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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Afr Geo NEWSLETTER GSAF MATTERS GSAF IN THE WEB AFFILIATIONS MOU’S OF GSAF WITH O YES-AFRICA NEWS OF/ON AFRICA NEWS OF/ON THE REST NEWS OF/ON THE SPACE INTERESTING SITES LITERATURE ON AFRICA OTHER INTERESTING LIT LINKS TO JOURNALS, REV EVENTS IN AFRICA AND ABOUT A REST OF THE WORLD PROFESSIONAL COURSES INTERESTING PHOTOS GEOLOGY OF AFRICAN C Edited by Lopo Vasconcelos Editor of the GSAf Newsletter [email protected] rica (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. ological Society of A www.geologicalsocietyofafrica.or - Nr. 12 of 2013 – A Contents OTHER ORGANIZATIONS OF THE WORLD E / ASTRONOMY TERATURE VIEWS & NEWSLETTERS AFRICA S/WORKSHOPS/SCHOLARSHIPS COUNTRIES/TERRITORIES 1 Africa rg Annum 3 3 5 5 7 8 9 14 22 28 28 32 33 34 35 36 39 40 41

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Page 1: Geological NEWSLETTER Geological Society of Africa - Nr. 12 of

Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa

Geological

NEWSLETTER

GSAF MATTERS GSAF IN THE WEB AFFILIATIONS MOU’S OF GSAF WITH OYES-AFRICA NEWS OF/ON AFRICA NEWS OF/ON THE REST NEWS OF/ON THE SPACEINTERESTING SITES LITERATURE ON AFRICA OTHER INTERESTING LITERATURELINKS TO JOURNALS, REVIEWS & NEWSLETTERSEVENTS IN AFRICA AND ABOUT AFRICAREST OF THE WORLD PROFESSIONAL COURSESINTERESTING PHOTOS GEOLOGY OF AFRICAN C

Edited by Lopo Vasconcelos Editor of the GSAf Newsletter [email protected]

Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3.

Geological Society of Africawww.geologicalsocietyofafrica.org

- Nr. 12 of 2013 – Annum

Contents

MOU’S OF GSAF WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

NEWS OF/ON THE REST OF THE WORLD NEWS OF/ON THE SPACE / ASTRONOMY

TERATURE EVIEWS & NEWSLETTERS

AFRICA

PROFESSIONAL COURSES/WORKSHOPS/SCHOLARSHIPS

GEOLOGY OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES/TERRITORIES

1

Africa www.geologicalsocietyofafrica.org

Annum 3

3

5

5

7

8

9

14

22

28

28

32

33

34

35

36

39

40

41

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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. 2

It is with deep sorrow that I have heard about the death of President Nelson Mandela. Although it was expected, it was a big shock. This is a big loss for South Africa, Africa in general and the World at large. His charisma, principles and strong character have led South Africa to a peaceful transformation and made it a rainbow nation. He was the best example of how reconciliation among adversaries could make a difference between war and peace. His legacy will be remembered and hopefully will be an example to make a peaceful coexistence among people and nations in this complex and troubled world of ours. Through his long march to freedom, he has led a movement that helped the African people to free themselves from the yoke of colonialism and to get rid of the wrong apartheid system in South Africa. Nelson Mandela will be remembered in history like Mahtama Ghandi, for his effort to make a big difference in the lives of many using peaceful means and not resorting to war and hate as most do in our times. The members of the Geological Society of Africa will remember him with love and respect and promise to follow his example to make a difference in the lives of the masses of Africa. Aberra Mogessie President of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf)

HAMBA KAHLE, MADIBA

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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. 3

GSAf MATTERS

Geological Society of Africa 2013 Report

Aberra Mogessie (GSAf President) Based on its objectives which involve the promotion of understanding of the earth sciences and improve standards of earth science education and research in Africa; providing a forum for discussion and dissemination of information across national boundaries between scientists, associations and institutions engaged in African geology and earth resources; promoting the development and sustainable management of the continent's earth resources, to advance its socio-economic development; and improve natural hazards assessment and disaster mitigation, the Geological Society of Africa has been engaged in a number of activities during 2013. Several projects and cooperation were undertaken with the AAWG-(Cooperation in Earth Science Education and Geoparks);UNESCO-Cooperation in Earth Science Education for Africa Network –ANESTI (our GSAf Vice President, Dr. Asfawossen Asrat, is member of the expert group representing the Eastern African region); GIRAF- Steering Committee (represented by the GSAf President); AEGOS – Steering Committee and Advisory Board (trying to implement AEGOS Phase II with the Ghana Geological Survey and Senegal as project leaders); African Academy of Sciences (AAS)-cooperation on Solar Radiation Management Governance Initiative: (SRMGI); EU-ACP Cooperation on Mineral Resources; EGS/OAGS - Cooperation on Mineral Resources & Mapping; Although we are GSA-Affiliated member – It was not possible to take part at the 125th GSA meeting but the GSAf President had a teleconference about a future joint project between the GSA and GSAf with the Executive Director Jack Hess and the President, Susanne Kay, a few days before the actual meeting in October 2013. We are AGI-Affiliated member and cooperate with YES- through the YES Africa Network. The President of the GSAf is Board Member of the Earth Science Matter Foundation (most of the National representatives in Africa are GSAf members) and was actively engaged in organizing meetings of national focal points of the ESM in Africa, during the CAG24 in Addis Ababa; IAGETH (The GSAf President is Senior Advisory Baard Member and the GSAf Newsletter Editor is the VP of IAGETH for Africa, promoting geoethical values in earth science education and research and also signed a memorandum of agreement with GSAf in order to encourage a strong working relationship between the two societies. The International Association of Sedimentalogy (IAS) signed a memorandum of Agreement recently with the GSAf for mutual cooperation. A special Volume of the Journal of African Earth Sciences, consisting of selected papers (31) presented at the 24th Colloquium of African Geology is in publication: (Guest Editors: Asfawossen Asrat, Hassan Helmy, Lopo Vasconcelos and Jean-Paul Liegeois) Although the AJES was affiliated with Elsevier publishers and has the GSAf Logo on the front cover, there was no document which stated this, with the GSAf or Elsevier. Therefore, with the initiative of the GSAf President a Memorandum of Agreement is signed between GSAf and Elsevier making the JAES the official Journal of the GSAf. A well acknowledged monthly online Newsletter (containing a number of pages of Earth Science news from Africa and all over the world, plus the monthly activities of the GSAf) is published by our Newsletter Editor, Lopo Vasconcelos (Please see the following Link: http://www.geologicalsocietyofafrica.org/news/newsletter/). We have also an active Geological Society of Africa Facebook (eg: https://www.facebook.com/pages/Geological-Society-of-Africa-GSAf/187410537966092?ref=digest_email) We were also involved in organization of Colloquiums and conferences plus supporting such type of meetings and workshops conducted by national Geological Societies within African member states Our main accomplishments during 2013 were the organization of the 24th Colloquium of African Geology (CAG24). This colloquium was organized by the Ethiopian Geosciences and Mineral Engineering Association (EGMEA) in partnership with the Addis Ababa University, Ministry of Mines and the Geological Survey of Ethiopia, on behalf of the Geological society of Africa: It was held on 8-14 January 2013 in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia at the Millennium Hall Convention Centre. The Colloquium held under the theme “40 years of GSAf (1973-2013): Earth Sciences Solutions to African Development Challenges” has been a forum of fruitful deliberations which led to better understanding of African Geology as well as its resources in particular, and to numerous discussions on Earth Sciences related issues of worldwide significance. The Colloquium was officially opened by her Excellency W/o Sinknesh Ejigu, Minister of the Ministry of Mines of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and official patron of the Colloquium, and attended by official delegates including Prof. Roland Oberhänsli (IUGS President), The Colloquium has been attended by close to 500 participants from 60 countries representing 6 continents, among which about 300 (about 60%) were delegates from 30 different African countries with Ethiopia, South Africa and Nigeria contributing the three highest number of participants in that order. The remaining 40% participants are from Europe, USA and Canada, Australia, Asia and South America. Two hundred fifty oral (about 85% of those submitted) and 75 poster (75% of those submitted) papers were presented in 21 sessions. In addition to the Colloquium we had also the 14th Conference of the Geological Society of Africa.The 14th Conference of the Geological Society of Africa was successfully conducted on 14 January 2013 in the Millennium Hall, where the previous Council officially resigned and replaced by the new Council. Other important proceedings including amendment of some articles of the GSAf constitution and launching of the GSAf Student Chapter were conducted. The 40th Anniversary of the Geological Society of Africa was celebrated at the Addis Ababa University during the evening of 14th January and attended by the members of GSAf and other invited guests. Ato Tolosa Shagi, State Minister of the Ministry of Mines of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, and Prof. Masresha Fetene, Vice President for Research and Technology Transfer of the Addis Ababa University were the official delegates who addressed the meeting. Prof. Aberra Mogessie, President of the GSAf, gave a detailed historical overview of the GSAf. The highlight of the evening was the handing over of the key for the GSAf office to be opened at the School of Earth Sciences of the Addis Ababa University, to Prof. Aberra Mogessie, by the representative of the School, Prof. Gezahegn Yirgu. A cocktail party at the end of the official proceedings allowed veteran members of the GSAf to reminisce and interact with younger members.

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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. 4

The CAG24 also hosted various business meetings including 1. The Launching of the African Network of Earth Sciences Institutions (ANESI) in collaboration with UNESCO; 2. African involvement in Solar Geo-engineering Research and Governance in collaboration with the African Academy of Sciences;

and 3. The AEGOS Meeting. 4. The Earth Science Matter Foundation national African representative meeting with the ESM Executive 5. The AAWG meeting on women in Geosciences 6. The GIRAF meeting to organize the workshop in Accra, Ghana

These business meetings were attended by close to 150 participants in total. Moreover, short courses and workshops in subjects ranging from Geoparks, Hyperspectral Remote Sensing, Africa Geodynamics, to Volcano Observatory Systems (EVOSS) attended by close to 50 participants in total, have been condcuted. Round tables on “Geoheritage and Geoparks”, as well as “Women in Geosciences” were also conducted. The GSAf Student Chapter in Ethiopia was also launched in a symposium held during the Colloquium. Excursion: Three Pre-Conference Excursions preceded the Colloquium.

1. The Pre-Conference excursions to the Main Ethiopian Rift (6-7 January 2013), 2. Quaternary Palaeoenvironment and Geomorphology in the Main Ethiopian Rift (5-7 January 2013) and 3. Palaeoanthropological site (4-7 January 2013) were attended by a total of 60 participants.

Four Post-conference excursions 1. To the Blue Nile Gorge (15-16 January 2013), 2. The Northern Ethiopian Plateau and Rift Margins (15-22 January 2013), 3. Precambrian terrain of Western Ethiopia (15-19 January 2013) and 4. To the Afar Rift, Ert’Ale volcano and Dallol (15-22 January 2013) were attended by about 70 participants in total.

In addition a one day Mid-Conference excursion to Wonchi Volcano, Debre Zeit crater lakes and Addis Ababa city were also attended by close to 100 participants. All field excursions were safely and successfully completed as per schedule and to the great satisfaction of the participants. Accompanying persons have been treated to organized visits to Museums, Botanic Garden, and traditional markets in Addis. The continued support received from many quarters helped the Organizers in planning, conducting and completing the Colloquium and the excursions successfully. The GSAf gratefully acknowledges the presence of the IUGS President Prof. Roland Oberhänsli during the official opening ceremony and also for attending the scientific meetings. (This short report on CAG24 was compiled by the Chair Dr. Girma Woldetinsae and Dr. Asfawossen Asrat and are acknowledged gratefully) Additionally the GSAf Council members were actively involved in the following conferences or workshops: • Brussel at the Friends of Europe House on the “Economic transformation of Africa and the role of mineral resources”: The GSAf

President was one of the experts invited for a dialogue on this subject • The Petroleum society of Great Britain meeting, in Wimbley Conference Center London: The GSAf President was invited so as to

introduce to society to over 200 conference participants and was given a chance to chair two sessions • The VP of the Eastern African countries (Dr. Asfawossen Asrat attended a workshop on SRGMI in Harvard, Kennedy School as part

of the GSAf-AAS cooperation • Attended the GIRAf workshop in Accra, Ghana (The GSAf President is a steering committee member of GIRAf and was also invited

to give a keynote lecture • The VP of the Western African Countries (Dr. Gbenga Okunlola represented the GSAf at the Western and Central Africa Mining

summit,, where the GSAf was a partner to the conference • The Councilor of the Eastern African countries (Prof. Beneah Odhiambo) represented the GSAf at the World Geothermal Energy

Summit in Kenya • It is also important to note that we have now a permanent secretariat provided by the Faculty of sciences Addis Ababa University, for

the first time in the 40 years existence of our society. Although we received a room for the office Manager (which we have employed in May 2013) and a meeting room from the Addis Ababa University (free of charge at this time), we have to buy office furniture, Computers, copy mashine etc. We have to find money to do this. It is a continental society but the financial situation is not what it should be and we have a lot of work to do in getting sponsors in the future.

