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ARTICOLUL Definitie: - reprezinta un determinant substantival care contribuie la realizarea intelesului unui substantiv intr-o propozitie. Tipuri de articole: Articolul Hotarat - THE Articolul Nehotarat - A / AN Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata) Articolul hotarat THE: Cand folosim articolul hotarat? - Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in textul respectiv: Exemplu: A man knocked at the door and a girl opened it. The man was her father. - Inaintea substantivelor care sunt unice: Exemplu: the moon, the earth, the star, the sun, the air - Inaintea numeralelor ordinale: Exemplu: the first, the second, the third, the twenty-first, the seventeenth In realizarea superlativului: Exemplu: the best year, the youngest girl, the most important, the fastest, the tallest Inaintea substantivelor care reprezinta nume de colectivitati si institutii: Exemplu: the army, the crowd, the government, the police, the parliament - Inaintea unor nume proprii (nume de familie, muzee, teatre, ziare, hoteluri, etc): Exemplu: the Browns, the Johns, the National Theatre, the Marriott Grand Hotel, the New York Times, the Beatles - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de locuri geografice, munti, fluvii, oceane, mari etc: Exemplu: the Alps, the Atlantic, the Thames, the Danube, the Red Sea, the Sahara 1

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ARTICOLUL Definitie: - reprezinta un determinant substantival care contribuie la realizarea intelesului unui substantiv intr-o propozitie. Tipuri de articole: Articolul Hotarat - THE Articolul Nehotarat - A / AN Articolul zero (forma implicita sau neexprimata) Articolul hotarat THE: Cand folosim articolul hotarat? - Inaintea unui substantiv care a mai fost mentionat in textul respectiv: Exemplu: A man knocked at the door and a girl opened it. The man was her father. - Inaintea substantivelor care sunt unice: Exemplu: the moon, the earth, the star, the sun, the air - Inaintea numeralelor ordinale: Exemplu: the first, the second, the third, the twenty-first, the seventeenth In realizarea superlativului: Exemplu: the best year, the youngest girl, the most important, the fastest, the tallest Inaintea substantivelor care reprezinta nume de colectivitati si institutii: Exemplu: the army, the crowd, the government, the police, the parliament - Inaintea unor nume proprii (nume de familie, muzee, teatre, ziare, hoteluri, etc): Exemplu: the Browns, the Johns, the National Theatre, the Marriott Grand Hotel, the New York Times, the Beatles - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de locuri geografice, munti, fluvii, oceane, mari etc: Exemplu: the Alps, the Atlantic, the Thames, the Danube, the Red Sea, the Sahara Articolul nehotarat A / AN Utilizam articolul nehotarat A: Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o consoana: Exemple: a girl, a boy, a teacher, a family, a classroom Utilizam articolul nehotarat AN: Inaintea substantivelor care incep cu o vocala (a, e, i, o, u): Exemple: an elephant, an apple, an interview, an onion, an action Articolul nehotarat - exceptii: - Folosim articolul nehotarat AN inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "h", doar atunci cand este vorba despre un "h mut". Exemple: an hour, an honour

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- Folosim articolul nehotarat A inaintea unui substantiv care incepe cu litera "u" sau grupul de litere "eu", doar atunci cand acestea se pronunta ca "you" Exemple: a European, a university, a unit Cand folosim articolul nehotarat A/AN? - Inaintea unui substantiv concret nedeterminat si numarabil: Exemple: A boy entered into the classroom. The reporter took an interview. - Inaintea unui substantiv concret cu functia de nume predicativ: Exemplu: She is a teacher. Ronnie is an elephant. Articolul zero Nu folosim articol in urmatoarele situatii: - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume proprii la singular: Exemplu: Paul is going to the school. - Inaintea substantivelor care indica nume de tari, orase si limba acestora: Exemple: France is a European country. You speak English fluently. Bucharest is the capital of Romania. - In unele expresii invariabile: Exemplu: by car, at school, in church, by train - Inaintea substantivelor abstracte, care indica nume de culori, stiinte, arte, materii etc: Exemplu: beauty, health, dinner, lunch, breakfast, truth, green, gold, silver, mathematics, physics Exercitii 1. Completati cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul: ___ woman ___ unit ___ United States of America ___ Johnsons ___ elephant ___ beauty ___ hour ___ Thames 2. Completati propozitiile din textul de mai jos cu a/an: a) ___ old woman laughed at him. b) ___ cat and ___ dog were in the kitchen. c) I saw ___ elephant at the zoo. d) It was ___ excellent movie. e) She watched ___ TV show 2

3. Completati cu a / an / the acolo unde este cazul: Daniel is ___ teacher. He likes ___ Physics very much. He teaches at ___ Theoretical Highschool from ___ Bucharest. ___pupils like him very much. One day, he decided to take ___ children to see ___ laboratory from another highschool. There, they made ___ experiment. All ___ children considered ___ experiment ___ most interesting they have ever made. NUMERARUL Numeralul cardinal eleven twelve thirteen fourteen fifteen sixteen seventeen eighteen nineteen twenty twenty-one twenty-two twenty-three twenty-four ....... thirty-one thirty-two thirty-three thirty-four ....... 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 30 40 50 60 70 80 3

90 100 200 1000 10000 153 one hundr ed and fiftythree 198 one hundr ed and ninet yeight 203 two hundr ed and three 405 four hundr ed and fifty 1,000 ,000 one millio n 12,00 0,000 twelv e millio none two three four five six seven 4

eight nine ten thirty forty fifty sixty seven ty eight y ninet y one hundr ed two hundr ed one thous and ten thous and 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 ....... 31 32 33 34 .......

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13,632,521

thirteen million six hundred thirty-two thousand five hundred and twenty-one

Atentie! - se foloseste cratima intre numeralul zecilor si cel al unitatilor Exemple: 21 twenty-one; 99 ninety-nine - se pune virgula dupa fiecare grup care indica miile Exemplu: 1,222,351 - mentionarea conjunctiei and este obligatorie inaintea grupului zecilor si unitatea finala Exemplu: 2,532 - two thousand five hundred and thirty-two - cifrele zecimale se citesc astfel: 2.4832 - two point four eight three two

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Numeralul ordinal 1st first 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th 13th 14th 15th 16th 17th 18th 19th 20th 21st 22nd 23rd ....... 30th 40th ....... 100t h 1,00 0 1,00 0,00 0 Mod de formare: primul second third fourth fifth sixth seventh eighth ninth tenth eleventh twelvth thirteenth fourteenth fifteenth sixteenth seventeenth eighteenth nineteenth twentieth twenty-first twentysecond twenty-third ....... thirtieth fortieth ....... hundredth thousandth millionth al doilea al treilea .......

- prin adaugarea terminatiei "th" la numeralul cardinal corespunzator Exceptii: one --- first (1st) two --- second (2nd) three --- third (3rd) five si nine, la care se suprima -e final, fifth (5th) si ninth (9th) zecile la care -y final se transforma in -ie forty --- fortieth (40th)

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Alte numerale Data: in Marea Britanie se foloseste intotdeauna forma unui numeral ordinal pentru a indica data. Exemple: 21st July (the twenty-first of July) June 4th (the fourth of June) 23 April, 1989 (the twenty-third of April nineteen eighty-nine) December 29 (the twenty-ninth of December) Fractii: 1/2 se citeste one half 3/4 se citeste three quarters 7/8 se citeste seven eights Ora: ten to one (unu fara zece) half past six (sase si jumatate) twelve and a quarter (douasprezece si un sfert) a quarter to two (doua fara un sfert) Exercitii: 1. Scrieti in litere urmatoarele cifre: 123 1,450 58 33 1,024 985 24 48 2. Traduceti in limba engleza: a) Ziua mea de nastere este pe data de 22 mai. b) Am ajuns in Bucuresti pe data de 14 iunie. c) John este al patrulea elev din clasa. d) 4 Iulie este ziua nationala a Americii. e) Primul autobuz din parcare este al nostru. f) Sunt 14 elevi in aceasta clasa. 3. Scrieti in litere urmatoarele ore: 10:45 11:25 12:40 13:30 14:05 PRONUMELE

