocked. These are the groups which

    rally to violent protests and end up bringing about great

    changes.

    RaIf Dahrendorf brough t up the issue once again in a

    recent article. The most critical segment of the

    population by far says he is the one which had

    begun to m ake progress towards new and better

    cond it ions, bu t, at a certain poin t, found th e path

    blocked. These are the groups that rally to v iolent

    protests and end up bringing about great changes.

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    Dahrendorf predicted, obviously, the unfolding of the rising of the

    Parisian outskirts, that has inspired additional turmoil in several

    corners of Western Europe. I thought about Brazil, second in the

    world in poor distribution of income, in which 70% of the familieslive, at most, on two minimum wages and 30% of the population

    vegetates underneath the poverty line. Not to mention the heritage

    of slavery which has left on the native backs the deep scar of the

    whip.Dahrendorf predicted, of cou rse, the unfo ld ing o f the r is ing o f

    the Par is ian outsk i r ts , which has insp ired addi t ional turmoi l

    in several co rners o f Western Europe. I thought abou t Brazil ,

    second in the wor ld in poor dis t r ibut ion o f income, where70% of the fam i l ies l ive, at most, on two m inimum wages and

    where 30% of the popu lat ion vegetates below the poverty

    l ine. Not to mention the heri tage of slavery, the searing scars

    on the backs o f the local popu lat ion.

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    CONCEPTUALIZING

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    The man is about to

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    Whos right? Two nativespeakers, two different views

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    V: would you say "step in dog poop" or "step on dog

    poop"? S: would say both, depending on the quantity of the

    poop.

    S: if it were a huge pile, then step in

    S: if it were a few turds, then step on

    V: if u used a pic of a guy about to step in

    shit.....what would u tell sts?

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    S: but as the expression goes put your foot IN it

    V: coz it`s soft and your foot goes in S: exactly

    V: so, which is correct?

    V: step on a stone

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    V: step on a box

    V: step in gum V: in a puddle

    V: in mud

    S: as i told you it depends on the quantity IMHO, butthe natural tendency is to step in poop

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    Container, Flat surface or Point?

    a room - C

    the beachFS/P

    a plate - FS

    a bowl - C

    a platter or a tray - FS

    a roof - FS

    a riverC/FS/P

    a shelf- FS

    a cabinetFS/C

    a bankC/P

    a companyC/P

    a treeC/P

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    Container, Flat Surface or Point?

    Christmas - P

    WeekendFS/P

    Easter - P

    The winter, spring, summer, fall - C

    Sunday - FS

    Carnival - P

    A fortnight - C

    January - C

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    Whats the preposition?

    You can buy batteries at/in the corner shop.

    David is studying at university

    What's on at the cinema tonight?

    Is Sam on/in the basketball team?

    The library is not on this side of the street

    We sat in the living room and watched a great classic

    movie.

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    Whats the preposition?

    Mike worked at/in the airport for six years

    Go back to bed! You should be asleep.

    David is out. He is not at home

    The burglar climbed over the fence and into the

    garden.

    It's not far. We're getting close to the station

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    Whats the preposition?

    Jack was leaning on/against the wall

    I was under the impression that you liked it.

    You are liable for your son's debts as he is under age

    My mum went to hospital last week.

    Traveling in your own car is better than going on

    foot.

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    Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua

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    NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE

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    Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua

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    Adverbial

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    Prepositions

    Simple Complex

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    Usage

    CollocationsRules

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    Temperatures are sure to rise above 35 Celsius today.

    They live 1.000 meters above sea level.

    We are now flying overthe famous mountain region.

    Wll I have to always be overwhat they are doing?

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    Much of the area ravaged by the rains is known to be

    below sea-level.

    The neighbors below are a noisy bunch..

    We are underorders of the Presidents office..

    What is the subject currently underdiscussion?

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    Who knows what lies beneath/underneath?

    I can't find anything underneath/under/beneathall that mess.

    I come from the land down under.

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    Come sit near /closeto me (anywhere in the

    vicinity of) Come sit next to me = Come sit beside me

    The closer I get to you, the more you make me

    feel.