• We therefore, gratefully acknowledge the financial subsidy that IUGS had made to the GSAf in the past and hope it will do the same now and in the future. We are also grateful to our members, individual as well as institutional for their continued financial and moral support

With the opening of the secretariat, we have also opened an official GSAf Bank Account in Addis Ababa. At this occasion I would like to acknowledge Prof. Eckart Wallbrecher for the number of years of service as treasurer of the GSAf which he has ended by closing the GSAf Account in Graz and transfering the account to Addis Ababa

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Official GSAf Bank account information Bank Commercial Bank of Ethiopia Account Geological Society of Africa Account number : 1000061131195 BIC/Swift CBETETAA Telephone 251-0115 15 72 10; 251-0115 53 00 42 Fax 251-0115 54 62 43 E-mail [email protected]

Website http://www.combanketh.com

Invoice address Dr. Asfawossen Asrat (GSAf-Vice President for Eastern African Region) Geological Society of Africa Secretariat: School of Earth Sciences,College of Natural and Computational Sciences, Addis Ababa University, P.O.Box 1176 Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Email: [email protected] The Geological Society of Africa and the LOC CAG25 would like to invite you to attend the CAG25 and the 3rd YES Congress in Tanzania in August 2013. Please look at the conference website: http://www.cag25.or.tz/ I wish you “A MERRY CHRISTMAS AND A HAPPY NEW YEAR 2014”

Keep up-to-date on the latest happenings in geoscience, energy and environment news with EARTH Magazine. EARTH is your source for the science behind the headlines, giving readers definitive coverage on topics from natural resources, natural disasters and the environment to space exploration and paleontology. Order your subscription to EARTH online at www.earthmagazine.org.

GSAf IN THE WEB

Website of the GSAf : FaceBook of the GSAf:

www.geologicalsocietyofafrica.org Not a member of the Geological Society of Africa yet? What are you waiting for? You can apply online through our website (see address above)

https://www.facebook.com/pages/Geological-Society-of-Africa-GSAf/187410537966092

Visit our FB page; See news about Africa and the World; You can post information related to Geology, Earth Sciences. Please do not post propaganda and marketing material.

AFFILIATIONS The Geological Society of Affrica is affiliated to the following organizations:

AGI - American Geosciences Institute http://www.agiweb.org/

IUGS - International Union of Geological Sciences http://www.iugs.org/

GSA - Geological Society of America http://www.geosociety.org/

EarthScienceMatters Foundation http://earthsciencematters.org/

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25TH COLLOQUIUM OF AFRICAN GEOLOGY – CAG25, 2014, Dar-e s-Salaam, Tanzania

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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. 7

MoU’s OF GSAf WITH OTHER ORGANIZATIONS

The Geological Society of Affrica is SIGNED Memoranda of Understanding with the following organizations: International Association of Sedimentologists (IAS)

http://www.sedimentologists.org/

Elsevier

http://www.elsevier.com/

International Association of Geoethics

IAGETH has a new website. Please visit us at

IAGETH has recently created the ISAB - The IAGETH Senior Advisory Board - comprised of a prestigious group of internationally recognized experts, from different regions and geoscientific disciplines. Although ISAB members don’t have specific functional tasks in the working of the IAGETH, they act as a “Think Tank” offering observations, guidance and advice and providing unique perspectives and insights to help on some issues (http://www.icog.es/iageth/index.php/senior-advisory-board/)

http://www.icog.es/iageth/

The Geological Society of Africa wishes all its members and readers of the Newsletter, Season Greetings and a very Happy New Year! May 2014 bring you/us all happiness, health and wealth! See you next year!

Lower Karoo, Moatize Coal Basin, Tete Province, Mozambique. Moatize Formation with André Coal Seam, followed by sandstones of Matinde Formation. Outcrop near the bridge over Moatize River, National Road Nr. 6 (Tete-Zóbuè/Malai). Photo by Amad Mamad, 11.10.2013.

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YES-AFRICA

The 3rd Young Earth Scientists (YES) Congress, 2014, Dar-e s-Salaam, Tanzania

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NEWS OF/ON AFRICA Pancontinental Oil & Gas provides update on operati ons in Kenya and Namibia

Pancontinental is planning a well to drill the Sunbird Miocene reef prospect in the L10A area offshore Kenya in early 2014

22 Nov 2013. At Pancontinental's AGM, its Chairman provided the following update on the Company's operations in Kenya and Namibia

The Company is planning for an active forthcoming year of 3D seismic and offshore drilling. Based on extensive interpretation of recent 3D seismic data, we will start drilling early in 2014 in the L10A area offshore Kenya, operated by BG Group. The L10A drill target is the very interesting Sunbird Miocene reef prospect. Miocene reefs like Sunbird are amongst the most prolific oil and gas fields around the world, and Sunbird is the first real test of this play type offshore Kenya. If Sunbird is successful we have numerous follow-up reef targets in our four Kenyan licenses. The L10 Joint Ventures are also considering a second well later in 2014. As part of Apache Corporation’s global project reduction strategy announced earlier in 2013, we have been advised of the withdrawal of Apache as the operating partner in our Kenyan L8 area. This is disappointing, however the Apache strategy is at odds with the enthusiasm that other large companies have for East Africa, in general, and for Kenya, in particular. Amongst the other large players offshore Kenya we count Anadarko, Total, BG Group, ENI and PTTEP. These are among the most impressive oil and gas companies on the world scene. To the south of us in East Africa we also have Shell, Petrobras, Ophir, and Statoil, to name a few.

The Apache withdrawal in no way affects the prospectivity of the area, and Australia’s own Origin Energy has taken up the reins as Operator in L8. Origin is Australia’s foremost electricity generation and distribution expert and we believe that this expertise will be very welcome in Kenya, which has only a nascent energy generation and distribution profile. We are also happy to have been able to take a share of the Apache interest, doubling our equity in L8 to 30%, at very little cost to the Company. We now count Pancontinental as the longest standing explorer amongst all of the international companies in Kenya. One of the Company’s key achievements this year was our success in negotiating with Tullow Oil as the farminee to our EL 0037 license, offshore Namibia. Tullow is one of Africa’s best oil finders, and EL 0037 is Tullow’s first entry to exploration offshore Namibia. EL 0037 covers a very large area of 17,000 sq km in the Walvis Basin, a position we regard as the prime area for oil versus gas in this very exciting new exploration province. The Tullow farmin could involve as much as 130 million dollars expenditure on seismic and optional drilling, and this will be at zero cost to Pancontinental, as the Company retains a 30% free carried interest through seismic and drilling, including any cost overruns. The Tullow farmin comes after a hugely important first-ever oil recovery offshore Namibia, immediately to the south of the EL 0037 area, confirming Pancontinental’s model. This oil recovery bodes very well for future oil discovery, and Tullow is already preparing for 3D seismic over a number of major prospective leads. More at http://www.energy-pedia.com/news/kenya/new-156995

Tullow announces Agete-1 oil discovery onshore Nort hern Kenya

Location of Agete-1 oil discovery (Source: Africa Oil)

22 Nov 2013. Tullow Oil has announced that the Agete-1 exploration well in Block 13T, onshore Northern Kenya, has discovered and sampled moveable oil with an estimated 100 metres of net oil pay in good quality sandstone reservoirs. The Agete-1 wildcat well is part of a major exploration campaign and has made the fifth consecutive oil discovery in the first of a chain of multiple rift basins across Tullow’s acreage in the region. This discovery de-

risks several follow-on prospects located to the north and is on trend with the Twiga South, Ekales, and Ngamia oil discoveries and adds to the significant resource base already discovered. The Sakson PR5 rig drilled Agete-1 to a total depth of 1,930 metres. Following completion of logging operations the well will be suspended for future flow testing which will confirm the net pay count. The rig will then

move to drill the Ewoi-1 wildcat in the east of this basin, targeting a rift flank prospect similar to the recent Etuko oil discovery. Tullow operates the Agete-1 well with a 50% interest and Africa Oil (50%) has a non-operated interest. Elsewhere in Kenya, exploration and appraisal activities continue to accelerate with the Amosing-1 well, in Block 10BB, expected to commence drilling before the end of November with the Weatherford 804 rig. The Etuko-1 well test in Block 10BB is also scheduled to commence this month with the PR Marriott 46 rig which recently arrived in country and the Ekales-1 well test is scheduled to commence with the new SMP-5 workover unit in early December. Angus McCoss, Exploration Director, Tullow Oil plc commented today: 'A fifth consecutive oil discovery onshore Northern Kenya highlights the emerging world class exploration and production potential within our rift basin acreage. An intensive campaign for 2014 includes appraisal and exploration within this first basin and pioneering wells targeting the prospectivity throughout the entire chain of similar rift basins.' See also, Africa Oil Press Release: Africa Oil Announces Fifth Consecutive Major Oil Discovery in Kenya Source: Tullow Oil. At http://www.energy-pedia.com/news/kenya/new-156993

Republic Gold hits 16 metres at 5.19 grams per tonn e gold in Mozambique Tuesday, December 03, 2013 by Proactive Investors. Republic has ownership of three gold projects covering 340 square kilometres in central Mozambique, which all host hard-rock and alluvial artisanal gold workings. Republic Gold (ASX: RAU) has intersected 16 metres at 5.19 grams per tonne gold and 3 metres at 10.27 grams per tonne gold at Mucurumadzi in Mozambique. The intersection confirms existence of high-grade gold mineralisation and adds likelihood to further high-grade mineralisation within the licence. As part of the first drilling program at Mucurumadzi, eight drill holes were completed for a total of 713 metres, completed in early November.

Notably, assays received to date indicate that Mucurumadzi and Auroch Minerals’ (ASX:AOU) 230,000 ounce Guy Fawkes gold deposit are structurally continuous. Republic has sufficient cash available to conduct further exploration and will consider using the alluvials for short-term production and early cash flow. Further assay results are expected over the coming weeks as holes are processed and sampled. In total Republic has ownership of three gold projects covering 340 square kilometres in central Mozambique, which all host hard-rock and alluvial artisanal gold workings. More at http://www.proactiveinvestors.com.au/companies/news/50829/republic-gold-hits-16-metres-at-519-grams-per-tonne-gold-in-mozambique-50829.html

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Antarctica crust similar to South India, Mozambique : Study 2013.11.23. Ahmedabad: The crust of Antarctica, the earth's southern-most continent of which 95 percent is covered with thick ice, is similar to that of South India and Mozambique, which indicates that the three were joined together in the past, researchers have found. The results of the study titled 'Electrical Structure Beneath Schirmacher Oasis, East Antarctica: a magnetotelluric study' published in international journal Polar Research earlier this month, have found that the deep crust is untouched by any morphological features and thus gives unequivocal evidence to prove that India, Antarctica and South Africa were together in geological past. The results have also shown that the crust (top 20 kms) is thick towards the eastern part as compared towestern side. The thick crust was found near Schirmacher Oasis, the eastern part of Antarctica. The research was done over several years by Gujarat Energy Research Management Institute (GERMI) director T Harinarayana, when he was with CSIR-run National Geophysics Research Institute (NGRI) at Hyderabad, along with researchers DN Murthy, K Veeraswamy, M Santosh and UK Singh. "Understanding the deep crust in Antarctica is a major problem in the continent and doing measurements to know this information involves large logistical problems. We have used very economical way from the measurements of natural electromagnetic signals to map the earth's deep structure," Harinarayana said.