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1. Pronumele personala) cu functie de subiect b) cu functie de complement a) Forma pronumelui personal cu functie de subiect: I --- eu You --- tu, dumneata, dumneavoastra He --- el She --- ea It --- el, ea (neutru), pentru nume de obiecte, lucruri, animale We --- noi You --- voi, dumneavoastra They --- ei, ele, dumnealor Exemple: I am a big girl. He lives near the school. We like chocolate very much. Do you like football?

b) Forma pronumelui personal cu functie de complement: me - mie, imi, mi (complement indirect) - pe mine, ma, m (complement direct) you - tie, iti, ti, dumitale, dumneavoastra (complement indirect) - pe tine, te, pe dumneata, pe dumneavoastra (complement direct) him - lui, ii, i (complement indirect) - pe el, il (complement direct) her - ei, ii, i (complement indirect) - pe ea, o (complement direct) it - lui, ei, ii, i (complement indirect) - pe el, il, pe ea, o (complement direct) us - noua, ne, ni (complement indirect) - pe noi, ne (complement direct) you - voua, va, vi, dumneavoastra (complement indirect) - pe voi, va, pe dumneavoastra (complement direct) them 9

- lor, le, li (complement indirect) - pe ei, ii, i (complement direct) Exemple: I watch my brother playing tennis. You gave me a nice gift. Give them a kiss from me! 2. Pronumele reflexive si de intarire myself --- ma, insumi, insami yourself --- te, insuti, insati himself --- se, insusi herself --- se, insesi itself --- se, insusi, insasi (neutru) ourselves --- ne, insine, insene yourselves --- va, insiva, inseva themselves --- se, insisi, insesi Exemple: I found myself very smart. We did ourselves all the exercises. 3. Pronumele demonstrativ this --- acesta, aceasta, asta, asta that --- acela, aceea, ala, aia these --- acestea, acestia, astia, astea those --- acelea, aceia, aia, alea Exemple: This is my brother. Those are his parents. 4. Pronumele posesive mine --- al meu, a mea, ai mei, ale mele yours --- al tau, a ta, ai tai, ale tale his --- al sau (a lui), a sa (a lui), ai sai (ai lui), ale sale (ale lui) hers --- al sau (a ei), a sa (a ei), ai sai (ai ei), ale sale (ale ei) its own --- al sau, a sa, ai sai, ale sale (neutru) ours --- al nostru, a noastra, ai nostri, ale noastre yours --- al vostru, a voastra, ai vostri, ale voastre their --- al lor, a lor, ai lor, ale lor Exemple: My brother is tall, but yours is taller. His car is old, but hers is older. I lost my pencil, can you lend me yours?

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5. Pronumele nehotarat some + body, one, thing any + body, one, thing no + body, one, thing Exemple: I want something from you. She didn't find anything in the fridge. There was no one in the room. 6. Pronumele relativ who --- care whom/who --- pe care whose --- al (a, ai, ale) carui, careia, carora what --- ce, ceea ce which --- care, pe care (pt. lucruri, obiecte ...) that --- care Exemple: My brother, who is a doctor, lives in Bucharest. Tom, whose car was stolen, bought another one last week. I found a cat that was lost. I didn't like what I saw. 7. Pronumele interogativ who? --- cine? whom? who? --- pe cine? whose? --- al (a, ai, ale) cui? what? --- care?, pe care,ce? which? --- (pe) care dintre? Exemple: Whom did you see last Sunday? Whose shoes are those? What are you doing? Which do you like more? Exercitii: 1. Completati propozitiile urmatoare cu forma corecta a pronumelui reflexiv: 1) I enjoyed _______ at the party 2) My father didn't buy the book for _______ 3) The dog cut _______ while running in the street. 4) Help _______ with some fruit, John and Mary. 5) We saw _______ in the snow. 2. Completati propozitiile de mai jos cu forma corecta a pronumelui posesiv: 1) This is my cat. It is _______ 2) That is his lamp. It is _______ 11

3) These are our maps. They are _______ 4) Those are their shoes. They are _______ 5) This is her shirt. It is _______ 3. Completati corect spatiile goale cu unul dintre pronumele din paranteze: 1) I saw Mr. Thompson _______ is John's father. (that, who, which) 2) _______ did you meet last week, John or Steve? (which, who, whose) 3) Puffy, _______ is a big cat, is very lazy. (which, who, whose) 4) _______ are you doing? (whom, what, that) 5) _______ is going with you at the theatre? (who, that, whom)

VERBUL

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Verbul "TO BE" - a fi Forma afirmativa: I am (I'm) - Eu sunt You are (You're) - Tu esti He is (He's) - El este She is (She's) - Ea este It is (It's) - El/Ea este We are (We're) - Noi suntem You are (You're) - Voi sunteti They are (They're) - Ei/Ele sunt Forma interogativa: Am I? - Sunt eu? Are you? - Esti tu? Is he? - Este el? Is she? - Este ea? Is it? - Este el/ea? Are we? - Suntem noi? Are you? - Sunteti voi? Are they? - Sunt ei/ele? Forma negativa: I am not (I'm not) - Eu nu sunt You are not (You aren't) - Tu nu esti He is not (He isn't) - El nu este She is not (She isn't) - Ea nu este It is not (It isn't) - El/Ea nu este We are not (We aren't) - Noi nu suntem You are not (You aren't) - Voi nu sunteti They are not (They aren't) - Ei/Ele nu sunt Verbul "TO HAVE" - a avea Forma afirmativa: I have (I've) - Eu am You have (You've) - Tu ai He has (He's) - El are She has (She's) - Ea are It has (It's) - El/Ea are We have (We've) - Noi avem You have (You've) - Voi aveti They have (They've) - Ei/Ele au Forma interogativa: Have I? - Am eu? Have you? - Ai tu? Has he? - Are el? Has she? - Are ea? Has it? - Are el/ea? Have we? - Avem noi? Have you? - Aveti voi? Have they? - Au ei/ele? 13

Forma negativa: I have not (I haven't) - Eu nu am You have not (You haven't) - Tu nu ai He has not (He hasn't) - El nu are She has not (She hasn't) - Ea nu are It has not (It hasn't) - El/Ea nu are We have not (We haven't) - Noi nu avem You have not (You haven't) - Voi nu aveti They have not (They haven't) - Ei/Ele nu au Verbul "TO DO" - a face Forma afirmativa: I do - Eu fac You do - Tu faci He does - El face She does - Ea face It does - El/Ea face We do - Noi facem You do - Voi faceti They do - Ei/Ele fac Forma interogativa: Do I? - Fac eu? Do you? - Faci tu? Does he? - Face el? Does she? - Face ea? Does it? - Face el/ea? Do we? - Facem noi? Do you? - Faceti voi? Do they? - Fac ei/ele? Forma negativa: I do not (I don't) - Eu nu fac You do not (You don't) - Tu nu faci He does not (He doesn't) - El nu face She does not (She doesn't) - Ea nu face It does not (It doesn't) - El/Ea nu face We do not (We don't) - Noi nu facem You do not (You don't) - Voi nu faceti They do not (They don't) - Ei/Ele nu fac Exercitii: 1. Completati spatiile goale cu forma corecta a verbului TO BE: a) Forma afirmativa: I _______ in the classroom. He _______ in the garden. They _______ in the house b) Forma negativa: 14

