Grade 10 Science Exam Revew Notes

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    Science Exam Break Down

    Worth 30% of Final Grade

    Unit One Chemistry

    Unit Two- Biology

    Unit Three- Physics

    Unit Four- Climate Change

    Exam Date: Monday June 25 2012

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    hemistry Periodic Table

    o 3 Types of Particles

    Proton (P) nucleus

    Positive charge

    Neutron (n) nucleus

    Neutral charge

    Electron () shells

    Negative charge

    o Reading the periodic table

    Atomic Number

    Number of protons and electrons

    Atomic mass

    Protons + Neutrons

    Number of Neutrons

    Atomic Mass Atomic Number

    Bohr- Rutherford Diagram

    o 2 areas

    Nucleus protons & neutrons

    Shells electrons

    o Drawing

    1. Place number of protons/neutrons in the middle

    2. Electrons circle in nucleus

    2 in first shell

    8 in rest

    Lewis-Dot Diagram

    o Drawing

    1. Core of atom represented by element symbol

    2. Determine number of valence electrons 4 sides

    One dot clockwise

    double

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    Compounds

    o 3 Ionic Compounds

    Monovalent Compounds

    Definition

    o Compound containing metal and non-mental one charge

    Naming

    o Chemical Formula

    Write down element symbols

    Write down charges

    Criss-cross reduce

    o Chemical Name

    Write down metal and non-metal

    Change ending of non-metal -ide

    Multivalent Compounds

    Definition

    o Compound containing a metal and a non metal

    Two or more charges

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    Naming

    o Chemical Formula

    Write down element symbols

    Write down charges

    Criss-cross reduce

    o Chemical Name

    Write metal roman numeral

    Corresponding to charge

    Write down non metal ends in ide

    Polyatomic Compounds

    Definition

    o

    Compounds containing metal and polyatomic ions

    Naming

    o Chemical Formula

    Write down element symbols

    Write down charges

    Criss-cross reduce

    o Chemical Name

    Write metal and polyatomic ion

    o 1 Covalent Bond

    Molecular Compounds

    Definition

    o Compound containing

    Non-metal and metalloid

    Non-metal and non-metal

    Naming

    o Chemical Formula

    Write down element symbol

    Write down amount of atoms

    Do not reduce

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    o Chemical Name

    Write Element

    Use prefixes according to amount

    Balancing Chemical Equations

    o 7 Steps

    1. All diatomic molecules subscript of 2

    HOFBrINCl

    2. Balance metal atoms coefficients

    Add a coefficient

    o Adjust number of atoms other elements

    3. Balance non-metals not oxygen

    Add a coefficient

    o Adjust number of atoms other elements

    4. Balance Oxygen

    Check for subscripts share GCF

    5. Balance Hydrogen

    6. Coefficients reduced

    7. Coefficient halves

    Double

    Chemical Reactions

    o Follow law of conservation of mass

    Mass of reactants = Mass of Products

    o Evidence of a chemical change

    Gas (bubbles)

    Heat

    Colour

    Odour

    o Types of Reaction

    Synthesis Reactions

    Two substances (elements) combine

    o Form a compound

    o A + B AB

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    Decomposition Reaction

    Compounds break apart

    o Form smaller compounds/elements

    o AB A+ B

    Exceptions

    o Carbonates

    Decompose to Carbon Dioxide + metal oxide

    o Chlorates

    Decompose to oxygen gas + metal chloride

    o Hydroxides

    Decompose to metal oxide + water

    Single Displacement

    One element replaces another compound

    o Metal replaces metal

    o Non-metal replaces non-metal

    o A + BC AC + B

    A=Metal

    o A + BC BA + C

    A= Non Metal

    Double Displacement

    Metal replaces metal

    Non-metal replaces non metal

    o AB + CD AD + CB

    Combustion

    Fuel burns reacts with oxygen quickly

    o Products oxide and energy

    2 Types

    o Hydrocarbons (CxHy)

    Only contains carbon + hydrogen

    Complete combustion (oxygen)