"We also found evidence of continuity of the Mozambique mobile belt in east Antarctica on the western side of Schirmacher Oasis," the paper states. The results were collected during the 24th Indian Antarctic Scientific Expedition. The research paper states that the highly resistive upper crustal structure supports the existing notion that western Dronning Maud Land is a stable, cratonic platform. Results of free-air gravity, seismic, geomagnetic and surface wave dispersion investigations in east Antarctica also indicate a cratonic-type crust. Schirmacher Oasis is a coastal ice-free plateau extending for about 35 km in the north-central part of the Dronning Maud Land in east Antarctica. According to Harinarayana, they faced challenges in making the measurements in open land exposed to severe atmospheric conditions for over a month. The study was conducted using an experimental technique known as 'magnetotellurics', which has the advantage of shallow to deeper level overage, permitting different penetration depths depending on the frequency and conductivity of the layer under investigation. Using the method, one can image the earth to a depth of about 50 to 100 kms. Polar Research, in which the study has been published, is the international journal of the Norwegian Polar Institute, Norway's central institution for research, environmental monitoring and mapping of the polar regions. At http://zeenews.india.com/news/eco-news/antarctica-crust-similar-to-south-india-mozambique-study_892247.html

Madagascar Oil expects crude sales as early as next year BY AGENCY STAFF, NOVEMBER 27 2013. MADAGASCAR Oil, which began producing oil in May for its own steam generators, aims to have a plan approved next year to allow it to begin the country’s first commercial sales, its chief operating officer said. The island off Africa’s east coast is part of a new scramble for hydrocarbons in the region that has included significant gas finds off the coasts of Tanzania and Mozambique. Madagascar Oil uses steam injection methods to extract crude from its inland operations in a remote, western section of the island. "With any thermal project, fuel is a major issue. Some of our projections are that we will use 20% of the crude that we produce for steam generation," Stewart Ahmed said this week on the sidelines of an Africa oil conference in Cape Town. The project is still in its exploration stage and Madagascar Oil does not have a licence to sell any of the oil it has extracted so far, but it intends to declare commerciality around February next year.

A development plan must then be submitted to the Malagasy government within 180 days of the declaration. "It will be subjected to significant scrutiny as it is the first time that the Madagascar authorities will have been confronted with a hydrocarbon development plan. So we are going to put in a thorough document," Mr Ahmed said. When that is approved, the company can move on to commercial sales. The aim in the first two or three years is to produce about 10,000 barrels per day from its Tsimiroro heavy oil field and then slowly crank up output. "With this resource it is realistic to talk in terms of 100,000-150,000 barrels per day peak oil," Mr Ahmed said. He said it would probably take more than a decade to get there. The Tsimiroro field has estimated resources of about 1.7-billion barrels of oil in place. Much of the oil is likely to be used in Madagascar for power generation. At http://www.bdlive.co.za/africa/africanbusiness/2013/11/27/madagascar-oil-expects-crude-sales-as-early-as-next-year

Ophir Energy commences drilling operations at Mlinz i Mbali-1 in Block 7, offshore Tanzania

27 Nov 2013. Ophir Energy has announced that drilling operations have now commenced on the Mlinzi Mbali-1 well in Block 7*, Tanzania. Ophir has an 80% net interest. The well is located c.210km east of Dar es Salaam and is being drilled by the Deepsea Metro I drillship. Mlinzi Mbali-1 is the first well on Block 7 and is targeting a structural crest within a Lower Cretaceous channel complex, with secondary targets in the Upper Cretaceous and the Jurassic. Pre-drill estimates show that the two primary channel reservoirs in the Lower Cretaceous have the potential to contain Pmean prospective resources of c.10 TCF. Success would significantly derisk the total resource potential within the overall Mlinzi

Channel complex, which is estimated at >20 TCF, as well as in other structures within the Block. The well is located in a water depth of approx. 2,600m and has a planned Total Depth of 5,650m True Vertical Depth Sub Sea. Operations are expected to take approx. 50 days. Nick Cooper, CEO, commented: 'Mlinzi Mbali-1 is a playfinder well designed as the first test of the Cretaceous and Jurassic plays in the Northern Tanzanian Coastal Basin, and is the first of several high-impact wells that Ophir will be drilling over the next 12 months. The Mlinzi Mbali prospect is one of the largest prospects (on pre drill estimates) to be drilled to date offshore East Africa. It is a high-risk frontier well, but in the success case this could unlock a significant new gas resource to support a second LNG project for Tanzania, following on from the deepwater discoveries already made in Blocks 1-4 to the south.' *Block 7 PSA is held and operated by Dominion Tanzania, a wholly owned subsidiary of Ophir Energy. At http://www.energy-pedia.com/news/tanzania/new-157066

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High cost logistics hit Mozambique coal producers h ard Given current market prices, which are expected to remain subdued for the short and medium terms, at current rail and port costs, no company mining coal in Mozambique is profitable. Author: Helmo Preuss, 02 Dec 2013. Mozambique’s major coal producers, Vale, Rio Tinto, Jindal and Minas de Moatize need lower logistics costs to become profitable, participants were told this week at the Coaltrans Mozambique conference in Maputo. "In order for Mozambican coal producers to be sustainably profitable and not go out of business, the all-in logistics costs component of a Free on Board (FOB) per tonne coal price (i.e. rail access and operations, and port charges) need to be below $35 per tonne. Given current market prices, which are expected to remain subdued for the short and medium terms, at current rail (and even worse by road) and port costs, no company mining coal in Mozambique is profitable," Henrique Pinheiro from Ariy Consulting and Advisory said. International thermal coal prices have been subdued as measured by the Argus Price Index 4 (API 4). This is compiled daily by the UK-based Argus and is the benchmark price reference for coal exported out of South Africa’s Richards Bay Coal Terminal (RBCT) and used in physical and over-the-counter (OTC) contracts. This is calculated as an average of the Argus FOB Richards Bay assessment and the IHS McCloskey FOB Richards Bay marker. Mozambique’s thermal coal price uses the API 4 as the reference price, while Mozambique’s coking coal uses the API C1 price, which is the benchmark price for Australian coking coal, the world’s largest exporter of coking coal. “There has been an oversupply situation in the thermal coal market for most of this year with prices some 5% lower than 2012. There were brief price spikes in February and November this year due to supply disruptions from Colombia,” Eva Stepniewska, the deputy editor of Argus’ Coal Daily International said. She said that possible supply disruptions in Colombia and South Africa would be balanced by a 10% increase in Indonesian exports in 2014, which was likely to keep thermal coal prices subdued.

In the first ten months of this year, the Mozambique state-owned railway owner CFM earned $53m from allowing the mining companies to ship 3 million tonnes of coal on the 580 kilometre Sena line between the Moatize coal fields and the shallow port of Beira. That is $17.66 per tonne just for access to the line. The mining companies then need to provide their own rolling stock and locomotives, as well as the operating personnel. As floods put the Sena line out of action earlier this year, the cost of this was spread over less than 4 million tonnes this year instead of the earlier forecast of 5 million tonnes. The 20% reduction in throughput probably meant that railage costs are near $45 per tonne. In addition mining companies need to pay a 3% royalty irrespective of whether they are making profits or not, as well as paying extra freight charges as Beira port cannot accommodate large ships, which would reduce the freight charge per tonne. "The railway owner, CFM, and the coal companies need to spell out clear rules of usage for the Sena line as otherwise there could be problems in the logistics chain next year when Jindal and Minas de Moatize are expected to join Vale and Rio Tinto in using the line," Pinheiro said. One way of reducing railage costs is to boost throughput, but that has been talked about for several years now. "Achieving a coal export annual tonnage capacity of anywhere near 20 million from Beira by February 2015 is a pipe dream. The port master plan study, which is underway, needs to be concluded and approved, taking into account whatever common usage capacity is set out for the proposed berth 13 which has still to be built, and taking into account all other commodities and real capacity for the entire port of Beira. As my Mozambican friends say, there are various 'bottlenecklaces' that have to be overcome such as increased rail stockyards, bigger coal stockpile areas and improved ship loading facilities, before the propagated 6 million tonne annual capacity attributed to berth 8 is reached and exceeded to accommodate any additional tonnes, possible through skip loading at berth 9, or through the proposed berth 13. All of this will take a lot longer than the next 18 months,” he said. More at http://www.mineweb.com/mineweb/content/en/mineweb-political-economy?oid=220166&sn=Detail

Conflict Minerals Certification a disaster in Afric a Researchers have warned that countries in Africa’s Great Lakes region are moving too slowly on an international plan to certify the sourcing of conflict minerals a failure that could threaten the entire certification process. A report by Enough Project dubbed ‘Coming Clean: A Proposal for Getting Conflict Minerals Certification on Track’ said that Minerals certification, a key component in building a transparent regional minerals trade, faces setbacks that could hinder global market access for minerals extractors, traders, and exporters in the Great Lakes region, unless regional governments implement the process. The researchers warned that if Rwanda, Congo, and regional states do not take urgent steps to complete the mineral certification process in the next few months, multinational companies may stop purchasing many minerals from the region that cannot credibly be certified as conflict-free. Enough Project Field Consultant Aaron Hall, said that certification is the most critical component of the entire conflict-free minerals system, adding that if minerals from the Great Lakes region cannot be certified as conflict-free, then efforts to trace and audit become moot. Aaron noted that without functioning regional audits or an Independent Mineral Chain Auditor, minerals cannot be credibly certified according to regional and international standards. Enough Project, a Washington advocacy group, said that in the past four years, governments, nonprofits, and private sector actors in Africa, U.S., and Europe have built regulatory frameworks and stimulated the global market for responsibly sourced minerals.

According to the researchers, tremendous strides have been made in recent years to cut the conflict minerals trade in eastern Congo, although the progress on reforming supply chains and demilitarizing mines has addressed many negative elements of the conflict minerals trade and the economic drivers of war in eastern Congo, as armed groups are much less present in mines than in the past. Sasha Lezhnev, a senior policy analyst with the Enough Project, said that minerals can be a boon for peace in Congo and the region, not a conflict curse. The report called on United States, European Union (U.S., E.U.), and World Bank to focus energies on helping to complete the ICGLR certification process. These measures include setting a deadline for Rwanda, Congo, and the ICGLR to meet the four components of the certification process and formalizing interim measures to certify minerals to meet international standards. If the Great Lakes states fail to meet these standards, they may be deemed non-compliant with international due diligence standards. The report also recommended that the World Bank and electronics companies should help digitize the traceability system in Congo, so that data is transparent, and that the U.S. and E.U. should urge Rwanda to publish minerals production data as soon as possible. Finally, the U.S. and E.U. should offer incentives to source fully certified minerals from the region, such as offering a high-level award for companies that help build a clean trade and purchasing clean minerals. At http://ambriefonline.com/news/latest/2212-gold-remains-top-conflict-mineral-in-congo

The dark side of Kenya's oil, gas discoveries A report by Society for International Development (Sid) has warned that the new oil and gas discoveries in Kenya could widen the rich-poor gap that has already increased out of control. Sid’s report dubbed ‘Status of East Africa Report 2013’, said that in the few years to come, majority of Kenyans could exist far below any poverty line after commercial production of oil and minerals peak in about 15 to 20 years.

The report further revealed that the widening gap will be contributed by little or no capacity among the poor to participate in the sector and also corrupt dealings in the sector that include contracts between Government and exploration and production firms that are shrouded in secrecy. Sid’s document also cautioned that important sector like manufacturing which contributes 10 percent to gross domestic product (GDP) could suffer neglect as Kenya focuses on the emerging sectors.