    The new mall is near the old train station

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    That's a big box. I wonder what's inside (it).

    That's a big box. I wonder what's in it.

    Are you coming with us to the market? Hop in

    (the car)! Get inside the house now! You could get shot!

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    Is there a post office near here?

    After the play, we can do some shopping nearby.

    I'm trying to find a nearbyservice station.

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    Could you send this invite out to everyone for

    me? Thanks so much

    Could you send this invite out to everyone by the

    end of the day?

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    The notions of cartoon are important to Elena

    Sisto, in that images from popular illustration and

    comics come up in her paintings

    Dr. Benton claims that breakfast is extremely

    important for the elderly.

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    Don't raise your voice at me young man!

    Throw the voice to me, so that I can hear you sing.

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    Simple prepositions

    Grammaticalized forms e.g. in, by

    Participles e.g. given, considering

    Compounds e.g. upon, into, onto, within,

    notwithstanding Affixation e.g. between, among, afore

    Loan words e.g. circa, re

    Adjectives e.g. nearby, nigh Conjunctions e.g. but

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    Complex prepositions

    Adverb/Preposition + Preposition: along with, as for,

    away from, out of, up to

    Verb/Adjective/Conjunction + Preposition: owing to,

    due to, because of Preposition + Noun + Preposition: by means of, in

    comparison with, in front of

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    Translate or Rephrase the sentences below while

    paying close attention to the words in bold.

    This is way past my comprehension.

    This is beyond me

    There were many arguments pending the negotiations

    There were many issues that depended on the negotiations for a

    solution. This is hopefully the first step towards a lasting peace

    This is hopefully the first push for a lasting peace.

    The problem is unlike any we have encountered before

    The problem is an unprecedented one.

    He broke his leg upon getting out of the car

    He broke his leg as he got out of the car.

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    Translate or Rephrase the sentences below while

    paying close attention to the words in bold.

    It's a show la CNN: same style, similar content

    The show has a CNN type of format (same style, similar

    content)

    Nobody objected apart from the CFO. Only the CFO objected to it.

    You are expected to work strictly as per the law

    You should do things by the book

    But for you, I'd have been on time

    If it hadnt been for you, Id have been on time

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    Why treat them as semantic units?

    Incorporation of verb meaning e.g. Up from

    down Under

    Idiomatic nature e.g. I'm into you, I'm on the

    case

    Lexicalizing nature e.g. The firefighters had

    some trouble outing the fire.

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    You have to get to school by 8:00 a.m.

    You have until 8:00 a.m. to get to school.

    (until = no later than)

    I am to finish a task by sundown.

    I can finish a task until sundown.

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    Preposition or Adverb?

    Adverbials can come between verb and PP

    (prepositional phrase):

    She took offher bandaid quickly (adverb)

    She jumped quickly offthe chair. (preposition)

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    Preposition or Adverb?

    Only prepositions can be fronted :

    I picked up my things. (adverb)

    Up the hill they climbed. (preposition)

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    Adverbs can be one word or a phrase that works

    adverbially. This phrase is usually formed by

    Preposition + noun phrase (article/adjective +

    noun)

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    In English, the same word can function as

    preposition and adverb, depending on its position

    in the sentence

    Delegates were asked to kindly wait outside the

    hall before being called.

    Question: where did they have to wait? Outside

    the hall

    Its 5 p.m. and there are still more than 40candidates waiting outside.

    Question: where did they have to wait?Outside

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    Adverb or preposition?

    At half time, one team was ahead by eight points.PREPOSITION

    A player threw the ball in from the sideline. ADVERB,

    PREPOSITION

    We talked around during halftime. ADVERB, PREPOSITION

    After the game, the winners were given the championship

    trophy inside the locker room. PREPOSITION, PREPOSITION

    Despite losing in the playoffs, that team had a winning record

    for the season. PREPOSITION, PREPOSITION

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    P iti f iti ith h l b

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    Position of prepositions with phrasal verbs

    Correct or incorrect?