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    o Carbon dioxide

    o Water

    o Energy

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    Incomplete combustion (oxygen)

    o Carbon monoxide

    o Carbon

    o Carbon dioxide

    o Water

    o Energy

    o Neutralization Reaction

    Acid-base neutralization

    Double displacement

    Acid + Base Water and Salt

    Salt isnt always NaCl

    o Combination of inside elements

    Acid and Bases

    o Acids

    Characteristics

    Molecular compounds

    Dissolve in water

    Reacts with metal/carbonates

    Conduct electricity

    Neutralize bases

    Names and Formulas

    Binary Acids (Hydrogen +Single Element)

    o General formula HX

    o General Name hydro___ic acid

    Oxyacids (Hydrogen + Polyatomic)

    o General formula HXY

    o General name

    Polyatomic ends in ate

    ___ic acid

    Polyatomic ends in ite

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    ___ous acid

    o Base

    Characteristics

    Ionic compounds made up of OH (hydroxide)

    Dissolve in water easily

    React with cations

    Conduct electricity

    Neutralize acids

    Names and Formulas

    Hydroxide

    o General formula XOH

    o General name metal hydroxide

    o Acid Base Indications

    Indicate

    Chemical turns different colour

    o Comes in contact with acid/base

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    Chemical Indications

    Blue Litmus Paper

    o Acid turns red o Base noth

    Red Litmus Paper

    o Acid nothing o Base turns

    blue

    Phenolphthalein

    o Acid nothing o Base turns

    pink

    iology Types of Cells

    o Two Major Types

    Prokaryotic Cells

    Simple Cells

    o Dont contain nucleus & other membrane-bound organelles

    o Bacteria

    Eukaryotic Cells

    Complex Cells

    o Contains nucleus & other organelles

    o Protists and Amoeba

    o Plants and Animals

    Importance of Cell Division

    o Allows organisms to reproduce

    Pass on genetic information to offspring Two types

    Asexual Reproduction

    o Parent cell divides makes a copy of itself

    Genetically identical

    Sexual Reproduction

    o Males create sperm

    o Females create eggs

    Sperm and Eggs fuse genetic information from each parent

    o Grow

    Divide instead of growing too big Important chemicals/water can move

    Divide build on one another

    Form the tissues/organs make up an organism

    o Repair damaged areas

    Continuously replacing cells due to damage

    Cause by cuts and breaks

    Allows for damaged cells to be replaced organism can continue to function prop

    The Cell Cycle

    o Three stages

    Interphase

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    Longest stage not a resting stage

    Carrying out all life activities growth, respiration, and specialized function

    Cell prepares for division

    o DNA replicated two identical strands

    o Organelles replicated

    o Cell increases in size

    Mitosis

    Definition

    o Process of cell division result in parent cell divided

    Two new daughter cells

    Identical to each other original parent cell

    4 Stages

    o Prophase

    Cell prepares for nuclear division

    Packages DNA into chromosomes

    Nuclear membrane is dissolved

    o Metaphase

    Cell prepares chromosomes for division

    Chromosomes line up at the center of the cell Spindle fibres attach from daughter cells

    o Chromosomes at the centromere

    o Anaphase

    Spindle fibers pull chromosomes apart (centromere splits)

    of each chromosome (chromotid)

