GLOBAL HORTICULTURE horticulture assessment june 30, 2005 global horticulture assessment june 30, 2005

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  • GLO


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    E 30, 2005


    June 30, 2005


    June 30, 2005

  • USAID Award #EDH-A-00-04-00006-00

    2005 University of California Davis

    International Programs OfficeCollege of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences260 Hunt HallOne Shields Ave.Davis, CA 95616530.752.8474530.754.7160

    Cover design and layout: Jennifer ChengPhoto credits: AVRDC, Adel Kader photo in App. V

    For more information contact Patrick Brown, Director of International Programs at:

    DISCLAIMER: The views expressed in this material do not necessarily represent the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government. This document was prepared by the Global Horticulture Assessment Team - led by UC Davis and AVRDC The World Vegetable Center.


    The successful implementation of this assessment depended upon the valuable input of stakeholders and assistance of logistical coordinators. First and foremost, the assessment team acknowledges the workshop participants and survey respondents for their time, effort and thoughtful articulation of the needs of horticulture from a local to global scale.

    Local coordination staff and effective facilitation contributed to the success of the workshops. Logistical coordination of the meetings was made possible by Greg Luther and Melody Ho of AVRDC, and local coordinating partners at each of the regional workshops: Mel Olouch and M.L. Chada (SSA), Jose Miselem and Gloria Robles (LAC) and Khaled Makkouk, Aida Ghazi, Sahar Saleh, and Mostafa Abaza (ANE). Paul Marcotte spearheaded the facilitation team from UC Davis.

    Norman Looney, president of the International Society of Horticultural Science, provided extensive lists of horticulturalists worldwide which served as the basis of survey recipients.

    Finally, the assessment team recognizes USAID for the vision to appreciate the potential value of horticulture, and the guidance and insight of those individuals who were instrumental throughout the process: Tim Miller (EGAT), Todd Hamner (LAC) and Scott Christensen (ANE).


    Acronyms iii Executive Summary 1 I. Introduction 11

    II. Methodology 18 III. Results

    Market Systems 24

    Postharvest Systems and Food Safety 32

    Genetic Resources Conservation and Development 37

    Sustainable Production Systems and Natural Resources Management 41

    Capacity Building 48

    Enabling Environment 52

    Gender Equity 54

    Nutrition and Human Health 57

    IV. Conclusions and Recommendations 60

    Works Cited 63


    Appendix I Workshop Agendas 71

    Appendix II Workshop Participant Lists 78

    Appendix III Survey 97

    Appendix IV Primary Issues and Constraints, Inter-regional and Intra-regional Importance 101

    Appendix V Crops 109

    Appendix VI Commodity Constraints Analyses 122

    Appendix VII Regional Priority Project Charts 130

    Appendix VIII Assessment Team 134


  • Tables, Figures & Case Studies

    Tables Table 1. Summary of primary issues and sub-issues that constrain horticultural development 7

    Table 2. Average annual growth rates (%) in fruits and vegetables and cereal supply 11

    Table 3. Net trade in fruit and vegetable and food products (billion US$) 14

    Table 4. Net farm income per family member of horticultural versus non-horticultural smallholder farm 15

    Table 5. Linkages to the USAID New Agricultural Strategy 17

    Table 6. Number of regional workshop participants and number of survey recipients and respondents 21

    FiguresFigure 1. Per capita fruit and vegetable supply 13

    Figure 2. Diagram of the assessment process utilized for the Global Horticulture Assessment 18

    Figure 3. Diagram of the regional workshop structure 20

    Figure 4. Map of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) and regional representation in the assessment 21

    Figure 5. Map of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) and regional representation in the assessment 22

    Figure 6. Map of Asia and the Near East (ANE) and regional representation in the assessment 23

    Case Studies1. Producers Incomes Increased by Organizing for Market Integration in Egypt 26