You _______ in the office. She _______ in the bathroom. We _______ in the restaurant. 2. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1. Eu am 12 ani. 2. Tu esti in casa cu tatal tau. 3. Noi avem 2 buchete de flori. 4. Voi sunteti in clasa a patra. 5 El are un mar si doua portocale. 6. Ea este in curtea scolii cu prietena ei. 3. Completati spatiile goale cu forma interogativa a verbului TO BE: 1. _______ you a good friend? 2. _______ he your father? 3. _______ they your colleagues? 4. _______ she in the living room? 5. _______ we in the courtyard? SUBSTANTIVUL A. Tipuri de substantive 1. Substantive comune 2. Substantive proprii 1. Substantivele comune desemneaza fiinte (oameni si animale) si obiecte / lucruri. Exemple: - fiinte: man, woman, grandmother, teacher, brother, pupil, doctor, nurse - obiecte (lucruri): pencil, school, car, hotel, medicine, shop, power, health Substantivele proprii desemneaza nume de familie si prenume, nume de munti, orase, tari, ape etc. Exemple: - nume de familie si prenume: Ewing, Brown, Sawyer, John, Mary, Helen - nume de munti: Alps, Himalaya, Everest - nume de orase: Bucharest, Paris, Venice - nume de tari: France, Italy, Croatia - nume de ape: Mississippi, Danube, Thames B. Genul substantivelor 1. Genul masculin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal he) Exemple: man, doctor, driver, father, boy 2. Genul feminin (care se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal she) Exemple: woman, mother, girl, actress, sister. 3. Genul neutru (nume de lucruri, obiecte si animale; se inlocuiesc cu pronumele personal it) 15

Exemple: cat, dog, pencil, butterfly, car, notebook. C. Numarul substantivelor Substantivele pot fi la singular sau la plural. Formarea pluralului: a) pluralul cu "-s" Exemple: a dog ---> two dogs a school ---> two schools a car ---> two cars a book ---> two books b) pluralul cu "-es" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -s, -x, -z, -ch, -sh) Exemple: a bus ---> two buses a fax ---> two faxes a church ---> two churches Atentie: a tomato ---> two tomatoes a potato ---> two potatoes dar radio ---> radios photo ---> photos c) pluralul cu "-ies" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -y) Exemple: lady ---> ladies baby ---> babies fly ---> flies dar: day ---> days boy ---> boys Reguli: - pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o consoana, pluralul se va face in -ies - pentru substantivele care se termina in y precedat de o vocala, pluralul se va face in -s d) pluralul cu "-ves" (pentru substantivele care au terminatia in -f sau -fe)

Exemple: leaf ---> leaves 16

calf ---> calves shelf ---> shelves wife ---> wives wolf ---> wolves Exceptii: chief ---> chiefs proof ---> proofs belief ---> beliefs e) pluralele neregulate Exemple: child ---> children man ---> men woman ---> women foot ---> feet goose ---> geese mouse ---> mice tooth ---> teeth f) substantive invariabile care nu primesc "-s" Exemple: deer (cerb) duck (rata) sheep (oaie) trout (pastrav) fish (peste) fruit (fructe) g) substantivele cu sens colectiv care nu au forma de plural Exemple: advice (sfat) baggage (bagaj) luggage (bagaje) information (informatii) furniture (mobila) people (oameni) crowd (multime) police (politie) h) pluralul substantivelor proprii Exemple: the Browns the Johnsons the Thompsons

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D. Substantive compuse Exemple: classroom schoolboy schoolgirl blackboard dining-room breakfast Exercitii: 1. Alcatuiti pluralul urmatoarelor substantive: table ---> clock ---> leaf ---> gentleman ---> baby ---> tooth ---> friend ---> city ---> life ---> chief ---> 2. Inlocuiti substantivele urmatoare cu pronumele personal potrivit: the girl --the dog --the actor --the schoolboy --the pencil --the grandmother --3. Alcatuiti cat mai multe substantive compuse cu ajutorul urmatoarelor cuvinte: dining, bird, school, class, kinder, mate, room, boy, father, black, book, girl, board, living, garden, note, exercise, parents, grand. ADJECTIVUL Adjectivele in limba engleza au urmatoarele caracteristici: a) nu variaza dupa gen si numar b) se aseaza inaintea substantivelor Exemplu: a good cake ---> good cakes A. Tipuri de adjective opinion adjectives (adjective de opinie): descriu ceea ce credem despre cineva sau ceva.

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Exemple: beautiful, great, nice, expensive, cheap, ugly etc. fact adjectives (adjective de fapt): descriu ceea ce fiintele sau obiectele determinate sunt cu adevarat Exemple: short, large, long, green, round etc. ! Adjectivele de opinie stau inaintea adjectivelor de fapt B. Adjectivul demonstrativ Desemneaza fiinte sau lucruri pe care le aratam precizand in acelasi timp apropierea sau departarea in timp sau spatiu. Forme: singular: - this (acest, aceasta) - that (acel, acea) plural: - these (acesti, aceste) - those (acei, acele) Exemple: This man is a doctor. That girl is a pupil. These children are small. Those boys are playing in the scoolyard. C. Adjectivul posesiv Desemneaza raportul de posesie dintre un posesor si ceea ce acesta poseda: Forme: singular: - my (meu, mea, mei, mele) - your (tau, ta, tai, tale) - his (lui, sau, sa, sai, sale) - her (ei, sau, sa, sai, sale) - its (lui, ei, sau, sa, sai, sale) plural: - our (nostru, noastra, nostri, noastre) - your (vostru, voastra, vostri, voastre) - their (lor) Exemple: This is my house. It is his car. That is our shop. Those are your books.

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D. Comparativul adjectivelor a) Comparativul de egalitate / inferioritate: "as ... as" (tot atat de / la fel de) "not as ... as" (nu atat de / nu la fel de) "not so ... as" (nu atat de / nu la fel de) Exemple: She is as pretty as her mother. He is not as tall as his brother. b) Comparativ de superioritate: - pentru adjective scurte (monosilabice) se adauga terminatia "-er" la finalul adjectivului respectiv - pentru adjective lungi, acestea sunt precedate de adverbul "more" Exemple: tall ---> taller (inalt ---> mai inalt) slim ---> slimmer (slab ---> mai slab) fast ---> faster (rapid ---> mai rapid) big ---> bigger (man ---> mai mare) beautiful ---> more beautiful (frumos ---> mai frumos) interesting ---> more interesting interesant ---> mai interesant difficult ---> more difficult dificil ---> mai dificil E. Superlativul adjectivelor - pentru adjective scurte (monosilabice) se adauga terminatia "-est" la adjectivul precedat de "the" - pentru adjective lungi, acestea vor fi precedate de "the most" Exemple: the tallest (cel mai inalt) the slimmest (cel mai slab) the fastest (cel mai rapid) the biggest (cel mai mare) the most beautiful (cel mai frumos) the most interesting (cel mai interesant) the most difficult (cel mai dificil)

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F. Comparative si superlative neregulate bad worse the worst rau go better the best od farther the farthest (the furthest) far (further) the most mu more the oldest (the eldest) ch older (elder) old Exercitii: 1. Traduceti in limba engleza urmatoarele propozitii: a) Aceasta masina este rosie. b) Acele fete sunt in clasa intai. c) Acei barbati sunt doctori. d) Aceasta este clasa mea. e) Acela este cainele ei. f) Acestea sunt caietele noastre.

bun indepartat mult batran

2. Completati spatiile libere de mai jos, cu forma corecta a adjectivelor, la gradul de comparatie indicat: Adjectiv bad fast good cheap beautiful thin fat Comparativ worse faster better .................. .................. thinner .................. Superlativ .................. .................. .................. the cheapest the most beautiful .................. the fattest 3. Potriviti adjectivele la substantivele respective:

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cold nice beautiful long delicious traditional blouse hair weather girl dance food ADVERBUL A. Adverbe de mod - arata modul in care se petrece o actiune Mod de formare: - de obicei, aceste adverbe se formeaza prin adaugarea terminatiei -ly la finalul unui adjective. Exemple: beautiful ---> beautifully sad ---> sadly capable ---> capably slow ---> slowly easy ---> easily B. Adverbe de loc - arata locul in care se petrece o actiune Exemple: here, there, upstairs, downstairs, anywhere, everywhere, outside, inside C. Adverbe de timp - arata timpul in care se petrece o actiune Exemple: today, yesterday, tomorrow, Saturday, Monday, now, finally, later, soon, just, still D. Adverbe de durata - arata perioada de timp a unei actiuni Exemple: forever, shortly, long, permanently