    moves to each daughter cell

    o Telophase

    DNA spreads out

    2 nuclei form

    New cell wall forms between two daughter cells

    Cytokinesis

    Cytoplasm divides produces two genetically identical daughter cells

    Cell Specialization

    o Specialized Cells

    Not all identical

    Created to perform specific functions

    o Different physical and chemical differences

    Allow each type to perform specific job

    Animal Cells Red Blood Cells

    o Contain hemoglobin carries oxygen in the blood

    Smooth easily pass through blood vessels

    Skin Cells

    o Fit together tightly cover the outside

    Protect cells inside

    Reduce water loss

    Bone Cells

    o Collect calcium from food allow growth and repair

    Build up bone around themselves create bodys skeleton

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    Muscle Cells

    o Arranged in bundles muscle fibres

    o Can contact makes fibres shorter

    Causes bones to move

    White Blood Cells

    o Movie like an amoeba engulf/fight infections

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    Sperm Cells

    o Able to move independently

    Carry DNA from male parent join with egg from female paren

    Fat Cells

    o Large vacuoles store fat molecules

    Cell stores chemical energy

    Nerve Cells

    o Long, thin with numerous branches

    Conduct electrical impulses coordinate body activity

    Photocyte Cell

    o Help animals emit light

    Active at night/live in deep ocean

    Plant Cells

    Xylem Cells

    o Transport water/ dissolved minerals throughout plant

    Storage Cells

    o Contain special structures store starch

    Source of energy

    Photosynthesis Cellso Contain chloroplasts collect energy from sunlight

    Make sugar for plant

    Phloem Cells

    o Transport dissolved sugars around the plant

    Epidermal

    o On young roots absorb water from soil

    Guard

    o Surface of the leaves controls water loss

    Levels of Organization

    o Least Complex to Most Complex

    Cell

    Basic unit of life

    Tissue

    Collection of similar cells perform specific functions

    o Animal Tissues

    4 types

    Connective Tissue

    o Various types of cells/fibers

    Held together by a matrix (liquid, solid or geo Joins/supports structures

    Epithelial tissue

    o Made of a thin sheet of cells

    Tightly packed together form a protective

    barrier

    Muscle Tissue

    o Contains proteins contract/enable body to move

    skeletal muscles helps you move

    smooth and cardiac muscles help organs

    move

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    Nervous Tissue

    o Responds to stimuli

    o Sends electrical signals throughout the body

    o Plant Tissues

    4 Types

    Vascular Tissue

    o Transports water and nutrients

    Xylem moves water and minerals

    Phloem moves dissolved sugar

    (photosynthesized)

    Epidermal Tissue

    o Protective outer covering

    Allows the exchange of materials CO2 an

    Ground Tissue

    o Provides support

    Stores water/nutrients

    o Photosynthesis occurs

    Meristematic Tissue

    o Growth occurs

    Organ

    Structure composed of different tissues perform a complex body function

    o Work in one system play a role in many

    Organ System

    System of one or more organs working to together

    o Perform a vital body function

    Allow organism to accomplish basic functions

    o Obtain oxygen

    o Obtain nutrients

    o Eliminate waste

    o Sense/respo

    environment

    o Reproduce Organism

    Stem Cells

    o Process

    Unspecialised cells become other specialized types of cells

    Exposed to special environmental conditions

    o Cellular Differentiation

    Process that produces specialized cells directed by genetic

    information

    o Types

    Embryonic

    Become any type of cell

    Multipotent

    Differentiate into certain types of cells exist within specialized tissues

    o Regeneration

    Body part is re-grown mitosis

    Limited ability

    o Able to regenerate adult fingertips

    o Re-grow parts of organs

    Take cells grow in labs transplant back into patients

    o Future Treatment

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    Help body fight cancers

    Recover from degenerative diseases

    Parkinsons

    Alzheimers

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    Circulatory System

    o Function

    Transport of nutrients

    Digestive system body cells

    Transports oxygen

    From lungs body cells

    Transport of wastes

    Away from body cells lungs and kidneys

    Regulates body temperature

    Transports white blood cells immune system

    o 3 Parts

    Blood

    Connective tissue

    Made up of

    o Red Blood Cells

    Carry oxygen, waste and nutrients

    o White Blood Cells

    Fight infections

    o

    Plasma Water portion of blood

    o Platelets

    Used to form scabs heal wounds

    Heart

    Made up of

    o Cardiac Muscle

    o Nerve Tissues

    o Connective Tissue

    Pumps blood around body

    Regular beat change in response to events Process

    o De-oxygenated blood

    Superior/Inferior Vena Cava Right Atrium Right Ventricle

    Pulmonary Artery

    o Oxygenated Blood

    Pulmonary Vein Left Atrium Left Ventricle Aorta

    Vessels

    Arteries

    o Carry blood away from heart

    Veins

    o Carry blood towards heart

    Capillaries

    o Tiny blood vessels one cell thick

    o Allow substance to diffuse blood and body tissue

    Respiratory System

    o Functions

    Provide oxygen to the body

    Remove carbon dioxide from the body

    o Map

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    Nasal Cavity Pharynx Trachea Bronchi Lungs Alveoli Blood Stream