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The report showed that people currently living below the poverty line are unlikely to benefit from the resources once the country starts exploiting them. Sid said the poorest in the East African nations, which have found huge reserves of oil, natural gas and deposits of rare earth minerals, are least prepared to tap into the opportunities offered by the new sectors. At the moment, Kenya stands as the second most unequal country in East Africa after Rwanda while Burundi is the least unequal among the five East African community partner states. British explorer Tullow Oil plc recently announced a fifth oil discovery in northern Kenya where they plan to run six rigs full time for the foreseeable future. The Agete-1 exploratory well on Block 13T has discovered and sampled movable oil with an estimated 100 m of net oil pay in good-quality sandstone reservoirs.

According to International Monetary Fund (IMF), Kenya is likely to start producing oil in six to seven years. IMF said that big oil discoveries in the northern Turkana region have now made Kenya a major venue for oil exploration in East Africa. The World Bank also said that the Kenya’s oil discoveries could drive the country’s economic growth to levels experienced by neighboring Uganda and Tanzania. World Bank Kenya Country Director Diarietou Gaye said that the oil and gas sector might be a catalyst for Kenya to achieve the goals of its national economic blue print. Gaye, however, warned that lack of transparency along the value chain may lead to mistrust in the management of the oil. At http://ambriefonline.com/news/latest/2214-oil-gas-discoveries-could-widen-rich-poor-gap-in-kenya

More gold exploration in Mali Taruga Gold Limited, a mineral exploration company, has begun field exploration at its Nangalasso gold project in Mali, West Africa. Early this year, Taruga acquired the rights to Nangalasso Project which consist of two options over granted concessions (Nangalasso and Sotian concessions) extending over an area of 345km2. The option agreements granted the Company exclusive access to the ground for exploration and also grant the right to purchase 100 percent of the concessions for an agreed amount, as well as granting a Net Smelter Royalty (NSR) on gold production varying between 2 percent and 3 percent depending on the agreement with the local owners. Taruga’s Managing Director Bernard Aylward said that field campaign will follow up extensive surface geochemical anomalies and shallow high –grade gold intersections from wide-spaced reconnaissance drilling. He added that the initial field work has confirmed the prospectivity of the project with artisanal workings within defined geochemical anomalous zones.

Aylward noted that his company was prioritizing exploration activity on Nangalasso in preparation for an initial drilling program planned for December 2013 to rapidly advance the project. Taruga Gold Limited was incorporated on 21 October 2011 to hold, or have the right to acquire, four highly prospective exploration projects located in West Africa. The objective of the Company is to provide a return to shareholders through successful exploration and the delineation of gold resources on the mineral licenses in Niger, Ghana and Cote d’Ivoire. The Company is targeting, subject to successful exploration, the delineation of new mineral resources and the Company’s ultimate objective is to exploit economic gold resources through downstream mine development. At http://ambriefonline.com/news/latest/2211-taruga-gold-starts-gold-exploration-at-nangalasso-in-mali

New Fossil Species Found in Mozambique Reveals New Data On Ancient Mammal Relatives

Preserved skeletal elements of Niassodon mfumukasi (ML1620) imposed on a Pristerodon silhouette. Skeletal parts repositioned are in dark grey. Skeletal parts mirrored from the other side are in light grey. Skeletal parts in the original position are in intermediate grey. (Credit: Rui Castanhinha et al. Bringing Dicynodonts Back to Life: Paleobiology and Anatomy of a New

Emydopoid Genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique. PLoS ONE, 2013; 8 (12): e80974 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0080974) Dec. 4, 2013 — In the remote province of Niassa, Mozambique, a new species and genus of fossil vertebrate was found. The species is a distant relative of living mammals and is approximately 256 million years old. This new species belongs to a group of animals called synapsids. Synapsida includes a number of extinct lineages that dominated the communities on land in the Late Permian (260-252 million years ago), as well as living mammals and their direct ancestors. A team of paleontologists from nine institutions, including Kenneth Angielczyk, associate curator of paleomammology at Chicago's Field Museum, described the anatomy ofNiassodon in the scientific journal PLoS ONE. The fossil was named Niassodonmfumukasi, which means in the local language (Chiyao): the queen of Lake Niassa. The name is a tribute to the Yao matriarchal society, to the women of Mozambique and to the beauty of Lake Niassa. The research was conducted under the auspices of Projecto PalNiassa, an international, multidisciplinary scientific collaboration that includes more than two

dozen scientists from three different continents. The goal of the project is to find, study, and preserve the paleontological heritage of Mozambique. Niassodon mfumukasi is the first new genus (and species) of a fossil vertebrate from Mozambique, and its holotype (name-bearing specimen) is a rare example of a basal synapsid that preserves the skull and much of the skeleton together. By using micro-computed tomography it was possible to reconstruct digitally not only the bones of Niassodon but also to build a virtual model of its brain. This reveals new information on the brain anatomy of early synapsids, which is important for understanding the evolution of many features of the mammalian brain. The reconstruction of the brain and inner ear anatomy developed for Niassodon is the most detailed presented to date for an early synapsid. Using the digital data acquired in the tomographies, it was possible to isolate all individual bones preserved which allowed the researchers to create a new topological color code, codified mathematically, for the cranial bones. This code will allow the researchers to standardize the colors used in similar digital model built for other animals. The fossil can be visited in the Lourinhã Museum (Portugal), but soon will return to Mozambique, where it will become part of the collections of the National Museum of Geology in Maputo. The specimen was collected during fieldwork in 2009 with the support of National Museum of Geology (Maputo) and was prepared at the Lourinhã Museum (Portugal), Instituto Gulbenkian de Ciência (Oeiras, Portugal) and Southern Methodist University (Dallas); the 3D tomography was performed in DESY-HZG (Hamburg, Germany). This project was sponsored by Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, the National Geographic Society, and TAP Portugal. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131204181813.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Libya Oil and Gas Report Libya is a member of the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries, the holder of Africa's largest proved oil reserves, and an important contributor to the global supply of light, sweet crude oil. Libya joined the Organization of the Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) in 1962, a year after it began to produce oil. Libya now holds the largest amount of proved crude oil reserves in Africa, the fourth largest amount of proved natural gas reserves on the continent, and it is an important

contributor to the global supply of light, sweet (low sulfur) crude oil, which Libya mostly exports to European markets. Libya's hydrocarbon production and exports have been substantially affected by civil unrest over the past few years. The civil war in 2011 resulted in the fall of Col. Mu'ammar al-Qadhafi's regime and the gradual consolidation of control over most parts of the country by the Transitional National Council (TNC) and affiliated rebel militias. Libya's hydrocarbon exports suffered a

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near-total disruption during the civil war, and the minimal and sporadic production that did occur was mostly consumed domestically. In response to the loss of Libya's oil supplies in the summer of 2011 the International Energy Agency (IEA) coordinated a release of 60 million barrels of oil from the emergency stocks of its member countries through the Libya Collective Action – the first such release since Hurricane Katrina in 2005. Libya's oil production recovered in 2012, but it still remained lower than levels prior to the civil war. After the civil war ended, labor-related protests occurred sporadically at various oil fields and installations. Protests at oil fields escalated in June 2013, affecting output at some of Libya's major oil fields. In July and August, protests at key oil loading ports in the central and eastern regions, by workers and guards that were hired to protect the facilities, crippled the oil sector and led to the near-halt in production from the oil fields linked to ports after most storage tanks became full. Production at

two major oil fields in the west were shut down in late August after the Zintan militia closed pipelines linking the fields to loading ports but output in the west resumed in mid-September. Libya's economy is heavily dependent on hydrocarbons. According to the International Monetary Fund (IMF), oil and natural gas account for nearly 96% of total government revenue and 98% of export revenue in 2012. Roughly 79% of Libya's export revenue comes from crude oil exports, which brought in around $4 billion per month of net revenues in 2012. EIA's OPEC Revenues Fact Sheet has net oil export revenues also at $4 billion per month from January to June 2013. During the 2011 civil war, the drop in oil and natural gas production led to an economic collapse, and real GDP contracted by 62% for the year. More at http://www.eia.gov/countries/cab.cfm?fips=LY

Discovery of Partial Skeleton Suggests Ruggedly Built, Tree-Climbing Human Ancestor Dec. 5, 2013 — A human ancestor characterized by "robust" jaw and skull bones was a muscular creature with a gorilla-like upper body and more adaptive to its environment than previously thought, scientists have discovered. Researchers found a partial skeleton -- including arm, hand, leg and foot fragments -- dated to 1.34 million years old and belonging to Paranthropus boisei at the Olduvai Gorge World Heritage fossil site in Tanzania. The find, published in the latest edition of the scientific journal PLOS ONE, represents one of the most recent occurrences of P. boisei before its extinction in East Africa. "This is the first time we've found bones that suggest that this creature was more ruggedly built -- combining terrestrial bipedal locomotion and some arboreal behaviors -- than we'd previously thought," said Charles Musiba, Ph.D., associate professor of anthropology at the University of Colorado Denver, part of the international research team. "It seems to have more well-formed forearm muscles that were used for climbing, fine-manipulation and all sorts of behavior." While P. boisei was known for its massive jaws and cranium -- anthropologist Mary Leakey discovered the first skull in 1959 in northern Tanzania -- the build and skeletal adaptations of the rest of the archaic hominin's body have been unknown until recently. During excavations at Olduvai in 2010-2011, the team discovered the partial skeleton of a large adult individual who is represented by various teeth and skeletal parts. Other team members are Manuel Dominguez-Rodrigo, Ph.D., professor of anthropology and prehistory at Complutense University, Madrid; Audax Mabulla, Ph.D., associate professor of archaeology, University of Dar es Salaam, Tanzania, Gail Ashley, Ph.D., professor of geological sciences, Rutgers University; David Uribelarrea, Ph.D. a professor of geology at Complutense University of Madrid; Henry Bunn, Ph.D., professor of anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison; and Travis Pickering, Ph.D., professor of anthropology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

P. boisei was a long-lived species of archaic hominin that first evolved in East Africa about 2.3 million years ago. In the absence of evidence of other skeletal remains, it was commonly assumed that the skeleton of P. boisei was like that of more ancient species of the genus Australopithecus, from which P. boisei likely evolved. "We are starting to understand the physiology of these individuals of this particular species and how it actually adapted to the kind of habitat it lived in," Musiba said. "We knew about the kind of food it ate -- it was omnivorous, leaning more toward plant material -- but now we know more: how it walked around and now we know it was a tree climber." The size of the arm bones suggests strong forearms and a powerful upper body. "It's a different branch on our ancestry tree," Musiba said. "It came later than the other hominins, so the question now is 'what happened to it?' We're going to do more work on biomechanics and see what else this creature was doing." He noted that the creature likely stood 3.5 to 4.5 feet tall and possessed a robust frame. "We know that it was very strong," Musiba said. "It's unprecedented to find how strong this individual was. The stronger you are the more adaptive you are." In summer 2014, the bones will be displayed as part of a large exhibit on human origins in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. The joint-museum exhibit involves the Museum of Human Evolution in Burgos, Spain, the Regional Museum of Archaeology in Madrid, and the National Museum of Dar es Salaam. With each find scientists are adding to the understanding of how humans evolved and adapted to their surroundings through time. "The more we are finding of these fossils, the more we are learning about the history of these species," Musiba said. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131205185609.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Water Pollution in Mozambique Dec. 6, 2013 — During her PhD project, Olivia Carolina Narciso Pedro has studied the incidence of cyanobacteria and the production of microcystins (toxic peptides) in three different drinking water systems in Mozambique and established methods for monitoring cyanotoxins in watercourses. Mozambique is a developing country where the majority of the population still lacks access to safe drinking water, in spite of the fact that there is sufficient water to cover their needs. The primary source of water pollution is effluent from households, agriculture and industry, but the growing interest in exploiting natural gas, metals and other resources in the coastal areas of the country is also increasing the risk of polluted drinking water. In addition, it is thought that higher temperatures resulting from global climate changes can lead to an increase in the runoff of nutrients into surface water, which in turn intensifies the eutrophication of lakes and the blooming of cyanobacteria. The blooming of cyanobacteria is a serious pollution problem because many species of these bacteria produce toxic components, so-called cyanotoxins. A higher incidence of cyanobacteria has been detected in drinking water reservoirs and both bacteria cells and dissolved toxins can be found in the drinking water. The largest group of cyanotoxins are called microcystins and increased attention is now being paid to these because they can have a negative effect on human health.