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E. Adverbe de comparatie - arata gradul de intensitate al unei actiuni Exemple: extremely, greatly, hugely, partially, perfectly, strongly, totally, almost, very, entirely F. Adverbe de frecventa - arata gradul de repetabilitate al unei actiuni Exemple: always, constantly, often, rarely, regularly, seldom, sometimes, occasionally, rarely, never G. Adverbe de probabilitate - arata gradul de probabilitate a unei actiuni Exemple: certainly, perhaps, maybe, possibly, definitely Exercitii: 1. Cunoscand urmatoarele procente corespunzatoare adverbelor de frecventa, realizati propozitiile de mai jos, conform modelului. never ---> 0% rarely ---> 10% sometimes ---> 25% often ---> 50% usually ---> 75% always ---> 100% Exemplu: Sam / have / shower / evening (75%) Sam usually has shower in the evening. a) I / eat / cake / afternoon. (25%) b) Tim / sleep / living - room (50%) c) I / go / school / Sunday (0%) d) Dennis / play / tennis / weekends (100%) e) She / run / park / morning (10%) 2. Transformati urmatoarele adjective in adverbe: horrible ---> careful ---> nervous ---> desperate ---> slow ---> sudden ---> bright ---> proud --->

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3. Subliniati termenul corect din urmatoarele propozitii: a) Denisa was wearing a pretty / prettily dress at the wedding. b) I had a terrible / terribly dream last night. c) Final / Finally, she passed the exam. d) She was walking rapid / rapidly. e) Sam is fluent / fluently in French. f) Was your grammar test easy / easily? g) They were talking loud / loudly so everybody could hear them. 4) Alegeti varianta corecta: 1. Please don't talk so .................... . I'm trying to sleep. a) louder; b) loudest; c) loudly 2. We .................... go on picnics on weekends. We love fresh air. a) never; b) usually; c) seldom 3. The bouquet was .................... . She loved it. a) beautiful; b) beautifully; c) ugly. 4. James .................... put the broken glass into the rubbish bin. a) careful; b) more carefully; c) carefully PREPOZIIA A. Prepozitii de miscare - arata miscarea Exemple: to, through, across to - utilizam "to" pentru a arata deplasarea catre o destinatie anume. Exemplu: I went to Chicago two years ago. through - utilizam "through" pentru a sugera deplasarea dintr-o parte in alta a unui spatiu inchis. Exemplu: The cars went through the tunnel. across - utilizam "across" pentru a sugera miscarea dintr-o parte in alta a unei suprafete. Exemplu: She flew across the sea. Alte prepozitii de miscare: along, down, over, off, round, into B. Prepozitii de loc - arata locul in care se situeaza obiectele definite Exemple: 24

at, on, in at - folosim "at" pentru a arata un anumit loc sau o anumita pozitie. Exemplu: Someone is at the door. on - folosim "on" pentru a arata pozitia pe o suprafata verticala sau orizontala. Exemplu: The dog is on the roof. in - folosim "in" pentru a arata ca un anumit obiect este imprejmuit sau inchis. Exemplu: The parrot is in the cage. Alte prepozitii de loc: after, among, behind, between, in front of, next to, beside, by, over, above, under, below. C. Prepozitii de timp - pentru a specifica timpul unei actiuni Exemple: at, on, in at - pentru a arata timpul exact. Exemplu: She left at 7.00 a.m. on - pentru anumite date sau zile Exemple: She arrived on Monday. Her birthday is on 23rd of October. in - pentru o perioada de timp nespecificata, necunoscuta din timpul unui an, zi, luna, anotimp. Exemple: It is very cold in Winter. I left Romania in 1989. Alte prepozitii de timp: after, by, since, during, for, throughout Exercitii: 1. Completati cu prepozitia corecta: of, on, at, to, with, in, for, along 25

1) His t-shirt has a picture ______ it. 2) The queen ______ England wanted to wear golden dress at her wedding. 3) I went ______ Brussels last week. 4) She spent the afternoon ______ her friends. 5) We walked ______ the banks of River Seine. 6) She's been waiting ______ me for about four hours. 7) What's the weather like ______ Paris? 8) She was ______ the cinema last evening. 2. Traduceti in limba engleza: 1) Mihaela a plecat la munte la ora 8 dimineata. 2) Statuia este in fata stadionului. 3) In spatele operei se afla un hotel. 4) Trenul a trecut prin tunel foarte rapid. 5) Lui Philip ii place sa zboare deasupra oceanului. 3. Completati spatiile libere cu prepozitia corecta: in, on, at, to 1) They live ____ Dubai. 2) We are staying ____ a nice hotel. 3) Philip always plays tennis ____ the afternoon. 4) They where very close ____ their cat. 5) We got ____ the first train to Sibiu. 6) Romania is ____ Europe. 7) You are going ____ a city tour tomorrow. PREZENTUL SIMPLU A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv (la persoana a III-a singular se adauga terminatia -s" sau -es") Exemple: 1. I go to school every day. 2. He reads a book every month. 3. She lives in Bucharest. Interogativ: Do / Does (pers.III, sg.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv Exemple: 1. Do you go to school every day? 2. Does he read a book every month? 3. Does she live in Bucharest? Negativ: Subiect + do / does (pers.III, sg.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv 26

Se folosesc adesea contractiile don't (do + not) si doesn't (does + not) Exemple: 1. I don't go to school every day. 2. He doesn't read a book every month. 3. She doesn't live in Bucharest. B. Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei -s" sau -es" la afirmativ pentru persoana a III-a singular ! La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia -s" la persoana a III-a singular la afirmativ Exemple: I talk He talks I work He works I sleep He sleeps ! Verbelelor care se termina in ss, -sh, -ch, -x, -o li se adauga terminatia -es" Exemple: I kiss He kisses I wish He wishes I catch He catches I mix He mixes I go He goes ! La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o consoana, se inlocuieste litera y cu litera i, iar apoi se adauga terminatia -es" Exemple: I fly He flies I study He studies I cry He cries ! La verbele care se termina in litera y precedata de o vocala, se adauga terminatia -s" Exemple: I pay He pays I stay He stays I play He plays C. Folosim Prezentul Simplu pentru: activitati zilnice, saptamanale, lunare, anuale Exemple: I go to the mountains every month. We have breakfast at 7.30 every morning. obiceiuri, hobby-uri Exemple: She plays tennis in her free time. In the summer, they go to the seaside. 27

situatii permanente Exemplu: He lives in Paris. I work as a manager. a exprima actiuni care respecta un anumit program Exemple: The bus for Bucharest lives at 12.15 on Monday. I have Maths Friday at 11.30. situatii emotionale Exemple: I love my girlfriend very much. He hates cats. adevaruri generale Exemple: The earth moves around the sun. Water boils at 100C. D. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Simplu: every day/ week/ month/ year etc., every morning/ evening/ afternoon/ night, usually, always, sometimes, often, never, in the morning/evening/night etc. Exemple: 1. He goes to the gim every day. 2. I play football every week. 3. We go to the dentist every year. 4. She watches TV every evening. 5. She usually studies hard for her exams. 6. I always do my homework. 7. He sometimes goes shopping. 8. I often play pool with my friends. 9. She never go to school by bus. 10. In the evening we play Monopoly. Exercitii: 1. Puneti propozitiile urmatoare la persoana a III-a singular. Consultati mai intai exemplul: Exemplu: They live in Craiova. (He) He lives in Craiova, too. 1. I fly from Bucharest to Rome every week. (Mary) 2. We usually play in the park. (John) 3. They like their jobs very much. (He) 4. I want a new car. (She) 5. You wake up at 7 o'oclock. (Paul) 6. You always wash the dishes. (Angela) 7. We watch TV every afternoon. (Tom) 8. I go to school by bus. (My brother) 28

