Google Scholar search 10.1186...  Web viewFinal Search Strings for Google Scholar ... (biodiversity OR conservation AND beekeeping OR “bee keeping” OR “caterpillar ... Google Scholar search

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Google Scholar search strings.docx

Additional File 4: The search strings used for internet search engines

Google Scholar

Date: Searches were conducted between 09/10/2013 - 13/12/2013

Search Strategy:

The final search strings for Google Scholar are shown below.

The search strategy for Google Scholar comprised of individually pairing all alternative livelihood synonyms and specific alternative livelihood activities with (biodiversity OR conservation) using the AND Boolean operator. Google Scholar does not use automatic stemming when phrases are enclosed in speech marks (). As a result, both the singular and plural forms of the word are used.

During scoping, the first 50 results were searched for documents that referred to alternative livelihoods within the context of the definition used for the review. T Of the terms that produced relevant hits further scoping was carried to remove terms that produced results that only referred to an alternative livelihood in a brief or indirect way, such as recommending the use of an alternative livelihood intervention.

Final Search Strings for Google Scholar (English)

Alternative livelihood synonyms paired with biodiversity OR conservation

1) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative regenerative livelihood OR livelihoods OR alternative occupations OR occupations OR protein OR proteins OR gear OR livelihood alternative OR alternatives)

= 4060 results

2) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative income OR incomes OR alternative economic opportunity OR opportunities OR income generating activity OR income generating activities OR supplementary income OR incomes)

= 17400 results

3) (biodiversity OR conservation AND community OR rural development OR development project OR projects OR Integrated conservation and development project OR ICDP OR ICDPs OR eco development project OR projects)

= 20500 results

4) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "livelihood OR livelihoods project OR projects OR program OR programme OR programs OR programmes OR replacement OR replacements OR opportunity OR opportunities OR scheme OR schemes)

= 10500

5) (biodiversity OR conservation AND livelihood OR livelihoods activity OR activities OR enhancement OR enhancements OR intervention OR interventions OR loan OR loans OR option OR options OR support)

= 15900 results

6) (biodiversity OR conservation AND alternative livelihood OR livelihoods OR source OR sources OR supplementary OR additional livelihood OR livelihoods OR livelihood based approach OR based approaches)

= 20100 results

Total results captured = 900 (150 top relevant results for each string)

Alternative livelihood activities paired with biodiversity OR conservation

7) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "artisanal crafts OR crafts" OR "craft making OR makers" OR handicraft OR handycraft OR handicrafts OR handycrafts OR thatch making OR makers OR collecting OR collection OR collectors)

= 27000 results

8) (biodiversity OR conservation AND beekeeping OR bee keeping OR caterpillar utilisation OR utilization OR tour guide OR guiding OR guidance)

= 17800 results

9) (biodiversity OR conservation AND market development OR micro enterprise OR enterprises" OR microenterprise OR microfinance OR concrete block making OR makers OR "engine repair OR repairs")

= 25300 results

10) (biodiversity OR conservation AND sea cucumber farm OR farms OR farming OR seaweed OR shrimp OR silk OR snail OR mushroom OR wildlife farm OR farms OR farming OR production OR culture OR cultivation OR sericulture)

= 25400 results

11) (biodiversity OR conservation AND wildlife breeding OR "wildlife based enterprise OR enterprises" OR "safari hunt OR hunting" OR small business development)

= 5300 results

12) (biodiversity OR conservation AND "grass cutter cultivation OR production OR farming OR farm OR farms" OR crab OR lobster fattening OR fuel efficient stove OR stoves OR bushmeat alternative OR alternatives)

= 1030 results

13) (biodiversity OR conservation AND ecotourism OR eco tourism OR tourism)

= 535000 results

14) (biodiversity OR conservation AND mariculture)

= 17400 results

Total results captured = 800 (100 top relevant results for each string)

Final Search Strings for Google Scholar (French)

Alternative livelihood synonyms paired with biodiversity OR conservation

1) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND "alternatives de protines" OR "autre source de protine" OR "quipement alternatif" OR "quipements alternatifs" OR "changer lquipement" OR "autre profession OR autres professions")

= 386

2) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND "revenu alternatif OR supplmentaire" OR "revenus alternatifs OR supplmentaires" OR "activit conomique alternative" OR "activits conomiques alternatives" OR "professions alternatives")

= 710

3) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND "activit gnratrice de revenu" OR "activits conomiques alternatives" OR "activits gnratrices de revenus" OR "autre activit conomique" OR "autres activits conomiques")

= 1220

4) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND projet de conservation et de dveloppement intgr" OR PCDI OR "dveloppement communautaire OR rural" OR "projet de dveloppement" OR "projets de dveloppement")

= 11500

5) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND projets OR programmes de subsistance" OR subsistance de remplacement" OR opportunit OR activit alternative OR opportunits OR activits alternatives)

= 247

6) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND activit OR activits de subsistance OR amlioration des moyens de subsistance" OR appui de moyens de subsistance OR alternatives de moyens de subsistence)

= 437

7) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND subsistance alternatifOR alternatifs OR alternative OR alternatives OR source OR stratgie OR sources OR stratgies alternative OR alternatives OR subsistance additionnel)

= 904

Total results captured = 1050 (150 top relevant results for each string)


For string 1 translations of alternative regenerative livelihood involved a translation of alternative livelihood (included in string (6).

profession alternative gave no results so is not included

source de proteine variante gave no results so is not included

"changement de lquipement" gave 3, irrelevant results so is not included

Alternative livelihood activities paired with biodiversity OR conservation

8) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND artisanat OR artisan OR artisans OR artisanal OR chaume fabricant OR collecteur OR collecte OR collection de chaume)

= 10500

9) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND apiculture OR utilisation chenille OR guide touristique)

= 1390

10) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND "dveloppement du march" OR microenterprise OR microfinance OR "rparation du moteur" OR "rparation des moteurs")

= 1440

11) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND levage OR exploitations d'holothuries OR algoculture OR levage de crevettes OR sriciculture OR magnanerie OR "l'levage d'escargots" OR "ferme escargot" OR "culture des champignons")

= 319

12) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND levage de la faune OR "faune levage" OR "agriculture pour la faune" OR "faune en entreprise" OR "safari chasse" OR "safari de chasse" OR "voyage de chasse")

= 41

13) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND "dveloppement des petites entreprises" OR "levage d'aulacodes" OR "levage des aulacodes" OR "levage de crabe" OR "levage de crabes" OR "levage des homards" OR "fourneaux economes")

= 95

14) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND alternatives la viande de brousse OR alternative la viande de brousse OR "alternative la chasse")

= 21

15) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND cotourisme OR tourisme)

= 15400

16) (biodiversit OR "protection de l'environnement" AND mariculture OR aquaculture)

= 4420

Total results captured = 757 (41, 95, 21 results captured for strings 12,13, and 14 top 100 top relevant results for strings 8-11 and 15-16)

N.B. fabrication du bloc de bton and fabrication des bloc de bton do not bring up any results, and bloc de bton gives irrelevant results (first 50 checked)


Dates: Searches conducted June 2014.

Table 10. Search Strings for Google

1) livelihoods biodiversity

2) livelihoods conservation

3) alternative livelihood biodiversity

4) alternative livelihood conservation

5) alternative resource biodiversity

6) alternative resource conservation

7) alternative gear biodiversity

8) alternative gear conservation

9) integrated conservation and development alternative livelihood


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