    Thieves broke in and got away with over 10 million injewelry. CORRECT

    Burglars broke into the house while they were at the

    opera. CORRECT The bus drew UP at the traffic lights.

    The committee will draw up a list of demands.

    CORRECT

    I've got so much work I'm really falling behind (WITH

    IT).

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    Dependent prepositions

    Like in many languages, the use of a givenpreposition is determined by other word classes,

    namely verbs, adjectives and nouns

    The choice of a given preposition is generallysemantically driven, although the relationship

    between the word and its corresponding preposition

    may not be clear, e.g. worried about

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    Adjective + preposition

    My granddad is very dependent ON my parents.

    The film is based ON a novel by Virginia Woolf.

    I know it's rusty and everything, but I'm so attached

    TO it. Bill is emotionally detached FROM his parents. He

    hardly chats with them.

    MacDonald's has become synonymous WITH an

    unhealthy diet.

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    Forming three-word phrasals

    I think we've just run out OFcoffee. We will have toget some in the morning.

    Does anybody feel up TO Mick's party tonight?

    My boss asked me to stand in FOR him during hisweek off from the office.

    Being a father has helped him learn to face up TO his

    responsibilities.

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    Forming three-word phrasals

    The Chief of Staff has been coming in FOR a showerof criticism for the way he has tried to make little of

    the accusations against him of fraud and

    embezzlement.

    I don't really go in FOR team sports; give me a tennis

    racket or a pair of trainers any day!

    The troops plan to pull out OF the occupied

    territories for economic reasons.

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    Verb + preposition

    The state-funded health service accounts FOR 85%of public spending.

    In times of trouble, you can always turn TO a friend.

    His conviction for reckless driving counted AGAINSThim when he tried to renew his car insurance.

    Sometimes it seems almost impossible to keep up

    WITH the latest news.

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    Prepositions in compound adjectives

    We had lunch at a DOWN-market restaurant the other day.Not surprisingly, the food was horrendous.

    Renowned linguist, Noam Chomsky is now a very OUTspoken

    critic of the government's foreign policies.

    The army has been accused of using OVERwhelming force toquell the protests.

    After the corruption scandal that rocked the market, the

    company now faces a (n) UPhill struggle to avoid further

    losses.

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    Prepositions in compound adjectives

    I just received a BACKdated pay award, so thismonth's salary is a little larger than usual.

    Could you provide some BACKground information on

    the company? Stop behaving like a (n) OVERgrown boy, act your

    age!

    She had the nerve to accuse me of stealing her

    purse. The very thought is DOWNright outrageous!

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    Prepositions in idioms

    As mentioned before, several idiomatic expressionsare catalogued based on the head preposition e.g.

    at, in , on

    It would be best to learn them as chunks, althoughthe semantic content may/may not be evident to or

    felt by the user

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    Use the words in brackets to make idioms for

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    Use the words in brackets to make idioms for

    the underlined words

    He claimed he hadn't done it ON purpose.

    We admire her ON account ofher intelligence.

    I don't want you to feel sorry FOR me.

    If you're IN doubt about what to write, it's best tomake notes beforehand.

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    Use the words in brackets to make idioms for

    the underlined words

    Love letters will never be OUT OFfashion becausepeople will always fall IN love.

    I know the person BY sight but not BY name.

    She's working much too hard AT the expense ofherhealth.

    I wonder if you know what's on at the cinema, BY

    (any) chance?

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    Form idioms with the parts underlined and the

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    Form idioms with the parts underlined and the

    preposition "at"

    The winners are selected AT random by a computer.

    It was a wonderful showAT least I enjoyed it.

    It was a difficult problem and I was AT a loss (as to

    what to do). I'm sure that our friends will arrive AT any

    minute/momentAT least I hope so.

    If you need to stay overnight, please book a hotel

    room AT our expense.

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    Form idioms with the parts underlined and the

    preposition "at"

    The hero was rescued AT the last moment.

    The show closed because it was running AT a loss.

    We were talking AT cross purposes.

    It's impossible to get tickets for such a popular showAT the last minute - you need to book AT LEAST six

    months in advance.