    2. Agribusiness Partnerships for Unique Plant Species 27

    3. Food Safety and Food Trade: Guatemalan Raspberries and Cyclospora 34

    4. Genetic Diversity of Avocados in Mesoamerica: Foundation of a Global Industry 38

    5. Using Biotechnology to Overcome Pest Pressures in South and South East Asia 42

    6. New Cropping Systems for the Sahel 43

    7. Capacity Building: Connecting Small Farmers to High Value Markets 50

    8. Market Gardens in Rural Mali 56

    9. Amaranth: A Weedy Species with Nutritional Potential 59


  • List of Acronyms

    AERI - Agricultural Exports and Rural Incomes

    ANE - Asia/Near East region

    APAARI - Asia-Pacific Association of Agricultural Research Institutions

    ART - Anti-Retroviral Therapy

    ASNAPP - Agribusiness of Sustainable Natural African Plant Products

    AVRDC The World Vegetable Center

    BRC British Retail Consortium

    CAADP Comprehensive African Agriculture Development Programme

    CBD Convention on Biological Diversity

    CGIAR Consultative Group of International Agricultural Research

    CIDA Canadian International Development Agency

    CIMMYT International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center

    CRSP Collaborative Research Support Program

    DFID Department For International Development

    EIARD European Initiative for Agriculture Research for Development

    EU European Union

    EU-ACP European Union and African, Caribbean, and Pacific treaty

    EUREGAP European Retail Good Agricultural Practices

    FAO Food and Agriculture Organization

    FARA Forum for Agricultural Research in Africa

    FAS- Food and Agriculture Service

    GAP Good Agricultural Practice

    GDP Gross Domestic Product

    GHP Good Handling Practices

    GMP Good Manufacturing Practices

    HACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points

    HIV/AIDS Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    IAC InterAcademy Council

    IARC International Agency for Research on Cancer

    ICARDA International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas

    ICM Integrated Crop Management

    ICRISAT International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics

    IFPRI International Food Policy Research Institute

    INIBAP International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain

    IPM Integrated Pest ManagementIPR Intellectual Property Rights

    IR4 - Interregional Research Project #4

    IRRI International Rice Research Institute

    ISHS The International Society for Horticultural Science


  • IWMI International Water Management Institute

    LAC Latin America and Caribbean region

    NAFTA North American Free Trade Agreement

    NARES National Agricultural Research and Extension Systems

    NEPAD New Partnership for Africas Development

    NGO Non-Governmental Organization

    PNUCID United Nations Programme for Control of International Illicit Drugs

    PROTA not an acronym EU NGO affiliated with the University of Wageningen; works to catalogue useful African plants

    PVP Plant Variety Protection

    SPAAR Special Programme for African Agriculture Research

    SPS Sanitary and Phytosanitary measures

    SSA Sub-Saharan African region

    TRIPS Trade-Related Intellectual Property Rights

    UN United Nations

    USAID U.S. Agency for International Development

    USAID-WARP USAID West Africa Regional Program

    USDA U.S. Department of Agriculture

    USFDA U.S. Food and Drug Administration

    VAD Vitamin A Deficiency

    WARDA Africa Rice Center

    WHO World Health Organization



    Growth potential is strong for the production of horticultural commodities in underdeveloped and emerging-economy countries of the world. Development of horticultural crop production promises to provide these countries with the ability to meet domestic food needs and diversify income sources. In addition, horticulture affords excellent opportunities for improvement of human health, and farmer household economic and social advancement. Horticulture commodities are ideally suited to accomplish these objectives because of their high economic and nutritive value, and because they can often serve as an engine for agricultural and economic diversification.

    While growth in the horticultural sector presents many opportunities for growing rural economies and improving the livelihoods of many of the worlds poor, the rapidly changing dynamics of horticultural markets often act as barriers to participation in the value chain for small farms and firms. Because horticultural development and marketing are strongly dependent upon knowledge, human capital and technical inputs must be provided if interventions and growth are to be sustainable. Small producers and processing firms are frequently eliminated from markets for failure to understand market dynamics or, because of thei