9. You cook every Saturday. (My mother) 10. We study hard for our exams. (Mark) 2. Scrieti forma interogativa a urmatoarelor propozitii: Exemplu: You like swimming. Do you like swimming? 1. He lives in Bucharest. 2. You wear an uniform at school. 3. My father drives very well. 4. Mr. Smith teaches English. 5. You like pizza and hamburgers. 6. My neighbour works as an engineer. 7. Your father repairs the car every month. 8. We drink coffee every morning. 9. Mary pays her bills every month. 10. He goes to bed very early every evening. 3. Folositi forma negativa pentru propozitiile urmatoare, folosind cuvintele din paranteze, la fel ca in exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: I like Maths. (Physics) I like Maths, but I don't like Physics 1. Mary writes postcards. (letters) 2. I go to the cinema. (theatre) 3. They read newspapers. (books) 4. You study French. (English) 5. Mr. Brown works in an office. (at home) 6. I like football. (rugby) 7. He drives a car. (a lorry) 8. Dan and John travel by train. (plane) 9. We drink tea. (coffee) 10. She plays chess every day. (tennis) 4. Formulati propozitii folosind conjunctia but: Exemple: I watch TV every evening. (John) I watch TV every evening, but John doesn't. He doesn't speak French. (they) He doesn't speak French, but they do. 1. Julia washes the dishes. (I) 2. He doesn't want to go to the seaside. (his girlfriend) 3. I go to the cinema every week. (they) 4. She doesn't swim. (her sister) 5. We have breakfast early in the morning. (Paul) 6. I don't play football. (my best friend) 7. Me and my brother play on the computer. (Michael) 8. John doesn't read the newspaper every day. (we) 9. My mother likes to go shopping. (I) 29

10. You don't travel by plane. (she) 5. Adauga propozitiilor de mai jos adverbele din paranteze: Exemplu: I have lunch at 12 o'clock. (always) I always have lunch at 12 o'clock. 1. My sister gets up at 10 o'clock. (usually) 2. We play football on Sundays. (sometimes) 3. I go out with a stranger. (never) 4. She listens to music in the evening. (always) 5. He goes to school by bus. (often) 6. I eat a hamburger in the morning. (never) 7. I read the newspaper in the evening. (usually) 8. In the morning I play on the computer. (sometimes) 9. Mother washes the dishes in the evening. (always) 10. They go skiing in the winter. (often) PREZENTUL CONTINUU A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + to be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I'm writing an article now. 2. They are playing football. 3. She is having lunch at this moment. Interogativ: To be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. Am I writing an article now? 2. Are they playing football? 3. Is she having lunch at this moment? Negativ: Subiect + to be (conjugat in functie de persoana) + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile isn't (is + not) si aren't (are + not) Exemple: 1. I'm not writing an article now. 2. They aren't playing football. 3. She isn't having lunch at this moment

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B. Reguli pentru adaugarea terminatiei -s" sau -es" la afirmativ pentru persoana a III-a singular ! La majoritatea verbelor se adauga terminatia -ing" fara nici o modificare: Exemple: play playing try trying drink drinking sing - singing go - going draw - drawing cook - cooking learn - learning send - sending wash - washing ! La verbele care se termina in litera e precedata de o consoana, se renunta la litera e si se adauga terminatia "-ing" Exemple: make making come coming leave leaving ! La verbele formate dintr-o singura silaba (monosilabice) care se termina intr-o consoana precedata de o vocala, se dubleaza consoana si apoi se adauga terminatia "-ing" Exemple: get getting sit sitting hit hitting C. Folosim Prezentul Continuu pentru: activitati care se petrec in momentul vorbirii Exemple: She is watching TV now. Mother is washing the dishes at this moment. actiuni care se desfasoara pe o perioada mai mare de timp, incluzand si momentul vorbirii Exemple: John is studying Maths for his exam. My brother is writing a book. a vorbi despre o intalnire sau despre un aranjament din viitorul apropiat Exemple: He is flying to New York next week. I'm meeting Susan next Sunday.

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D. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Continuu: now, at this moment, these days, this week, today, tonight etc. Exemple: 1. Paul is repairing his car now. 2. I'm having lunch at this moment. 3. He is working hard for a project these days. 4. They are going to the basketball game this week. 5. I'm writing a letter today. 6. I'm watching TV tonight. Exercitii: 1. Puneti verbele din paranteze la timpul Prezentul Continuu: Exemplu: Diana (play) with Tim now. Diana is playing with Tim now. 1. Everybody (wear) blue T-shirts today. 2. I (listen) to classic music at this moment. 3. What (do) mother in the kitchen? 4. We (organize) a study trip this week. 5. Our colleagues (plan) a surprise party for John's birthday these days. 6. I (meet) with my best friend at the cinema tonight. 7. My father (work) in the garage now. 8. This week, you (go) to the theatre with your geography teacher. 9. At this moment, in Bucharest, it (rain). 10. My friends (travel) to Egypt this week. 2. Corectati afirmatiile false ca in exemplul urmator: Exemplu: Jim is playing basketball. (watch TV) No, Jim is not playing basketball. Jim is watching TV. 1. Mother is cooking at this moment. (iron) 2. My brother is learning English now. (study French) 3. All my colleagues are working hard for their final exams these days. (plan their holiday) 4. The cat is climbing the tree now. (eat a mouse) 5. I am taking some photos for my album. (read a book) 6. You are drinking Coke Cola now. (drink a coffee) 7. Joana is swimming in the pool. (play voleyball on the beach) 8. I am making an apple-pie now. (do my homeworks) 9. It is raining today. (snow) 10. We are riding by bycicle to school. (go by bus) 3. Scrieti forma interogativa a urmatoarelor propozitii: Exemplu: I am having lunch at this moment. Am I having lunch at this moment? 1. We are playing cards. 32

2. Mother is washing dishes. 3. My brother is reading a newspaper. 4. We are serving breakfast. 5. They are decorating the Christmas tree. 6. My family is planning a trip to Maldive Islands these days. 7. Father is sleeping in the bedroom. 8. You are watching a horror movie. 9. Your sister is doing her homeworks. 10. I am sending a postcard in France now. 4. Alegeti varianta corecta la Prezentul Continuu: 1. We ............... basketball in the schoolyard. a) play; b) prepare; c) ski 2. They ............... a movie in the dining-room. a) watch; b) play; c) eat 3. My friends and I ............... some flowers in the garden. a) read; b) water; c) travel 4. I ............... my homeworks at Maths. a) do; b) make; c) give 5. You ............... a novel to your little brother. a) read; b) create; c) put 6. The poet ............... a poem about love at this moment. a) create; b) give; c) look 7. I ............... after my lost cat. a) look; b) search; c) spend 8. ........ we ............... to the cinema tonight? a) go; b) watch; c) eat 9. The sun ............... brightly. a) show; b) shine; c) rain 10. My friends ............... on a picnic without me. a) go; b) play; c) read 5. Corectati forma gresita a verbului: 1. I am makeing an apple-pie. 2. Mary is comeing from Italy today. 3. We are siting in the living-room. 4. He is geting off the bus at the first station. 5. My brother isn't writeing poems. 6. You aren't plaing with kids. 7. They are leaveing Bucharest tomorrow evening. 8. He is comeing tonight to see me. 9. She is haveing lunch at this moment. 10. Are you flyng to New York next week? TRECUTUL SIMPLU A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + Vb.II (terminatia "-ed" pentru verbele regulate) 33

Exemple: 1. I wrote a book last year. 2. He went to a football game last week. 3. We played in the park yesterday. Interogativ: Did + Subiect + Vb.I? Exemple: 1. Did you write a book last year? 2. Did he go to a football game last week? 3. Did you play in the park yesterday? Negativ: Subiect + didn't + Vb.I Exemple: 1. I didn't write a book last year. 2. He didn't go to a football game last week. 3. We didn't play in the park yesterday. B. Folosim Trecutul Simplu pentru: activitati terminate care s-au petrecut in trecut Exemple: She was in France 2 years ago. We bought a new washing machine 2 weeks ago. actiuni incheiate care s-au petrecut la un moment determinat in trecut Exemple: They were in England in 1981. I left Bucharest in april 1994. C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Trecutul Simplu: yesterday, at this time yesterday, 2 days ago, 2 months ago, last year, last week, the day before yesterday Exemple: 1. Diana went in Belgium 3 years ago. 2. I was having lunch at this time yesterday. 3. They played football 2 hours ago. 4. Paul taught English and French 3 months ago. 5. She left town the day before yesterday. Exercitii: 1. Scrieti forma corecta a verbului din paranteza la Trecutul Simplu: 1. I (watch) a horror movie yesterday evening. 2. Mary (play) in the garden with her dog yesterday morning. 34