Chronic exposure to microcystins can cause serious health problems for animals and humans, for example damage to the liver. Humans are exposed to these toxins by drinking polluted water and also via direct skin contact and inhalation. An intense growth of toxin-producing bacteria in drinking water can also have detrimental effects on the environment and the economy. Microcystins therefore pose a serious problem for the population and the authorities. In order to reduce these problems, an effective management of the drinking water systems, which is capable of monitoring cyanobacterial blooms and their toxins, is required. Olivia Pedro's doctoral research has helped to increase knowledge about the occurrence of microcystins and microcystin-producing cyanobacteria in freshwater used for drinking in Mozambique. She conducted her studies by taking samples from three different areas in southern Mozambique: the Pequenos Libombos dam, the Nhambavale lake and the Chòkwé irrigation canal. The first two are the main sources of drinking water for the population in Maputo and Chidenguel respectively, while the Chòkwé canal is principally used for irrigation. By means of various chemical and molecular methods, Pedro found concentrations of microcystins that were far higher than WHO's recommendations for the content of drinking water. She also discovered that there were seasonal variations in bacteria blooms and the production of toxins.

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This PhD thesis is significant because it is the first to show that there is a connection in Mozambique between the season and the amount of

cyanobacteria Microcystis and the concentration of microcystins in freshwater. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131206091425.htm

Niger sees Areva mine start delayed to end of 2015 By: Reuters, 6th December 2013. PARIS – French nuclear company Areva will delay the start of uranium production from its Imouraren mine in Niger by at least six months to the end of 2015, Niger President Mahamadou Issoufou said on Friday. Speaking ahead of the Franco-African Summit which begins on Friday, Issoufou told reporters he was confident a deal to renew ten-year contracts for mines run by Areva in northern Niger would be renewed by the end of the year with a fair outcome for both sides. The giant Imouraren mine, which is due to double Niger's production of the nuclear fuel, was initially due to start production in 2012. The date has been repeatedly pushed back amid security fears in the desert north with mid-2015 the most recent target deadline. In January, Niger announced that Areva had agreed to pay 35 million euros in compensation for delays to the project. "We think that production at Imouraren will begin at the end of 2015, start of 2016," Issoufou said. "We have established this timeframe taking into consideration Areva's concerns." Members of Issoufou's government have said his campaign promises are based on revenues coming from Imouraren and have insisted that production begin before he seeks re-election in the 2016 presidential elections. Once Imouraren enters production, Niger will rank as the world's second-largest uranium supplier. The mine will produce 5 000 tonnes of uranium a year but requires investment of 1.2-billion euros to begin.

Issoufou said Niger and Areva were in final negotiations over the terms of their partnership deals for the Somair and Cominak mines, which together produced around 4 500 tonnes of uranium last year. Areva has a 63.6% stake in Somair and 34% in Cominak. Ten-year contracts expire at the end of this year and Niger, one of the poorest countries, wants to dramatically increase the state's revenues from the mines. "The negotiations are progressing normally," Issofou said. "Our objective is to balance the deal between us and Areva. We have been in this strategic partnership for 40 years and want it to continue, but it has to be balanced." Industry watchdogs, including the local branch of Publish What You Pay, have accused Areva of a lack of transparency in how it reports revenues and costs in Niger. France relies on nuclear reactors for roughly three quarters of its electricity which Areva builds and supplies with fuel. International uranium prices, however, have slumped after the 2011 Fukushima disaster in Japan, squeezing Areva's earnings. Niger is calling upon the company to invest in infrastructure, including resurfacing the so-called 'uranium road' which links the town of Tahoua and the remote mining region of Arlit, more than 1 000 km north of the capital Niamey. At http://www.miningweekly.com/article/niger-sees-areva-mine-start-delayed-to-end-of-2015-2013-12-06

Australian junior eyes coalbed methane prospects in Botswana By: Natalie Greve, 6th December 2013. JOHANNESBURG (miningweekly.com) – Sydney-listed energy exploration and development company Magnum Gas & Power, which boasts project areas in the central and northern regions of Botswana, has lauded coalbed methane (CBM) as the energy source offering the best value proposition for the State and the region. While MD Trent Wheeler conceded that Botswana had a “significant and well known”, traditional coal resource, he believed it would remain a stranded asset until the infrastructure required to transport it to port was developed. “CBM is a far better value proposition to traditional coal, not least of all because it is a flexible, clean fuel source that can can either be used as a gas, or can be converted to diesel or liquid natural gas. “It can also be compressed and used as a feedstock for ammonium nitrate, which is extensively used in mining explosives in the region,” he commented, adding that the exploitation of this natural energy source could also be used to mitigate the region’s energy crisis.

Magnum currently held two project areas for CBM covering some 2 400 km2 as well as a large conventional petroleum exploration licence covering 24.000km2. The junior company had completed prefeasibility studies on its CBM prospects, which estimated gas-in-place of some 12.6-trillion cubic feet, with about 6.7-trillion cubic feet of that economically recoverable. Wheeler noted that there were several “significant” peers bordering Magnum’s tenement, including Exxaro, Sasol Energy and Origin Energy, which would not only assist in qualifying the basin but would present various opportunities for downstream projects as the central basin projects matured. The company was currently completing a share purchase plan and would continue to advance core drilling operations in its central operations. Edited by: Tracy Hancock At http://www.miningweekly.com/article/australian-junior-eyes-coalbed-methane-prospects-in-botswana-2013-12-06

Other stories!!!! - Norway’s Statoil to focus investments in Angola and leave Mozambique. November 27th, 2013. http://www.macauhub.com.mo/en/2013/11/27/norway%E2%80%99s-statoil-to-focus-investments-in-angola-and-leave-mozambique/

- Fastnet Oil & Gas announces placing to raise £10 million for Morocco drilling in 2014. 27 Nov 2013. http://www.energy-pedia.com/news/morocco/new-157065

- Grindrod eyes magnetite for Mozambique terminal. November 27 2013. By Reuters. http://www.iol.co.za/business/companies/grindrod-eyes-magnetite-for-mozambique-terminal-1.1613355#.UpYEUMQW2So

NEWS OF/ON THE REST OF THE WORLD "Mind-Blowing" Discovery: Oldest Body of Seawater F ound in Giant Crater Christine Dell'Amore, National Geographic, November 20, 2013. Scientists drilling the United States' biggest crater have tapped into the oldest body of seawater ever found. Hundred-million-year old water was trapped after ancient impact, study says. They weren't expecting to find the ancient water, estimated to be 100 to 145 million years old, while boring a hole 1.1 miles (1.8 kilometers) deep into the massive crater, located under the Chesapeake Bay.

The crater was formed about 35 million years ago when a large rock or chunk of ice slammed into what's now the mouth of the bay, off Cape Charles, Virginia, hollowing out a 56-mile-wide (90-kilometer-wide) hole in the floor of the North Atlantic Ocean. "The water was in the sediment long before the impact occurred. The impact simply reshuffled the sediment in large blocks, which helped preserve it," said study leader Ward Sanford, a hydrologist with the U.S. Geological Survey.

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The asteroid wallup also spawned gigantic tsunamis that possibly hit the Blue Ridge Mountains more than 100 miles (160 kilometers) away. The seawater trapped deep underground is now in an area roughly the size of a large lake—about 60 square miles (155 square kilometers) across. Finding this unprecedented time capsule of Cretaceous seawater "was a little bit mind-blowing," Sanford said. Sanford and his colleagues drilled into the crater in 2005 during a joint project with the International Continental Scientific Drilling Program, but it took several years to gather additional data that could determine the water's age. How did they make the discovery? To determine the origin of the newfound water, the team measured the ratio of two compounds—dissolved chloride and bromide—in the drilling samples,

which revealed a clear "fingerprint" of ocean water, according to the study, published online November 13 in the journal Nature. Pinpointing the agewas a bit trickier. The scientists took samples of helium—a gas that accumulates over time in underground water—from nearby coastlines in the Chesapeake Bay. Then they sampled the helium in the ancient seawater, and discovered the concentration of the gas was about a hundred times higher than that of the other coastal samples. By determining the rate at which helium accumulates, the team was able to figure out the rough age of the ancient water. More at http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2013/11/131120-oldest-seawater-chesapeake-bay-crater-science/?utm_source=Facebook&utm_medium=Social&utm_content=link_fb20131121news-seawat&utm_campaign=Content

Colossal new predatory dino terrorized early tyrann osaurs

Siats Meekerorum. Artist: Jorge Gonzales

NOV 22, 2013. Named after a cannibalistic man-eating monster from a native American legend, this newly discovered large dinosaur had its reign of terror in what is now Utah. A new species of carnivorous dinosaur – one of the three largest ever discovered in North America – lived alongside and competed with small-bodied

tyrannosaurs 98 million years ago. This newly discovered species, Siats meekerorum, (pronounced see-atch) was the apex predator of its time, and kept tyrannosaurs from assuming top predator roles for millions of years. Named after a cannibalistic man-eating monster from Ute tribal legend, Siats is a species of carcharodontosaur, a group of giant meat-eaters that includes some of the largest predatory dinosaurs ever discovered. The only other carcharodontosaur known from North America is Acrocanthosaurus, which roamed eastern North America more than 10 million years earlier. Siats is only the second carcharodontosaur ever discovered in North America; Acrocanthosaurus, discovered in 1950, was the first. “It’s been 63 years since a predator of this size has been named from North America,” says Lindsay Zanno, a North Carolina State University paleontologist with a joint appointment at the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences, and lead author of a Nature Communications paper describing the find. “You can’t imagine how thrilled we were to see the bones of this behemoth poking out of the hillside.” Zanno and colleague Peter Makovicky, from Chicago’s Field Museum of Natural History, discovered the partial skeleton of the new predator in Utah’s Cedar Mountain Formation in 2008. The species name acknowledges the Meeker family for its support of early career paleontologists at the Field Museum, including Zanno. The recovered specimen belonged to an individual that would have been more than 30 feet long and weighed at least four tons. Despite its giant size, these bones are from a juvenile. Zanno and Makovicky theorize that an adult Siats might have reached the size of Acrocanthosaurus, meaning the two species vie for the second largest predator ever discovered in North

America. Tyrannosaurus rex, which holds first place, came along 30 million years later and weighed in at more than twice that amount. Although Siats and Acrocanthosaurus are both carcharodontosaurs, they belong to different sub-groups. Siats is a member of Neovenatoridae, a more slender-bodied group of carcharodontosaurs. Neovenatorids have been found in Europe, South America, China, Japan and Australia. However, this is the first time a neovenatorid has ever been found in North America. Siats terrorized what is now Utah during the Late Cretaceous period (100 million years ago to 66 million years ago). It was previously unknown who the top meat-eater was in North America during this period. “Carcharodontosaurs reigned for much longer in North America than we expected,” says Zanno. In fact, Siats fills a gap of more than 30 million years in the fossil record, during which time the top predator role changed hands from carcharodontosaurs in the Early Cretaceous to tyrannosaurs in the Late Cretaceous. The lack of fossils left paleontologists unsure about when this change happened and if tyrannosaurs outcompeted carcharodontosaurs, or were simply able to assume apex predator roles following carcharodontosaur extinction. It is now clear that Siats’ large size would have prevented smaller tyrannosaurs from taking their place atop the food chain. “The huge size difference certainly suggests that tyrannosaurs were held in check by carcharodontosaurs, and only evolved into enormous apex predators after the carcharodontosaurs disappeared,” says Makovicky. Zanno adds, “Contemporary tyrannosaurs would have been no more than a nuisance to Siats, like jackals at a lion kill. It wasn’t until carcharodontosaurs bowed out that the stage could be set for the evolution of T. rex.” At the time Siats reigned, the landscape was lush, with abundant vegetation and water supporting a variety of plant-eating dinosaurs, turtles, crocodiles, and giant lungfish. Other predators inhabited this ecosystem, including early tyrannosaurs and several species of other feathered dinosaurs that have yet to be described by the team. “We have made more exciting discoveries including two new species of dinosaur,” Makovicky says. “Stay tuned,” adds Zanno. “There are a lot more cool critters where Siats came from.” At http://earthsky.org/science-wire/colossal-new-predatory-dino-terrorized-early-tyrannosaurs?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=b18bdea35c-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-b18bdea35c-393647361

Gold mining ravages Peru (11/3/2013) For the first time, researchers have been able to map the true extent of gold mining in the biologically diverse region of Madre De Dios in the Peruvian Amazon. The team combined field surveys with airborne mapping and high-resolution satellite monitoring to show that the geographic extent of mining has increased 400% from 1999 to 2012 and that the average annual rate of forest loss has tripled since the Great Recession of 2008. Until this study, thousands of small, clandestine mines that have boomed since the economic crisis have gone unmonitored. The research is published in the online early edition of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences the week of October 28, 2013. The team, led by Carnegie's Greg Asner in close collaboration with officials from the Peruvian Ministry of Environment, used the Carnegie Landsat Analysis System-lite (CLASlite) to detect and map both large and small mining operations. CLASlite differs from other satellite mapping methods. It uses algorithms to detect changes to the forest in areas as small as 10 square meters, about 100 square feet, allowing scientists to find small-scale disturbances that cannot be detected by traditional satellite methods.