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    Digestive System

    o Digestive Tract

    Series of hollow organs

    Connect mouth to anus

    Other organs

    Produce/store organs break down/absorb food

    Map

    Mouth

    o Digestion begins

    o Saliva produced by salivary glands

    Breaks down carbohydrates known as starches

    Peristalsis

    o Involuntary muscle contractions

    Triggered by the nervous system

    Stomach

    o Passes through the esophagus sphincter lets food into the stomach

    o Glands produce stomach acid break down proteins

    Thick layer of mucus protects stomach from its own acid

    o Muscle action mixes food with digestive juices Emptied into small intestines pyloric sphincter

    Intestines

    o Small Intestines

    First Part

    Duodenum

    o Chemicals produced by other organs enter dige

    process

    o Bile produced by liver dissolves fat

    Folded into finger-like projections villi

    Increases surface area

    Food molecules absorbed into the bloodstream

    o Obtains energy and nutrients

    o Large Intestines (Colon)

    Doesnt break down food Absorbs Water

    Other Organs

    o Liver

    Produces bile Stored in the Gall Bladder

    o Pancreas

    Produces insulino Body Defences

    Vomiting

    Forcibly remove contents middle of small intestines and up

    Liver

    Filter the body

    Musculoskeletal System

    o Three Parts

    Bones

    Hard and dense

    Made up of bone cells

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    o Matrix of minerals (calcium and phosphorus)

    Nerve tissues/blood vessels pass through canals in bones

    Ligaments

    Lough and elastic

    Hold bones together at the joints

    Made up of long collagen fibres

    Cartilage

    Cells matrix of collagen

    Strong and flexible support

    Found in nose, ears and esophagus disks between vertebrae and joints

    o Muscles

    Made up of long cells muscle fibres

    Contain protein allow contractions and releases

    Three types

    Skeletal voluntary

    Smooth involuntary

    Cardiac heart

    o Functions

    Structure/Support Locomotion

    Protection

    Mineral Storage

    Blood Cells bone marrow

    o Osteoporosis

    Definition

    Bones become brittle/fragile loss of bone tissue

    At risk

    Older adult, postmenopausal women, steroid users

    Preventive Measures

    High calcium, vitamin D, exercise, limit smoking/alcohol

    Nervous System

    o Made up of

    Brain

    Spinal Cord

    Peripheral Nerves

    o Function

    Senses the environment co-ordinated appropriate responses

    o Organization

    Two major divisions

    Central Nervous System (CNS)

    o Brain and spinal cord

    o Coordinates all bodys activities

    o Relays messages process information analyzes responses

    o Shielded by bones

    Skull Brain

    Spine Spinal Cord

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    Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)