3. Two days ago, John (go) with his mother at the doctor. 4. Mary (talk) a lot during the French lesson. 5. My mother (wash) many clothes yesterday evening. 6. I (do not enjoy) the movie from last night. 7. I (solve) the Math problem very quickly. 8. I (prepare) my luggage yesterday. 9. I (be) at school when you called me. 10. When you were young, you (live) in the countryside. 2. Folositi cuvintele din paranteze pentru a realiza propozitii negative precum in exemplu: Exemplu: Mary liked the apple pie. (the soup) Mary liked the apple pie, but she didn't like the soup. 1. I played in the schoolyard. (in the garden) 2. My friend went to the mountain. (to the seaside) 3. I travelled abroad 2 days ago. (1 month ago) 4. Yesterday I visited Mr. Peterson. (Mrs Smith) 5. During lunch, I listened a football game on the radio. (music) 6. You called me at 10 o'clock a.m. (12 o'clock) 7. I arrived at home early in the morning. (in the afternoon) 8. You received a computer on your birthday. (a car) 9. It rained 2 days ago. (last week) 10. Mike repaired his car. (bicycle) 3. Treceti la Trecutul Simplu verbele neregulate de mai jos, precum in exemplu: Exemplu: I leave school at 2 o'clock yesterday. I left school at 2 o'clock yesterday. 1. I eat a delicious soup at the restaurant 2 days ago. 2. My family buy a new car 3 months ago. 3. I read a very interesting novel yesterday evening. 4. Mary speak with her English teacher last week, about her exams. 5. Last Monday, John write to his mother a letter. 6. Last winter, I make a beautiful snowman in front of the house. 7. You give your sister a necklace for her birthday. 8. Last year, Tim become a doctor. 9. Mrs. Thompson teach Spanish and English every Monday and Wednesday. 10. Father come from the office late at noon. 4. Treceti urmatoarele verbe la Trecutul Simplu: Exemple: I see I saw I watch I watched 1. I sleep 2. He plays 3. He run 35

4. You speak 5. They don't read 6. He doesn't feel 7. I meet 8.He catches 9. You wake up 10. They leave 5. Raspundeti la urmatoarele intrebari conform precizarilor din paranteze (vezi exemplu) Exemplu: When did she leave Bucharest? (2 years ago) She left Bucharest 2 years ago. 1. Where did you sleep last night? (at Cathy's) 2. When did you read this book? (3 weeks ago) 3. When did you find out about Susan's problems? (last Monday) 4. Where did you meet your friends? (in the park) 5. When did she study French (2 years ago) 6. Where did he work last year (in a bank) 7. When did they divorce? (4 years ago) 8. How did she die? (in a train accident) 9. Who was Mihai Eminescu? (a Romanian poet) 10. When was he born? (in 1973) TRECUTUL CONTINUU A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I was learning a poem at this time yesterday. 2. You were watering the flowers at this time yesterday. 3.They were mending the radio at this time yesterday. Interogativ: Was (pers.I/III sg) / Were (restul pers.) + Subiect + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. Was I learning a poem at this time yesterday? 2. Were you watering the flowers at this time yesterday? 3. Were they mending the radio at this time yesterday? Negativ: Subiect + was (pers.I/III sg) / were (restul pers.) + not + Verbul la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile wasn't (was + not) si weren't (were + not) Exemple: 1. I wasn't learning a poem at this time yesterday.

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2. You weren't watering the flowers at this time yesterday. 3.They weren't mending the radio at this time yesterday. B. Folosim Trecutul Continuu pentru: a exprima o actiune in desfasurare ce a avut loc in trecut Exemple: She was playing in her room at this time yesterday. They were listening music at this time last Saturday. a exprima o actiune repetata de-a lungul unei perioade de timp Exemple: Did she ask any questions? Oh, she was asking questions all the time. Did he buy any sweets?. Oh, he was buying sweets all the time. C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Trecutul Continuu: at this time yesterday, from ... to ..., all day, for ... Exemple: 1. Tom was typing some letters at this time yesterday . 2. She was playing quitar from 6 to 8 o'clock. 3. They were laughing all day. 4. She was living in an old building for 6 years. Exercitii: 1. Spune ce facea fiecare pe vremea aceasta, martea trecuta: Exemplu: Father was in the living-room. (watch) Father was watching TV. 1. My mother was in the kitchen. (cook) 2. Daniel was in the garden. (water flowers) 3. Grandma was in the bedroom. (sleep) 4. Their friends were at the disco. (dance) 5. Aunt Mary and uncle John were in the garage. (repair car) 2. Ieri dimineata, toti elevii din clasa a sasea erau in clasa si se pregateau pentru testul de la matematica. Spune ce facea fiecare cand a intrat profesorul. Exemplu: Ana and Mary / clean the blackboard. Ana and Mary were cleaning the blackboard. 1. Christian / talk to his deskmate. 2. Victor / repeat some geometry formulas. 3. Diana and Helen / look at some exercises. 4. George / read the math lesson. 5. Andreea / write her homework.

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3. Treceti verbele la Trecutul Continuu: Exemplu: We are reading Shakespeare now. We were reading Shakespeare at this time yesterday, too. 1. Father is fixing the car in the garage. 2. Timothy is painting the wall now. 3. Granpa and Grandma are watching a movie now. 4. Students are learning new Spanish words now. 5. The boys are trying to fix a bicycle now. 4. Treceti verbele din paranteze la Trecutul Continuu: Exemplu: She (sing) for 2 hours yesterday. She was singing for 2 hours yesterday. 1. Tom (practice) in the language lab from 1 p.m. to 3 p.m. yesterday. 2. Mother (cook) all day yesterday. 3. My friends (watch) TV for 6 hours yesterday. 4. Pupils (study) Spanish from 9 a.m. to 11 a.m.. 5. From 3 to 5 I (play) tennis yesterday afternoon. 5. Treceti verbele din paranteze la Trecutul Continuu. Aceste verbe exprima o actiune trecuta care a avut loc o perioada mai lunga de timp. Exemplu: I (work) in a restaurant in the centre of the city. I was working in a restaurant in the centre of the city. 1. I (live) in an old building. 2. Mother (visit) me twice a week. 3. I (share) my room with 2 girls. 4. I (work) on Saturdays twice a month. 5. I had a very good friend, Tom, and he (work) in the same restaurant with me. Prezentul Perfect Simplu A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + vb. la forma a III-a Exemple: 1. I have washed her blouse. 2. He has written his homework. 3. We have learnt our English lesson. Interogativ: Have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + Subiect + vb. la forma a III-a Exemple: 1. Have I washed her blouse? 2. Has he written his homework? 38

3. Have we learnt our English lesson? Negativ: Subiect + have/has (pers. a III-a sg.) + not + vb. la forma a III-a Se folosesc adesea contractiile haven't (have + not) si hasn't (has + not) Exemple: 1. I haven't washed her blouse. 2. He hasn't written his homework. 3. We haven't learnt our English lesson. B. Folosim Prezentul Perfect Simplu pentru: a exprima o actiune incheiata de curand, dar nu se cunoaste cu exactitate momentul incheierii acesteia Exemple: I have cooked a delicious steak. They have finished their homeworks. a exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut care se continua si in prezent; efectele actiunii se resimt si in prezent Exemple: I have lived here since 1994. We have started classes for 3 hours. C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Perfect Simplu: already, just, yet Exemple: 1. He has already finished his classes. 2. Tom has just spoken on the phone with Mary. 3. They haven't written the exercise yet. never, ever, often Exemple: 1. I have never heard such a thing. 2. Have you ever read this news? 3. I have often travelled by car to the countryside. ever and before Exemplu: Have you ever heard this song before? for and since Exemple: 1. I've had my own car for four years. 2. She has been ill since yesterday. until now, so far, up to now Exemple: 1. I haven't had any Math problems up to now.