The team corroborated the satellite results with on-ground field surveys and Carnegie Airborne Observatory (CAO) data. The CAO uses Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), a technology that sweeps laser light across the vegetation canopy to image it in 3-D. It can determine the location of single standing trees at 3.5 feet (1.1 meter) resolution. This level of detail was used to assess how well CLASlite determined forest conditions in the mining areas. The CAO data were also used to evaluate the accuracy of the CLASlite maps along the edges of large mines, as well as the inaccessible small mines that are set back from roads and rivers to avoid detection. The field and CAO data confirmed up to 94% of the CLASlite mine detections. Lead author Asner commented: "Our results reveal far more rainforest damage than previously reported by the government, NGOs, or other researchers. In all, we found that the rate of forest loss from gold mining accelerated from 5,350 acres (2,166 hectares) per year before 2008 to15,180 acres (6,145 hectares) each year after the 2008 global financial crisis that rocketed gold prices."

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In addition to wreaking direct havoc on tropical forests, gold mining releases sediment into rivers, with severe effects on aquatic life. Other recent work has shown that Perú's gold mining has contributed to widespread mercury pollution affecting the entire food chain, including the food ingested by people throughout the region. Miners also hunt wild game, depleting the rainforest fauna around mining areas, and disrupting the ecological balance for centuries to come. Co-author Ernesto Raez Luna, Senior Advisor to the Minister, Peruvian Ministry of the Environment, remarked: "Obtaining good information on illegal gold mining, to guide sound policy and enforcement decisions, has been particularly difficult so far. Finally, we have very detailed and accurate data that we can turn into government action. We are using this study to warn Peruvians on the terrible impact of illegal mining in one of the most important enclaves of biodiversity in the world, a place that we have vowed, as a nation, to protect for all humanity. Nobody should buy one gram of this jungle gold. The mining must be stopped."

As of 2012, small illicit mines accounted for more than half of all mining operations in the region. Large mines of previous focus are heavy polluters but are taking on a subordinate role to thousands of small mines in degrading the tropical forest throughout the region. This trend highlights the importance of using this newer, high-resolution monitoring system for keeping tabs on this growing cause of forest loss. Asner emphasized: "The gold rush in Madre de Dios, Perú, exceeds the combined effects of all other causes of forest loss in the region, including from logging, ranching and agriculture. This is really important because we're talking about a global biodiversity hotspot. The region's incredible flora and fauna is being lost to gold fever. " Note: This story has been adapted from a news release issued by the Carnegie Institution At http://www.geologytimes.com/research/Gold_mining_ravages_Peru.asp

Even If Emissions Stop, Carbon Dioxide Could Warm E arth for Centuries Nov. 24, 2013 — Even if carbon dioxide emissions came to a sudden halt, the carbon dioxide already in Earth's atmosphere could continue to warm our planet for hundreds of years, according to Princeton University-led research published in the journal Nature Climate Change. The study suggests that it might take a lot less carbon than previously thought to reach the global temperature scientists deem unsafe. The researchers simulated an Earth on which, after 1,800 billion tons of carbon entered the atmosphere, all carbon dioxide emissions suddenly stopped. Scientists commonly use the scenario of emissions screeching to a stop to gauge the heat-trapping staying power of carbon dioxide. Within a millennium of this simulated shutoff, the carbon itself faded steadily with 40 percent absorbed by Earth's oceans and landmasses within 20 years and 80 percent soaked up at the end of the 1,000 years. By itself, such a decrease of atmospheric carbon dioxide should lead to cooling. But the heat trapped by the carbon dioxide took a divergent track. After a century of cooling, the planet warmed by 0.37 degrees Celsius (0.66 Fahrenheit) during the next 400 years as the ocean absorbed less and less heat. While the resulting temperature spike seems slight, a little heat goes a long way here. Earth has warmed by only 0.85 degrees Celsius (1.5 degrees Fahrenheit) since pre-industrial times. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change estimates that global temperatures a mere 2 degrees Celsius (3.6 degrees Fahrenheit) higher than pre-industrial levels would dangerously interfere with the climate system. To avoid that point would mean humans have to keep cumulative carbon dioxide emissions below 1,000 billion tons of carbon, about half of which has already been put into the atmosphere since the dawn of industry. The lingering warming effect the researchers found, however, suggests that the 2-degree point may be reached with much less carbon, said first author

Thomas Frölicher, who conducted the work as a postdoctoral researcher in Princeton's Program in Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences under co-author Jorge Sarmiento, the George J. Magee Professor of Geoscience and Geological Engineering. "If our results are correct, the total carbon emissions required to stay below 2 degrees of warming would have to be three-quarters of previous estimates, only 750 billion tons instead of 1,000 billion tons of carbon," said Frölicher, now a researcher at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich. "Thus, limiting the warming to 2 degrees would require keeping future cumulative carbon emissions below 250 billion tons, only half of the already emitted amount of 500 billion tons." The researchers' work contradicts a scientific consensus that the global temperature would remain constant or decline if emissions were suddenly cut to zero. But previous research did not account for a gradual reduction in the oceans' ability to absorb heat from the atmosphere, particularly the polar oceans, Frölicher said. Although carbon dioxide steadily dissipates, Frölicher and his co-authors were able to see that the oceans that remove heat from the atmosphere gradually take up less. Eventually, the residual heat offsets the cooling that occurred due to dwindling amounts of carbon dioxide. Frölicher and his co-authors showed that the change in ocean heat uptake in the polar regions has a larger effect on global mean temperature than a change in low-latitude oceans, a mechanism known as "ocean-heat uptake efficacy." This mechanism was first explored in a 2010 paper by Frölicher's co-author, Michael Winton, a researcher at the National Oceanic and More at http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131124200552.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

New sorbents efficiently extract uranium from seawa ter Nov 20, 2013. (Phys.org) - Uranium mining for the nuclear industry causes immense environmental damage, which becomes more severe as reserves are depleted. The isolation of uranium from seawater would be a much more environmentally friendly alternative. In the journal Angewandte Chemie, American researchers have now introduced a process by which they can produce tailored, highly effective adsorption agents to do this job. Because the concentration of uranyl ions in seawater is very low, adsorption agents used for this process must be particularly efficient. By carefully controlling the surface and pore structures, a team from Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee has now been able to significantly increase both the rate and capacity of adsorption of a new polymer adsorbent. Their success stems from a special polymerization technique. Sheng Dai's team begins by producing a porous polymer framework based on the monomer vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) with divinylbenzene (DVB) as a cross-linking agent. It is possible to vary the surface properties and pore volume of the product by changing the ratio of VBC to DVB. The interiors of the resulting frameworks contain many accessible chloride species that then serve as starting points for the next polymerization step, which is known as

atom-transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). This reaction allows the researchers to grow polyacrylonitrile chains within the framework. The advantage of ATRP is that the length of the chains is highly controllable and uniform. In the final step, the polyacrylonitrile is converted to polyamidoxime because amidoxime groups bind well to uranyl ions. Tests with simulated seawater resulted in distinctly higher and significantly faster uranium adsorption than with conventional, polyethylene-based adsorbents. Experiments showed that the adsorption capacity of the new adsorbent is strongly dependent on the density of amidoxime groups—a parameter that can be tailored by means of the pore size and the number of accessible chloride species in the original nanoporous framework. "These frameworks are the first example of ATRP initiators in which the initiator species is located within the nanoporous support network," reports Dai. "This new process puts materials with tailored adsorption and surface properties within reach. The method can be used to produce a wide variety of polymer nanocomposites for applications including the removal of heavy-metal ions from solutions or novel catalysts." At http://phys.org/news/2013-11-sorbents-efficiently-uranium-seawater.html

Old photos help scientists relocate 1906 San Franci sco quake rupture point

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The buttons being in their proper place on the right-hand side of the man’s waistcoat indicate that this 1906 photo has not been reversed during the printing process, providing an important clue as to the orientation of the fault trace, seen at the couple’s feet. Credit: Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley

Portola Valley, just south of San Francisco, is famous for its progressive approach to geology. The town was the subject of the first geologic map of California and the first municipality in the state to hire its very own resident geologist. There’s a good reason: The section of the San Andreas Fault that produced the deadly San Francisco quake of 1906 runs right through the town. But where exactly the fault trace lies has long been a mystery. Now, in a new study, researchers have used a combination of new technology and old photographs to relocate the fault line. “The story of this fault trace reminds me of that game [called “Telephone”] we all played as kids, where one person whispers a sentence to somebody and they whisper it to the next person and by the time it goes around the circle, the sentence has completely changed,” says Ted Sayre, a geologist at Cotton, Shires and Associates, a geotechnical consulting firm in Los Gatos that serves as the “town geologist” for Portola Valley. “The initial trace reported in 1906 was fairly accurate, but the story kept changing over the years until 100 years later, the maps and reports were no longer true to what actually happened,” says Sayre, co-author of the new study in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. Sayre and his colleagues traced the discrepancies to hand-drawn maps that had been inaccurately reproduced, as well as several film negatives that had been accidentally flipped during printing, thus producing reversed photographs. The series of mistakes, first published in 1908 and later cited by at least eight different studies, added up to reports of a branching fault trace several hundred meters off the mark, Sayre says. Mapping was further complicated by heavy brush in Portola Valley, which obscures the ground surface and the fault trace. “Portola Valley is covered

with very dense chaparral and thick masses of poison oak,” says Chester Wrucke, a retired U.S. Geological Survey geologist and lead author of the study. “Geologists are a hardy bunch, but even they don’t want to wade around in poison oak,” says Wrucke, who lives in Portola Valley. To update the location of the fault trace in Portola Valley, Wrucke’s son Robert, an independent computer engineer also based in Portola Valley, used bare-earth lidar technology, which can see through vegetation, to map the area. Then the team overlaid the lidar-generated maps onto the old photos to help pinpoint where the erroneous reports went wrong. “The new technology is really neat, but it was really the archives that provided the best clues,” says the elder Wrucke. One example of the team’s creative use of archived material comes from a 1906 photo of a well-dressed couple posing near the surface scar: The man’s waistcoat buttons are on the correct side of the coat — the right side — which helped confirm that the photo hadn’t been flipped. But in other cases, skylines and road curves showed that some negatives had indeed been reversed. After years of work, Sayre and the Wruckes determined the exact location of fault, which runs through Portola Valley along a single trace. Establishing a more accurate location for the fault doesn’t just serve to satisfy curiosity. California has strict codes against building along active faults, says Mary Lou Zoback, a seismologist at Stanford University who was not involved in the new study. “Determining the location of the active trace of major faults is very important, especially in terms of zoning,” she says. In 1972, in response to the damaging San Fernando earthquake that struck Southern California, the Alquist-Priolo Earthquake Fault Zoning Act was passed to help mitigate the hazards associated particularly with surface rupture. The act forbids new houses and buildings intended for human occupancy from being built within 15 meters of a known active fault trace. The findings don’t affect the potential shaking hazards for future quake events in Portola Valley, Zoback says. “In terms of the shaking hazard, shifting the fault a few hundred meters doesn’t really make much difference,” she says. “The implications really center around the Alquist-Priolo Act. In a residential area, drawing [15-meter] boundaries surrounding the fault can block out a lot of area.” Mary Caperton Morton. Monday, November 25, 2013 - 07:00. At http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/old-photos-help-scientists-relocate-1906-san-francisco-quake-rupture-point