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    Form idioms with "on to complete the blanks

    (At a restaurant) There are so many desserts ON themenu, but I won't have anything because I'm ON a

    diet.

    I would like to thank you ON behalf ofthe entiresector and the board.

    He promised to help me ON the condition that I

    returned the favor some other time.

    It was a long drive so we stopped ON the way tohave a meal.

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    Form idioms with the preposition "on to

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    Form idioms with the preposition on to

    complete the blanks.

    How much does a bus driver earnON average inyour country?

    Did you see the news ON TV last night?

    Trains leave every hour ON the hour. It takes much longer to get there ON FOOT (BY

    FOOT) than by bus.

    No, I don't dislike Chaplin at all; ON the contrary, I

    admire him greatly.

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    Go to the icon below to read more about idioms

    that begin with prepositions

    http://grammar.yourdictionary.com/parts-of-speech/prepositions/idioms-that-begin-with-prepositions.html
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    Coordinatingconjunctions

    Connectors

    Subordinating

    conjunctions

    Phrase linkers

    DiscourseMarkers

    h h d

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    What they do

    Combine clauses or connect sentence elements

    Indicate a particular meaning relationship between

    two or more clauses

    h f

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    There are two types of sentences

    Compound sentences: Using conjunctions

    Using connectors

    Complex sentences:

    Using subordinators

    C di ti j ti

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    Coordinating conjunctions

    For (Reason)

    And (Addition)

    Nor (Negative Addition)

    But (Contrast, concession)

    Or (Choice)

    Yet (Contrast with unexpected result) So (Result or consequence)

    Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e NovasTecnologias - Gramtica II

    C.C. join two independent clauses, separated by

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    C.C. join two independent clauses, separated by

    comma

    Independentclause ,

    I have beento Thailand,

    Coordinatingconjunction

    BUT

    independentclause

    I havent

    been to thePhilippines

    A l k t C l ti C j ti

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    A look at CorrelativeConjunctions

    Both . . . and . . .

    Either . . . or . . .

    Neither . . . nor . . .

    Hardly . . . when . . . If . . . then . . .

    No sooner . . . than . . .

    Not only . . . but also

    Rather than why

    Scarcely . . . when

    What with . . . and Whether . . . or

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    Hardly had the men started training than theywere sent out to fight.

    Hardly had she opened her mailbox when she

    got a notification of the message

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    No sooner had I walked the door had thanphone rang.

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    Ratherthan criticizing your husband, whynotfind out if something is the matter.

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    Whatwith one thing andanother, I didnt goto bed till after two in the morning.

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    He was determined both to beat the record

    and to win over the crowd.

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    Connectors (adverbs, conjunctive adverbs) join

    independent clauses with a semi colon or a

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    independent clauses with a semi-colon or a

    period.

    Independentclause ;

    We were

    late for themeeting;

    Connector

    THEREFORE,

    independentclause

    We had to

    wait in theadjoiningroom

    Connectors (adverbs, conjunctive adverbs) join

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    independent clauses with a semi-colon or a period.

    Independentclause ;

    We were

    late for themeeting.

    Connector

    THEREFORE,

    independentclause

    We had to

    wait in theadjoiningroom

    Subordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause to

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    an independent clause.

    Independentclause ;

    i left early,

    Subordinatingconjunction

    BECAUSE

    independentclause

    I had an

    interview thenext day

    Subordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause to

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    an independent clause.

    Independentclause ;

    i left early,

    Subordinatingconjunction

    BECAUSE

    independentclause

    I had an

    interview thenext day

    Phrase linkers (prepositions or Adjective +

    prepositional phrases) are transtitions at the beginning

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    prepositional phrases) are transtitions at the beginning

    of sentences.

    Prepositionalphrase Independentclause

    Prepositionalphrase

    In contrast to

    westernsocieties,

    Indepdendentclause

    eastern

    societiesvaluecommunity.