    o Nerve bundle of axons

    Contain sensory and motor neurons

    o Contains all nerves not part of CNS

    o 3 groups

    1. Control voluntary muscles

    2. Carry sensory information to the brain

    3. Regulate involuntary functions

    o Structure

    Neurons

    Specialized nerve cells combined to form tissue

    o Help you gather information about your environment

    Interpret the information react

    Found in the brain, spinal cord and nerves

    Consist of three main regions

    o Dendrites

    Pass signals they receive onto the cell body

    o Cell body

    o Axon

    Passes those impulses onto other neurons/muscles

    Sensory Receptors

    Receive input from the external environment

    Sensory Neurons

    o Send impulses from receptors in skin and sense organs

    To the brain and spinal cord

    Motor Neurons

    o Carry impulses away from the brain and spinal cord

    To a gland or muscles resulting in secretion/movement

    Nerve impulseo Completes a reflex arc/nerve pathway

    Dont involve conscious thought

    Immune System

    o Layered Defence System protects organs from infection

    3 Stages

    Surface Barriers prevent pathogen from entering

    o Skin

    Dead skin cells prevent invasion by micro-organisms

    Bacteria lives on skin

    Produces acids kill many pathogens

    o Body Fluids

    Saliva, tears and nasal mucous contain enzyme lysozyme

    Break down bacterial cell walls kills pathogens

    Mucus protective barrier

    Blocks bacteria sticking to inner epithelial cells

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    Non-Specific Immunity

    o Cellular Defence

    Phagocytosis

    Phagocytic cells surround and internalize the foreign

    microorganism

    o Release digestive enzymes/other harmful chemica

    Destroys microorganism

    o Inflammatory Response

    Increased blood flow to infected area blood vessels become

    penetrable

    Allows white blood cells to escape into infected areas

    o Kill infections causing microorganisms

    Specific Immunity

    o Active Immunity

    Immunity got/ developed in your life

    Developed by taking a vaccine expose to the

    bacteria/virus

    o Immunization

    Deliberate exposure of your body to a germ

    Primary response/immune memory cells will develop

    o Natural Immunity

    Immunity you are born with

    Natural defence against disease

    o Immune System Failure

    Diseases can affect immune systems effectiveness

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome AIDS

    HIV infect immune cells

    Become HIV factories produces new viruses

    o Number of healthy immune cells in a infected person decreases Organ Transplantation

    o General information

    Organs

    Heart

    Liver

    Pancreas

    Intestines

    Livers

    Kidneys

    Tissues

    Cornea

    Skin

    Bone

    Tendons

    Blood Vessels

    Bone Marrow

    o Benefits

    Normal life

    Donor satisfaction

    Developing research in the area

    o Risks

    Organ and tissue rejected by immune system

    Take drugs to prevent suppress immune system

    o Ability to fight infections reduced

    Associated with surgery

    Donors back up organs could fail

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    o Living Donor Organs

    Lung requires two living donors

    Each provide one lobe

    Kidney one donor

    Liver regenerate

    One lobe of liver

    Family members increased chance of genetic match

    o Deceased Donor Organs

    Family members give consent on behalf

    Sign a donor card

    Organs are checked damaged/unhealthy

    Recipient searched for

    o Factors taken into account

    Blood/tissue types

    Age/location of donor and recipient

    Length of time

    o Xeno transplantation

    Xeno=foreign

    Transplanting body parts from one to another Pigs provide heart valves

    Cells have been killed no longer considered living tissue

    Tumour

    o Definition

    Caused by uncontrolled cell division of mutated cells

    o Types

    Benign Tumour (Cancer)

    Cell division is unchecked proceeds as a moderate rate

    Doesnt invade surrounding cells pushes

    Doesnt spread

    o Harmless unless found in the brain

    Malignant Tumour (Cancer)

    Cell division is unchecked occurs rapidly

    o Spend little time in Interphase

    Damage and destroy surrounding cells invades them

    Can spread

    o Interfere with the function of other cells results in death

    Tumour is not destroyed/removed

    hysics Light

    o Properties

    Form of energy

    Travels in straight lines

    Can be reflected bounced in a new path

    Can be refracted bend in a new path

    Causes shadows

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    Travels at high speed

    Nothing Travels faster

    300 000 000 m/s 3.00 x 108

    Electromagnetic

    Wave

    o Made from electricity and magnetism travelling together

    Travel at the speed of light

    o Travel through a vacuum empty space of matter

    Ex. Space

    o Doesnt require a medium physical substance

    Spectrum

    o The Electromagnetic Spectrum

    Radio

    o AM Radio

    Microwave

    o Microwave Oven

    Infrared

    o Night Vision Goggles

    Visible

    o

    Ultravioleto Suntans

    X-Ray

    o Medical X-Rays

    Gamma Ray

    o Pet Imaging

    o The Visible Spectrum

    Red Orang

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    Yellow

    Green

    Blue

    Indigo

    Violet

    o How is it produced?