Slab tear explains perplexing Colombian earthquake activity Four plates converge at the northwest corner of Colombia, leading to a complicated pattern of earthquake activity. Credit: Kathleen Cantner, AGI

Julia Rosen, Friday, Nov. 8, 2013. Colombia sits atop a restless intersection of tectonic plates: The Caribbean Plate is subducting along the country’s northern coast while the oceanic Nazca Plate subducts along its western edge. In between, the narrow but buoyant Isthmus of Panama continues to crash into South America like a battering ram. The complex pattern of earthquake activity produced by these disparate forces has long confounded scientists hoping to decipher the plate structure beneath Colombia. In

a new study, researchers have identified a feature called the Caldas Tear that may explain many long-standing riddles of Colombia’s geology. The Caldas Tear, named for a town that lies along its trace, is an east-west break within the Nazca Plate that coincides with an old spreading ridge, wrote authors Carlos Vargas, a geophysicist at the Colombian National University in Bogota, and Paul Mann, a geologist at the University of Houston, in a recent study in the Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America. They suspect the tear formed as an indirect effect of the collision of the Panama microplate, which they call an “indenter” because it punches into the South American continent “like a fist,” Mann says. The indenter cannot subduct because it is composed of thick, buoyant crust — the remains of an ancient island arc — so it has instead caused widespread deformation. This

deformation likely ripped apart the adjacent Nazca Plate along the reactivated spreading ridge. Using a dataset of more than 100,000 recorded Colombian earthquakes, the scientists generated images of the plate structure beneath Earth’s surface based on differences in how seismic waves propagate through solid crustal slabs and molten mantle. The sharp edge of the Caldas Tear is clearly visible from these results, the authors wrote, and additional evidence for its existence can be found at the surface. Vargas and Mann cite the abrupt termination of the north-south chain of Andean volcanoes at the latitude of the tear, a zone marked by an anomalous east-west string of small volcanoes with unusual geochemical compositions and high-grade mineral deposits that support the idea that tectonic conditions change dramatically across the tear. The team says that strike-slip earthquakes along its trace, and changes in river morphology across the tear, suggest that it may propagate all the way to the surface. “You put all that [evidence] together and it says this is a major boundary,” Mann says. Most importantly, the authors wrote, the tear represents a break between two zones of fundamentally different subduction mechanics. To the south, the Nazca Plate subducts at a steep angle typical of oceanic crust at convergent margins. This zone experiences regular moderate earthquakes and andesite volcanism, like the rest of South America’s west coast. North of the tear, however, the abnormally thick Panama and Caribbean Plates subduct at a very shallow angle, a feature confirmed by the study’s extensive tomographic imaging. Apart from along the tear itself, there is little seismic or volcanic activity in this region, except for an enigmatic cluster of deep earthquakes known as the Bucaramanga Nest. More at http://www.earthmagazine.org/article/slab-tear-explains-perplexing-colombian-earthquake-activity

Two magma oceans deep inside young Earth, study sug gests

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By Deanna Conners, Nov 25, 2013. A new study suggests that there may have been two magma oceans separated by a layer of crystalline material in the mantle during Earth’s formative period. A team of European scientists has gathered new evidence on the behavior of silica-rich molten rock deep in Earth’s interior. At high temperatures and pressures simulated in the laboratory, scientists observed structural changes in the silicon atoms that affected the density of the molten material. Such changes may have led to two magma oceans separated by a layer of crystalline material in the mantle during the early formative period of the Earth. The research was published on November 7, 2013 in the journal Nature. Earth was formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago, and at first, it was largely covered in hot molten rock. Slowly the Earth cooled and a crust formed. Today, the Earth is composed of several layers that consist of the solid crust, the relatively solid mantle, the liquid outer core and the solid inner core. While scientists cannot take samples from deep within Earth’s interior, they can learn a good bit about the mantle by subjecting samples of volcanic rock to similar high temperatures and pressures in the laboratory. New research facilities are enabling these studies to take place at ever higher pressures, which is producing data about ever deeper depths. A new study subjected samples of silca-rich basalt to pressures up 60 gigapascals and temperatures up to 3000 degrees Celsius (5432 degrees

Fahrenheit). As pressures approached 35 gigapascals (equivalent to about 350,000 times the pressure of our atmosphere at the surface), silicon and oxygen atoms reorganized from a tetrahedral structure with four chemical bonds into a more compact structure with six chemical bonds. This had a notable effect on the density of the material. Such changes in the mantle likely played an important role in the formation of Earth’s inner structure, the scientists say. The current data suggest that there may have been two magma oceans separated by a layer of crystalline material during Earth’s early formative period. Chrystele Sanloup, lead author of the study, is a Research Fellow at the Center for Science at Extreme Conditions and the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Edinburgh in the United Kingdom. She commented on the significance of the work in a press release: Modern labs make it possible for scientists to recreate conditions deep in the Earth’s core, and give us valuable insight into how materials behave at such extremes. This helps us build on what we already know about how Earth formed. More at http://earthsky.org/earth/two-magna-oceans-deep-inside-young-earth-study-suggests?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=045d3fb0e0-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-045d3fb0e0-393647361

What Drives Aftershocks? Dec. 1, 2013 — On 27 February 2010 an earthquake of magnitude 8.8 struck South-Central Chile near the town of Maule. The main shock displaced the subduction interface by up to 16 meters. Like usually after strong earthquakes a series of aftershocks occurred in the region with decreasing size over the next months. A surprising result came from an afterslip study: Up to 2 meters additional slip occurred along the plate interface within 420 days only, in a pulse like fashion and without associated seismicity. An international research group lead by GFZ analysed the main shock as well as the following postseismic phase with a dense network of instruments including more than 60 high-resolution GPS stations. The aftershocks and the now found "silent" afterslip are key to understand the processes occurring after strong earthquakes. The GPS data in combination with seismological data allowed for the first time a comparative analysis: Are aftershocks triggered solely by stress transfer from the main shock or are additional mechanisms active? "Our results suggest, that the classic view of the stress relaxation due to aftershocks are too simple" says Jonathan Bedford from GFZ to the new observation: "Areas with large stress

transfer do not correlate with aftershocks in all magnitude classes as hitherto assumed and stress shadows show surprisingly high seismic activity." A conclusion is that local processes which are not detectable at the surface by GPS monitoring along the plate interface have a significant effect on the local stress field. Pressurized fluids in the crust and mantle could be the agent here. As suspected previously, the main and aftershocks might have generated permeabilities in the source region which are explored by hydrous fluids. This effects the local stress field triggering aftershocks rather independently from the large scale, main shock induced stress transfer. The present study provides evidences for such a mechanism. Volume (3D) seismic tomography which is sensitive to fluid pressure changes in combination with GPS monitoring will allow to better monitor the evolution of such processes. The main shock was due to a rupture of the interface between the Nasca and the South American plates. Aftershocks are associated with hazards as they can be of similar size as the main shock and, in contrast to the latter, much shallower in the crust. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131201140151.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Iron preserves, hides ancient tissues in fossilized remains 2013.11.27. New research from North Carolina State University shows that iron may play a role in preserving ancient tissues within dinosaur fossils, but also may hide them from detection. The finding could open the door to the recovery of more ancient tissues from within fossils. Mary Schweitzer, an NC State paleontologist with a joint appointment at the N. C. Museum of Natural Sciences, first announced the surprising preservation of soft tissues in a T. rex fossil in 2005. Her subsequent work identified proteins in the soft tissue that seemed to confirm that the tissue was indeed T. rex tissue that had been preserved for millions of years. But the findings remained controversial in part because no one understood the chemical processes behind such preservation. Schweitzer's latest research shows that the presence of hemoglobin – the iron-containing molecule that transports oxygen in red blood cells – may be the key to both preserving and concealing original ancient proteins within fossils. Her results appear in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

"Iron is necessary for survival, but it's also highly reactive and destructive in living tissues, which is why our bodies have proteins that transport iron molecules to where they are needed but protect us from unwanted reactions at the same time," Schweitzer says. "When we die, that protective mechanism breaks down and the iron is turned loose on our tissues – and that destructive process can act in much the same way formaldehyde does to preserve the tissues and proteins." Hemoglobin seems to be the key. Both birds and crocodiles, the dinosaur's closest living relatives, have large, nucleated red blood cells. Therefore they also have more hemoglobin per cell than mammals. If dinosaur blood cells were similar to either one of those species, which seems likely, then their blood cells would also contain much more hemoglobin than human cells, amplifying iron's preservative effect on the tissues. If the hemoglobin were contained in a bone in a sandstone environment, keeping it dry and insulated from microbes, preservation becomes more likely. More at http://phys.org/news/2013-11-iron-ancient-tissues-fossilized.html

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How Water Dissolves Stone, Molecule by Molecule The dissolution process of a crystalline structure in water is shown: two bonded SiO4 -- molecules dissolve (top left), a quartz crystal (top right) and the computer-simulated surface of a dissolving crystalline structure (below). (Credit: MARUM & Rice University) Dec. 5, 2013 — Scientists from Rice University and the University of Bremen's Center for Marine Environmental Sciences (MARUM) in Germany have combined cutting-edge

xperimental techniques and computer simulations to find a new way of predicting how water dissolves crystalline structures like those found in natural stone and cement. In a new study featured on the cover of the Nov. 28 issue of the Journal of Physical Chemistry C, the team found their method was more efficient at predicting the dissolution rates of crystalline structures in water than previous methods. The research could have wide-ranging impacts in diverse areas, including water quality and planning, environmental sustainability, corrosion resistance and cement construction. "We need to gain a better understanding of dissolution mechanisms to better predict the fate of certain materials, both in nature and in man-made systems," said lead investigator Andreas Lüttge, a professor of mineralogy at MARUM and professor emeritus and research professor in Earth science at Rice. His team specializes in studying the thin boundary layer that forms between minerals and fluids. Boundary layers are ubiquitous in nature; they occur when raindrops fall on stone, water seeps through soil and the ocean meets the sea floor. Scientists and engineers have long been interested in accurately explaining how crystalline materials, including many minerals and stones, interact with and are dissolved by water. Calculations about the rate of these dissolution processes are critical in many fields of science and engineering. In the new study, Lüttge and lead author Inna Kurganskaya, a research associate in Earth science at Rice, studied dissolution processes using quartz, one of the most common minerals found in nature. Quartz, or silicon dioxide, is a type of silicate, the most abundant group of minerals in Earth's crust.