    For more on discourse markers and their position in

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    sentences, functions etc., see the links below

    http://www.sk.com.br/sk-conn.htmlhttp://academics.smcvt.edu/cbauer-ramazani/AEP/BU113/English/discmarkers.htm
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    Correct the sentences below in accordance with

    punctuation rules for discourse markers

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    Although he had been an often decoratedsoldier during World War II and had fought

    many battles for the losing cause of liberalism

    in Congress, his memory is not celebratedtoday.

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    Coach Espinoza really wants this job withNotre Dame University. She is very excited

    about returning to the college she graduated

    from.

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    Professor Pepin spends a lot of timetranslating medieval texts on ancient

    medicine, but he also stays informed about

    the latest developments in modern asthmatreatments.

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    Perplexed by the rising rates of inflation andalarmed by the decline in major construction

    projects, foreign investors are looking for

    more inviting markets.

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    This is going to be the most difficult exam ofyour college career, so you had better start

    studying for it immediately.

    Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition

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    Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition

    Short answers: Should I revise for the test? Ithink you should

    Comments: "I thought the film was wonderful.""I didn't."

    Subsequentresponses: "I wish you'd lock thedoor when you come in." "But I did!"

    With more than one auxiliary: "He could havebeen lying." "Yes, he could/he could have/he

    could have been."

    Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas

    Tecnologias - Gramtica II

    Reduced infinitives

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    Reduced infinitives

    To give continuity to thoughts expressed,e.g. "Haven't you done the washing-up?" "No,I'm just about to."

    To respond politely, e.g. "Are you coming for a

    walk?" Sorry, but I wont be able to." To comment: She's less moody than she used

    to be.

    Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas

    Tecnologias - Gramtica II

    Participles/Relative pronouns/Reducedclauses

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    clauses

    I don't believe a word they say, given theynever tell the truth.

    The women hurt in the accident are said to

    still be in critical condition at the emergencyward.

    Some useful resources

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    Some useful resources

    Cassell's Students' English Grammar Ways to Grammar

    Murphy's English Grammar

    Practical English Usage

    A Student's Grammar of the English Language

    The Good Grammar Book

    Advanced Language Practice

    Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas

    Tecnologias - Gramtica II

    Online dictionaries

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    Online dictionaries

    www.macmillandictionary.com www.oup.com/elt/oald

    www.dictionary.cambridge.org

    www.answers.com

    www.dictionary.com

    www.onelook.com

    http://englishpage.com/dictionaries/english_dictionary.html

    http://englishpage.com/prepositions/verb_preposition.html

    http://englishpage.com/prepositions/phrasaldictionary.html

    Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas

    Tecnologias - Gramtica II

    Bibliography

    http://www.macmillandictionary.com/http://www.oup.com/elt/oaldhttp://www.dictionary.cambridge.org/http://www.answers.com/http://www.dictionary.com/http://www.onelook.com/http://englishpage.com/dictionaries/english_dictionary.htmlhttp://englishpage.com/prepositions/verb_preposition.htmlhttp://englishpage.com/prepositions/phrasaldictionary.htmlhttp://englishpage.com/prepositions/phrasaldictionary.htmlhttp://englishpage.com/prepositions/verb_preposition.htmlhttp://englishpage.com/dictionaries/english_dictionary.htmlhttp://www.onelook.com/http://www.dictionary.com/http://www.answers.com/http://www.dictionary.cambridge.org/http://www.oup.com/elt/oaldhttp://www.macmillandictionary.com/
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    1. BORDET, Lucile & JAMET, Denis. Are English Prepositions

    grammatical or lexical morphemes? Cercles, Occasional Papers,

    p.1-26. 20102. FEIST, Michele I. The changing shape of prepositional meanings.

    In: CHAN, JACOB & KAPIA. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual

    Boston University Conference on Language Development. Boston,

    2008

    3. GRUBIC, Bob. Those Problematic English Prepositions. Presented

    at the CFI- Baci Conference, Long Beach, California. November 13,

    2004.

    4. LITTLEFIELD, Heather. Lexical and Functional Prepositions in

    Acquisition: Evidence for a hybrid category. Boston University. 2006

    5. MARIN, A.M. A Semantic Description of the Preposition. 2010