    7 Types

    Incandescence

    o

    What Producing light due to high temperature

    Object gets hotter causes colour to change

    o Example

    Incandescent light bulbs

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    Electric Discharge

    o What

    Electric current passes through a gas

    Reacts to produce a spark light

    o Example

    Neon light, lightning

    Phosphorescenceo What

    Glow in the Dark

    Special material absorbs UV light releases visible light

    o Period of time

    o Example

    Glow in the dark stickers

    Fluorescenceo What

    Emission of light from a substance that has absorbed light (U

    Absorbs UV light immediately release visible light

    o Example

    Fluorescent Light

    Chemiluminescence

    o What

    Substance produces heat

    Chemical Reactions

    o Example

    Light Stick

    Bioluminescence

    o What

    Organism realises light Chemical reactions in body takes place

    o Emits light

    o Example

    Firefly

    Triboluminescence

    o What

    Substance gives off light

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    Being scratched, crushed or rubbed

    o Example

    Duct tape

    Lasers

    o Definition

    Stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation

    o Compared to Light Bulbs

    Laser

    Consists of electromagnetic waves same energy levels

    Pure in colour intense/concentrated

    o Travel great distances without spreading out

    Light Bulb

    Emits different electromagnetic waves different energy levels

    Not concentrated/intenseo Uses

    Medical

    Industrial

    Astronomy

    Aesthetics

    o Laser Eye Surgery (LASIK)

    Definition

    Vision correction

    o

    People who are near/far sighted or stigmatism Reshaped cornea sharpen vision

    With ultraviolet laser

    Mirrors

    o Light behaves when striking a mirror incident ray

    Reflected, transmitted or absorbed

    Transparent transmit all incident light

    Translucent transmit some incident light

    Opaque transmit no incident light

    Light Rays

    Illustrate path of light hitting an object

    o Laws of Reflection

    Angle of incidence = Angle of Reflection

    Incident ray, Reflection ray and normal all on same plane/side

    o Surfaces

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    Specular Reflection reflection off smooth/shiny surface

    Diffuse Reflection reflection off irregular/dull surface

    o Plane Mirrors

    Two Ways

    Light Rays how we see images

    o

    Equal Perpendicular Lines how images appear

    o Measure distance from object to mirror do same on other side

    Redraw

    o Curved Mirrors

    Types

    Concave converging

    o

    Convex diverging

    o

    Applications

    Satellite dishes

    o Parabolic reflectors (concave mirrors)

    Search light

    Solar ovens

    o Box cookers

    o Curved concentrators

    o Panel cookers

    Periscope

    Makeup Mirror concave

    Security Mirror convex

    Index of Refraction

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    o Snells Law

    n1sin1 = n2sin2

    Value of n

    o Air 1.00

    o Pure Water 1.33

    o Definition

    Ratio of speed of light in a vacuum/speed of light in a medium

    Equation

    o n=c/v

    n = index of refraction

    c= speed of light in a vacuum 3.00 x 108 m/s

    v= speed of light in a given medium

    o n=sin I /sin R

    I = Angle of incidence

    R = angle of refraction

    n = index of refraction

    Refraction

    o Definition

    Change in direction light

    Passes at an angle one medium to another

    o Some light will reflect rest will refract

    o Terms

    Angle of incidence

    Angle between incident ray normal

    Angle of refraction

    Angle between refracted ray normal

    o Facts

    Ray of light passes into slower/more optically dense medium

    Bends towards normal

    Ray of light passes into faster/less optically dense medium

    Bends away from normal

    Angle of incidence = 0

    No refraction

    o No change in direction yes change in speed

    c

    n v

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    o Rules for Refraction

    Three

    Incident ray, refracted ray and normal all lie on same plane

    Light bends towards normal travels more slowly in second medium than f

    Light bends away from normal travels faster in second medium than first

    Total Internal Reflection

    o

    Recall Light slows down enters a new medium (less dense to dense)

    Bends towards normal

    o Angle of refraction < angle of incidence

    Light speeds up enters a new medium (dense to less dense)