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2. So far, he hasn't complained about his wage. 3. Until now, I haven't heard about this English singer. Exercitii: 1. Pune verbele din paranteza la Prezentul Perfect Simplu, ca in exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: Tom .......... (write) .......... his homework. Tom has just written his homework. 1. I .......... (fix) .......... my car. 2. Father .......... (leave) .......... home. 3. They .......... (arrive) .......... to the theatre. 4. We .......... (see) .......... our Math teacher. 5. He .......... (begin) .......... to cry. 2. Construieste propozitii la timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu, cu ajutorul expresiilor din paranteza, ca in exemplele de mai jos: Exemple: I .......... arrive .......... home. (just) I have just arrived home. He .......... paint .......... this picture. (never) He has never painted this picture. They .......... do .......... their homeworks. (yet) They haven't done their homeworks yet. 1. Mary .......... cook .......... the soup. (already) 2. John and Tom .......... watch .......... TV. (just) 3. We .......... close .......... this window. (never) 4. Pupils .......... miss .......... the English class. (never) 5. You .......... lie .......... to your mother. (often) 3. Raspunde la urmatoarele intrebari folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu, ca in exemplele de mai jos: Exemple: Have you ever heard this song before? (never) We have never heard this song before. Have you ever eaten this food before? (often) We have often eaten this food. 1. Has he ever spoken to his cousin before? (never) 2. Have they ever played football? (often) 3. Have you ever lied to your mother? (never) 4. Has she ever skated before? (often) 5. Have you ever drunk whisky? (never) 4. Construieste intrebari si raspunsuri ca in exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: drive the car Have you driven the car yet? I'm afraid I haven't driven it yet.

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1. have breakfast 2. buy the buster 3. send the letter 4. clean the bathroom 5. wash the dishes 5. Completeaza urmatoarele propozitii ca in exemplul de mai jos, folosind timpul Prezent Perfect Simplu: Exemplu: This is the most beautiful girl I .......... (see) This is the most beautiful girl I have ever seen. 1. That is the most interesting movie he .......... (see) 2. This is the best book she .......... (read) 3. This is the biggest mall they .......... (visit) 4. These are the most attractive souvenirs they .......... (buy) 5. Those are the most wonderful monuments they .......... (see) Prezentul Perfect Continuu A. Mod de formare Afirmativ: Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. I have been waiting for your reply since yesterday. 2. He has been sending me letters for 3 months. 3. We have been crying for 3 hours. Interogativ: Have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + Subiect + been + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Exemple: 1. Have I been waiting for your reply since yesterday? 2. Has he been sending me letters for 3 months? 3. Have we been crying for 3 hours? Negativ: Subiect + have / has (pers. a III-a sg.) + not + vb. la infinitiv + terminatia "-ing" Se folosesc adesea contractiile haven't (have + not) si hasn't (has + not) Exemple: 1. I haven't been waiting for your reply since yesterday. 2. He hasn't been sending me letters for 3 months. 3. We haven't been crying for 3 hours. B. Folosim Prezentul Perfect Continuu pentru: a exprima o actiune inceputa in trecut si care nu s-a incheiat inca Exemple: She has been eating for ten minutes. 41

They have been working for several hours. a descrie stari sau sentimente care au inceput in trecut si au continuat de-a lungul unei perioade de timp si sunt inca prezente in momentul vorbirii Exemple: I have lived here since 1994. We have started classes for 3 hours. C. Expresii cu care se foloseste adesea Prezentul Perfect Continuu: since Exemplu: You have been living in Paris since 1996. for Exemplu: They have been watching TV for 3 hours. so far Exemplu: So far, there have been arriving 10 passengers from London. ever Exemplu: Have you ever been listening to the radio? never Exemplu: I have never been travelling to France until now. Exercitii: 1. Pune verbele din paranteza la timpul Prezentul Perfect Continuu, ca in exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: I (travel) abroad for 2 weeks. I have been travelling abroad for 2 weeks. 1. He (write) poems since 1997. 2. The children (draw) this map for half an hour. 3. The pupil (recite) the poem for ten minutes. 4. I (study) English for 4 years. 5. Sarah (do) her homework for 2 hours. 2. Reformuleaza urmatoarele propozitii folosind FOR + the last + Prezentul Perfect Continuu, ca in exemplul de mai jos: Exemplu: He began watching TV 2 hours ago. He has been watching TV for the last 2 hours. 1. We began watering the flowers 2 days ago. 2. Paul and Jim began writing their homework half an hour ago. 3. Mother began going to the doctor 3 months ago. 42

4. Father began cooking for his family 10 minutes ago. 5. The poet began composing that poem 1 month ago. 3. Pune la forma interogativa a timpului Prezent Perfect Continuu, propozitiile de mai jos: Exemplu: He has been listening to the radio for 1 hour. Has he been listening to the radio for 1 hour? 1. Children have been staying in the bus for 10 hours. 2. Pupils have been playing in the schoolgarden since noon. 3. The detective has been investigating this case since 2000. 4. The theatre show has been starting for 3 hours. 5. I have been watching "Young & Restless" since 2001. 4. Completeaza spatiile goale cu "FOR" si "SINCE". Pune verbele din paranteza la Prezentul Perfect Continuu: Exemplu: Helen (study) English .......... last summer. Heleng has been studying English since last summer. 1. We (talk) about that horrible accident .......... half an hour. 2. She (cook) a chicken soup .......... 1 hour. 3. They (phone) the manager .......... the last five minutes. 4. Mary (live) in Manhattan .......... June 1998. 5. It (rain) .......... morning. 5. Reformuleaza urmatoarele propozitii folosind "SINCE" si Prezentul Perfect Simplu, ca in exemplul urmator: Exemplu: It is raining. It started on Wednesday. It has been raining since Wednesday. 1. He is crying. He began at noon. 2. Father is sleeping. He went to bed at 9 o'clock in the evening. 3. We are travelling by train. We left Bucharest yesterday evening. 4. The artist is drawing. He started his work in January. 5. We are watching the football game. It began at 8 o'clock.

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Lista verbelor neregulate In aceasta lectie vom vedea care sunt verbele neregulate, care sunt formele lor la infinitiv, trecut si participiu trecut, precum si traducerea lor. Lista verbelor neregulate Infinitiv to abide to arise to awake to be to bear to beat to become to begin to behold to bend to beseech to bear to bet to bid to bind to bite to bleed to bless to blow to break to breed to bring to broadcast to burn to burst to buy to can Trecut abode arose awoke was, were bore beat became began beheld bent besought bore bet bade bound bit bled blest blew broke bred brought broadcast burnt (burned) burst bought could Participiu trecut abode arisen awoke been born beaten become begun beheld bent besought born bet bidden bound bitten bled blest blown broken bred brought broadcast burnt (burned) burst bought been able to Traducere a astepta, a sta, a locui a se ridica a se trezi a fi a se naste a bate a deveni a icepe a zari, a vedea a idoi a implora a se naste a paria a oferi, a licita a lega a musca a sangera a binecuvanta a sufla a sparge a creste a aduce a transmite prin radio a arde a izbucni a cumpara a putea, a fi posibil 44

to cast to catch to choose to cleave to cling to come to cost to creep to cut to deal to dig to do to draw to dream to drink to drive to dwell to eat to fall to feed to feel to fight to find to fly to forbid to forecast to foresee to foretell to forget to forgive to forgo forsake to freeze to get to give to go to grind to grow to hang to have to hear to hide to hit

cast caught chose cleft clung came cost crept cut dealt dug did drew dreamt (dreamed) drank drove dwelt ate fell fed felt fought found flew forbade forecast foresaw foretold forgot forgave forwent forsook froze got gave went ground grew hung (hanged) had heard hid hit

cast caught chosen cleft clung come cost crept cut dealt dug done drawn dreamt (dreamed) drunk driven dwelt eaten fallen fed felt fought found flown forbidden forecast foreseen foretold forgotten forgiven forgone forsaken frozen got given gone ground grown hung (hanged) had heard hidden hit

a arunca a prinde a alege a despica a se lipi a veni a costa a se tara a taia a se ocupa, a trata afaceri a sapa a face a desena a visa a bea a conduce masina a locui, a ramane, a insista a manca a cadea a hrani a simti a lupta a gasi a zbura a interzice a prevedea a prevedea a prezice a uita a ierta a renunta la, a da uitarii a parasi a igheta a primi a da a merge a macina a creste a spanzura a avea a auzi a ascunde a lovi 45