    Bends away from normal

    o Angle of refraction > angle of incidence

    o Critical Angle

    Angle of incidence results in an angle of refraction of 90o

    o Definition

    Increase angle of incidence past critical angle refracted ray will no longer exit

    medium

    Reflect into the median

    o Refracted ray disappears only reflected ray is visible

    o Conditions

    Light is traveling more slowly in the first medium than the second

    Angle of incidence large enough that no refraction occurs in second medium

    o Examples

    Diamonds

    Sparkle cut of the diamond face combined with high index of refraction

    o Results in total internal refraction

    o Small critical angle

    Great deal of incident light undergoes total internal reflectio

    Light rays bounce around before exiting diamond

    Fiber Optics

    Use light to transmit information glass cables

    o Communications industry & medicine

    Phones, computer and TVs

    Endoscope

    o Light cannot escape must have a small critical angle

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    Angle of incidence> critical angle

    Optical Fiber

    Used to transmit light to instrument panel in cars

    o Rapidly replacing copper wire three reasons

    Signals arent affected electrical storms

    Carry many more signals over long distances

    Smaller/lighter

    Triangular Prism

    More useful than mirrors reflect almost 100% of light internals

    o Used in periscope/binoculars

    Retro-Reflectors

    Optical device that returns an incident light same direction

    Built into road sign and bikes

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    Optical Phenomenon

    o Mirage

    Virtual image forms as a result of refraction/total internal reflection

    Light travels from cool to warmer air

    o Bends away from normal air temperature increases

    Total internal Reflection

    Occurs in lowest (hottest) airo Light ray travels up from the hottest layer cooler later

    Gradually refracted towards the normal temperature decreas

    o Looming

    Wind brings warm air over a very cold ocean

    Light from an object travels upwards

    o Curves and starts back down reaches warmer air

    Light that reaches observes come from beyond the horizon

    o Shimmering

    Image of moon on waters surface

    Light is refracted passes through air/different temperatures

    o Air above lake much warmer than air father away from waters sur

    Coldest layer light travels more slowly (bends towards norma

    Warmest layer light travels faster (bends away from normal)

    o Total internal reflection occurs

    Multiple virtual images of moon on surface

    o Rainbow

    Dispersion

    Separation of white light into spectrum by a prism

    o Each color of visible light travels at slight different speeds

    Goes through glass prism

    Violet slows down red speeds up

    o ROYGBIV

    Refraction light enters drop

    Partial internal reflection light hits back of rain drop

    o Refraction light exits raindrop

    o Sundogs

    o Apparent Depth

    o Flattened Sun

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    Lenses

    o Converging Lenses convex

    Thicker in center

    Parallel light rays converge in point after lenses

    o Diverging Lenses concave

    Thicker on edges

    Parallel light rays disperse after lenses

    Human Eye

    o Parts of the Eye

    Cornea

    Clear white covering outside of the eye

    o Help eye focus like lens on camera

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    Iris

    Part of eye that has colour

    o Get bigger and smaller let more/less light in

    Pupil

    Black opening in middle of eye

    o Light comes through this opening

    Lens

    Bends light

    o See close up and far away

    Vitreous Humor

    Clear water like substance back of your eye

    Retina

    Has nerve cells rods and cones

    o

    Process light Rods

    Black, white and shades of grey

    Cones

    Colours

    o Three types

    Red

    Green

    Blue

    Optic Nerve

    Carries electrical signals

    o Retina brain

    o How the Eye Works

    Process

    Light bounces off objects into your eyes

    o Enter eye cornea (thick/transparent protective layer on surface of e

    Pass through pupil into lens

    Shines through vitreous humour back of the eye

    o Hits retina takes light & changes into nerve

    impulses

    Sent to brain optic nerve

    Flipped Image

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    Seeing images inverted/flipped upside down on retina

    o Imperfect Eyesight

    Nearsightedness

    Can see objects up close not far away

    o Myopia

    Light is focused on point in front of retina

    Uses diverging/negative meniscus lens Farsightedness

    Can see objects far away not close

    o Hyperopia

    Light is focused on point behind retina

    Uses converging/positive meniscus lens