to hold to hurt to keep to kneel to knit to know to lay to lead to lean to learn to leave to lend to let to lie to light to lose to make to mean to meet to misgive to mislead to mistake to outdo to overcome to overdo to pay to put to read to rend to ride to ring to rise to run to say to see to seek to sell to send to set to sew to shake to shave to shed

held hurt kept knelt knit knew laid led leant learnt (learned) left lent let lay lit lost made meant met misgave misled mistook outdid overcame overdid paid put read rent rode rang rose ran said saw sought sold sent set sewed shook shaved shed

held hurt kept knelt knit known laid led leant learnt (learned) left lent let lain lit lost made meant met misgiven misled mistaken outdone overcome overdone paid put read rent ridden rung risen run said seen sought sold sent set sewn (sewed) shaken shaven shed

a tine a rani a pastra a igenunchia a tricota a sti, a cunoaste a aseza a conduce a se sprijini de a ivata a lasa, a parasi a mprumuta (cuiva) a permite a fi culcat a aprinde a pierde a face a isemna a italni a inspira neicredere a induce i eroare a itelege gresit a itrece a ivinge a face exces a plati a pune a citi a sfasia, a rupe a calari a suna a se ridica a alerga a spune a vedea a cauta a vinde a trimite a fixa, a regla a coase a scutura, a clatina a se barbieri a varsa (lacrimi) 46

to shine to shoe to shoot to show to shrink to shut to sing to sink to sit to slay to sleep to slide to sling to slit to smell to smite to sow to speak to speed to spell to spend to spill to spin to spit to split to spoil to spread to spring to stand to steal to stick to sting to stink to strike to string to strive to swear to sweep to swim

shone shod shot showed shrank shut sang sank sat slew slept slid slung slit smelt (smelled) smote sowed spoke sped spelt (spelled) spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprang stood stole stuck stung stank struck strung strove swore swept swam

shone shod shot shown shrunk shut sung sunk sat slain slept slid slung slit smelt (smelled) smitten sown spoken sped spelt (spelled) spent spilt spun spat split spoilt spread sprung stodd stolen stuck stung stunk struck strung striven sworn swept swum

a straluci a icalta, a potcovi a mpusca a arata a se strange a ichide a canta a se scufunda a sta (pe scaun) a ucide a dormi a aluneca a azvarli a crapa, a despica a mirosi a lovi a semana a vorbi a accelera, a goni a pronunta litera cu litera a petrece, a cheltui a varsa a toarce, a se roti a scuipa a despica a strica a itinde a sari, a tasni a sta i picioare a fura a ifige, a se lipi a itepa a mirosi urat a lovi a isira, a icorda a se stradui a jura a matura a inota 47

to swing to take to teach to tear to tell to think to throw to thrust to tread to underlie to understand to upset to wake to wear to weave to wet to win to wind to wring to write

swung took taught tore told thought threw thrust trod underlay understood upset woke wore wove wet won wound wrung wrote

swung taken taught torn told thought thrown thrust trodden underlain understood upset woken worn woven wet won wound wrung written

a se legana a lua a ivata, a preda a rupe, a sfasia a spune a gandi, a crede a arunca a mbranci a calca a sustine a itelge a supara a se trezi a purta a tese a uda a castiga a se rasuci a frange, a smulge a scrie

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Englez: Gramatic: Verbe noionale - trecutul simplu (Past Tense Simple)Cnd se foloseteTrecutul simplu se folosete n una dintre urmtoarele situaii: 1. Pentru a desemna o aciune svrit i ncheiat ntr-un moment trecut. Se folosete cu adverbe de timp ca: two hours ago (acum dou ore), yesterday (ieri), last week (sptmna trecut), in 1970 (n 1970) . Exemplu: I went to the opera last week. (Am fost la oper sptmna trecut.) n aceast situaie, trecutul simplu se traduce prin perfectul compus (de obicei la persoana a I-a i a II-a) i perfectul simplu (aproape exclusiv la persoana a III-a). Exemple:

I lost my umbrella yesterday. (Mi-am pierdut umbrela ieri.) He said goodbye and left. (Spuse la revedere i plec.)

2. Pentru a desemna o aciune repetat n trecut. Se folosete cu adverbe de frecven:

definite: weekly (sptmnal), three times a day (de trei ori pe zi) etc indefinite: often (des), usually (de obicei) etc

n aceast situaie, trecutul simplu se traduce prin imperfect. Exemplu:

She often left her English textbook at home. (Deseori i uita manualul de englez acas.)

Cum se formeazAfirmativAici exist o diferen n formarea timpului ntre verbele regulate i cele neregulate. Verbe regulate Englez Romn Subiect verb (infinitiv scurt)+ED To work worked worked Verbe neregulate Englez Romn Subiect forma a II-a a verbului neregulat To write wrote - written 49

I worked hard yesterday. You worked hard yesterday He/she worked hard yesterday. We worked hard yesterday. You worked hard yesterday. They worked hard yesterday. ED se pronun astfel:

Am muncit mult ieri.

Am scris o scrisoare ieri. Ai scris o scrisoare Ai muncit mult ieri. You wrote a letter yesterday. ieri. El/ea a muncit mult He/she wrote a letter El/ea a scris o ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri. Noi am muncit mult Noi am scris o We wrote a letter yesterday. ieri. scrisoare ieri. Voi ai muncit mult Voi ai scris o You wrote a letter yesterday. ieri. scrisoare ieri. Ei au muncit mult Ei au scris o scrisoare They wrote a letter yesterday. ieri. ieri. I wrote a letter yesterday.

[D] cnd verbele se termin n vocal sau consoan sonor (b, g, l, m, n, v, z, dz)

Exemple: play-played, arrive-arrived

[T] cnd verbele se termin n consoan surd (f, k, p, s)

Exemple: like-liked, cross-crossed

[ID] cnd verbele se termin n t sau d

Exemple: want-wanted, nod-nodded

NegativFormarea timpului ntre verbele regulate i cele neregulate se face identic. Verbe regulate Verbe neregulate Englez Romn Englez Romn Subiect DID NOT/DIDNT Subiect DID NOT/DIDNT verb(infinitiv scurt) verb(infinitiv scurt) Nu am muncit I didnt write a letter Nu am scris o I didnt work hard yesterday. mult ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri. You didnt work hard Nu ai muncit mult You didnt write a letter Nu ai scris o yesterday. ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri. He/she didnt work hard El/Ea nu a muncit He/she didnt write a letter El/Ea nu a scris o yesterday. mult ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri. We didnt work hard Noi nu am muncit We didnt write a letter Noi nu am scris o yesterday. mult ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri. You didnt work hard Voi nu ai muncit You didnt write a letter Voi nu ai scris o yesterday. mult ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri. They didnt work hard Ei nu au muncit They didnt write a letter Ei nu au scris o yesterday. mult ieri. yesterday. scrisoare ieri.

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InterogativFormarea timpului ntre verbele regulate i cele neregulate se face identic. Verbe regulate Englez Romn DID Subiect verb (infinitiv scurt) Did I work hard Am muncit mult yesterday? ieri? Did you work hard Ai muncit mult ieri? yesterday? Did he/she work hard El/Ea a muncit mult yesterday? ieri? Did we work hard Noi am muncit mult yesterday? ieri? Did you work hard Voi ai muncit mult yesterday? ieri? Did they workhard Ei au muncit mult yesterday? ieri? Verbe neregulate Englez Romn DID Subiect verb (infinitiv scurt) Did I write a letter Am scris o scrisoare yesterday? ieri? Did you write a letter Ai scris o scrisoare yesterday? ieri? Did he/she write a letter El/Ea a scris o scrisoare yesterday? ieri? Did we write a letter Noi am scris o yesterday? scrisoare ieri? Did you write a letter Voi ai scris o scrisoare yesterday? ieri? Did they write a letter Ei au scris o scrisoare yesterday? ieri?

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