At the boundary layer where quartz and water meet, multiple chemical reactions occur. Some of these happen simultaneously and others take place in succession. In the new study, the researchers sought to create a computerized model that could accurately simulate the complex chemistry at the boundary layer. "The new model simulates the dissolution kinetics at the boundary layer with greater precision than earlier stochastic models operating at the same scale," Kurganskaya said. "Existing simulations rely on rate constants assigned to a wide range of possible reactions, and as a result, the total material flux from the surface have an inherent variance range -- a plus or minus factor that is always there." One reason the team's simulations more accurately represent real processes is that its models incorporate actual measurements from cutting-edge instruments and from high-tech materials, including glass ceramics and nanomaterials. With a special imaging technique called "vertical scanning interferometry," which the group at MARUM and Rice helped to develop, the team scanned the crystal surfaces of both minerals and manufactured materials to generate topographic maps with a resolution of a just a few nanometers, or billionths of a meter. "We found that dissolution rates that were predicted using rate constants were sometimes off by as much as two orders of magnitude," Lüttge said. The new method for more precisely predicting dissolution processes could revolutionize the way engineers and scientists make many calculations related to a myriad of things, including the stability of building materials, the longevity of materials used for radioactive waste storage and more, he said. "Further work is needed to prove the broad utility of the method," he said. "In the next phase of research, we plan to test our simulations on larger systems and over longer periods." The research was supported by the Global Climate and Energy Project at Stanford University. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131205185613.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Earth's plate boundaries may nurture diamond format ion

DEEP DEVELOPMENT - Diamonds (dark grey) begin to form from minerals containing iron and magnesium (white) and from carbon-oxygen compounds called carbonates (light grey) in a scanning electron microscope image. Y.N. Palyanov Et Al/Pnas 2013.

By Gabriel Popkin. December 2, 2013. High-pressure, high-temperature experiment supports idea about gems’ origins SPONSOR MESSAGE Boundaries between tectonic plates may make ideal diamond nurseries, according to an experiment that mimics conditions deep in the Earth. Diamonds form only at temperatures and pressures far greater than those on Earth's surface. Scientists have long thought diamonds could form in

subduction zones, where one tectonic plate plunges under another and sinks hundreds of kilometers into the mantle. To simulate this extreme environment, scientists led by Yuri Palyanov of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Novosibirsk put minerals that are common in Earth's crust into a chamber where the researchers could apply intense pressures and temperatures. The team found that at around 74,000 times atmospheric pressure and above 1,200° Celsius, diamonds crystallized. The exact makeup of the diamonds depended on which mineral the carbon came from. Diamonds forming from minerals in which carbon bound to both oxygen and metals had around 10 times as many nitrogen impurities as ones forming from minerals in which carbon simply bound to metals. The team reports its findings December 2 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. At https://www.sciencenews.org/article/earths-plate-boundaries-may-nurture-diamond-formation

Deep-Sea Study Reveals Cause of 2011 Tsunami: Unusu ally Thin, Slippery Geological Fault Found Dec. 5, 2013 — The devastating tsunami that struck Japan's Tohoku region in March 2011 was touched off by a submarine earthquake far more massive than anything geologists had expected in that zone. Now, a team of scientists including McGill University geologist Christie Rowe, has published a set of studies in the journalScience that shed light on what caused the dramatic displacement of the seafloor off the northeastern coast of Japan. The findings also suggest that other zones in the northwest Pacific may be at risk of similar huge earthquakes.

Prof. Rowe, of McGill's Department of Earth & Planetary Sciences, was one of 27 scientists from 10 countries who participated in a 50-day expedition in 2012 on the Japanese drilling vessel Chikyu. The team drilled three holes in the Japan Trench area to study the rupture zone of the 2011 earthquake, a fault in the ocean floor where two of Earth's major tectonic plates meet, deep beneath the surface of the Pacific Ocean. The joint where the Pacific and North American plates meet forms what is known as a "subduction" zone, with the North American plate riding over the

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edge of the Pacific plate. The latter plate bends and plunges deep into Earth, forming the Japan Trench. The conventional view among geologists has been that deep beneath the seafloor, where rocks are strong, movements of the plates can generate a lot of elastic rebound. Closer to the surface of the seafloor, where rocks are softer and less compressed, this rebound effect was thought to taper off. Until 2011, the largest displacement of plates ever recorded along a fault occurred in 1960 off the coast of Chile, where a powerful earthquake displaced the seafloor plates by an average of 20 metres. In the Tohoku earthquake, the slip amounted to 30 to 50 metres -- and the slip actually grew bigger as the subterranean rupture approached the seafloor. This runaway rupture thrust up the seafloor, touching off the horrifying tsunami. The results of last year's drilling by the Chikyu expedition, outlined in the Science papers published Dec. 6, reveal several factors that help account for this unexpectedly violent slip between the two tectonic plates. For one thing, the fault, itself, is very thin -- less than five metres thick in the area sampled. "To our knowledge, it's the thinnest plate boundary on Earth," Rowe says. By contrast, California's San Andreas fault is several kilometers thick in places. The scientists also discovered that the clay deposits that fill the narrow fault are made of extremely fine sediment. "It's the slipperiest clay you can imagine," says Rowe. "If you rub it between your fingers, it feels like a lubricant." The discovery of this unusual clay in the Tohoku slip zone suggests that other subduction zones in the northwest Pacific where this type of clay is

present -- from Russia's Kamchatka peninsula to the Aleutian Islands -- may be capable of generating similar, huge earthquakes, Rowe adds. To conduct the studies, the scientists used specially designed deep-water drilling equipment that enabled them to drill more than 800 metres beneath the sea floor, in an area where the water is around 6,900 metres deep. No hole had ever before been drilled that deep in an area of similar water depth. At those extraordinary depths, it took six hours from the time the drill pulled core samples from the fault until it reached the ship. During night shifts on deck, Rowe was in charge of deciding which sections of drill core would go to geochemists for water sampling, and which would go to geologists for studies of the sediment and deformation structures. "We X-rayed the core as soon as it came on board, so the geochemists could get their water sample before oxygen was able to penetrate inside the pores of the sediment." The expedition was supported by member countries of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (particularly Japan and the US), and Canadian participants were supported by the European Consortium for Ocean Research Drilling, of which Canada is a member. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131205141316.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Long Before Trees Overtook the Land, Earth Was Cove red by Giant Mushrooms

Digging up a Prototaxites fossil. Photo: University of Chicago

July 17, 2013 3:14 pm. From around 420 to 350 million years ago, when land plants were still the relatively new kids on the evolutionary block and

“the tallest trees stood just a few feet high,” giant spires of life poked from the Earth. “The ancient organism boasted trunks up to 24 feet (8 meters) high and as wide as three feet (one meter),” said National Geographic in 2007. With the help of a fossil dug up in Saudi Arabia scientists finally figured out what the giant creature was: a fungus. (We think.) The towering fungus spires would have stood out against a landscape scarce of such giants, said New Scientist in 2007. “A 6-metre fungus would be odd enough in the modern world, but at least we are used to trees quite a bit bigger,” says Boyce. “Plants at that time were a few feet tall, invertebrate animals were small, and there were no terrestrial vertebrates. This fossil would have been all the more striking in such a diminutive landscape.” Fossils of the organisms, known as Prototaxites, had peppered the paleontological findings of the past century and a half, ever since they were first discovered by a Canadian in 1859. But despite the fossil records, no one could figure out what the heck these giant spires were. The University of Chicago:

For the next 130 years, debate raged. Some scientists called Prototaxites a lichen, others a fungus, and still others clung to the notion that it was some kind of tree. “The problem is that when you look up close at the anatomy, it’s evocative of a lot of different things, but it’s diagnostic of nothing,” says Boyce, an associate professor in geophysical sciences and the Committee on Evolutionary Biology. “And it’s so damn big that when whenever someone says it’ssomething, everyone else’s hackles get up: ‘How could you have a lichen 20 feet tall?’” That all changed in 2007 when a study came out that concluded the spires were a fungus, like a gigantic early mushroom. But not everyone was sold on the idea that Prototaxites was an early fungus. No one’s questioning the spires’ existence—people just have trouble trying to imagine that such a huge structure could be a fungus. Researchers trying to refute the fungus idea thought that Prototaxites spires were gigantic mats of liverworts that had somehow rolled up. But in a follow-up study, the scientists who had proposed the fungus idea doubled down on their claim. So science is messy, and despite more than a century of digging, we still don’t really know, for sure, what these huge spires that dominated the ancient Earth really were. But even though the spire-like mushrooms of yore—or whatever they were—are long gone, don’t feel too bad for funguskind. The largest organism on Earth, says ABC, is still a huge fungal mat, a single organism spread over 2,200 acres of forest in eastern Oregon. At http://blogs.smithsonianmag.com/smartnews/2013/07/long-before-trees-overtook-the-land-earth-was-covered-by-giant-mushrooms/

Vast Freshwater Reserves Found Beneath the Oceans Dec. 8, 2013 — Scientists have discovered huge reserves of freshwater beneath the oceans kilometres out to sea, providing new opportunities to stave off a looming global water crisis. A new study, published December 5 in the international scientific journal Nature, reveals that an estimated half a million cubic kilometres of low-salinity water are buried beneath the seabed on continental shelves around the world. The water, which could perhaps be used to eke out supplies to the world's burgeoning coastal cities, has been located off Australia, China, North America and South Africa. "The volume of this water resource is a hundred times greater than the amount we've extracted from the Earth's sub-surface in the past century since 1900," says lead author Dr Vincent Post (pictured) of the National

Centre for Groundwater Research and Training (NCGRT) and the School of the Environment at Flinders University. "Knowing about these reserves is great news because this volume of water could sustain some regions for decades." Dr Post says that groundwater scientists knew of freshwater under the seafloor, but thought it only occurred under rare and special conditions. "Our research shows that fresh and brackish aquifers below the seabed are actually quite a common phenomenon," he says. These reserves were formed over the past hundreds of thousands of years when on average the sea level was much lower than it is today, and when the coastline was further out, Dr Post explains. "So when it rained, the water would infiltrate into the ground and fill up the water table in areas that are nowadays under the sea.

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"It happened all around the world, and when the sea level rose when ice caps started melting some 20,000 years ago, these areas were covered by the ocean. "Many aquifers were -- and are still -- protected from seawater by layers of clay and sediment that sit on top of them." The aquifers are similar to the ones below land, which much of the world relies on for drinking water, and their salinity is low enough for them to be turned into potable water, Dr Post says. "There are two ways to access this water -- build a platform out at sea and drill into the seabed, or drill from the mainland or islands close to the aquifers." While offshore drilling can be very costly, Dr Post says this source of freshwater should be assessed and considered in terms of cost, sustainability and environmental impact against other water sources such as desalination, or even building large new dams on land. "Freshwater under the seabed is much less salty than seawater," Dr Post says. "This means it can be converted to drinking water with less energy than seawater desalination, and it would also leave us with a lot less hyper-saline water. "Freshwater on our planet is increasingly under stress and strain so the discovery of significant new stores off the coast is very exciting. It means that

more options can be considered to help reduce the impact of droughts and continental water shortages." But while nations may now have new reserves of freshwater offshore, Dr Post says they will need to take care in how they manage the seabed: "For example, where low-salinity groundwater below the sea is likely to exist, we should take care to not contaminate it. "Sometimes boreholes are drilled into the aquifers for oil and gas exploration or production, or aquifers are targeted for carbon dioxide disposal. These activities can threaten the quality of the water." Dr Post also warns that these water reserves are non-renewable: "We should use them carefully -- once gone, they won't be replenished until the sea level drops again, which is not likely to happen for a very long time." The study, "Offshore fresh groundwater reserves as a global phenomenon" by Vincent E.A. Post, Jacobus Groen, Henk Kooi, Mark Person, Shemin Ge and W. Mike Edmunds, is published in the latest issue of Nature. The National Centre for Groundwater Research and Training is an Australian Government initiative, supported by the Australian Research Council and the National Water Commission. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131208085304.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Evidence of Mass Extinction Associated With Climate Change 375 Million Years Ago Discovered in Central Asia Dec. 13, 2013 — Members of a U.N.-sponsored research team with members from Appalachian State University's Department of Geology have found evidence for catastrophic oceanographic events associated with climate change and a mass extinction 375 million years ago that devastated tropical marine ecosystems. "The Late Devonian mass extinction was one of the five largest mass extinction events in the history of life," said Professor Johnny Waters, who is a co-leader of the five-year, U.N. International Geoscience Programme project that began in 2011. The research team, which includes Assistant Professor Sarah Carmichael, is examining the relationship between climate change and changes in the ecosystems in the Devonian period, from 419 to 359 million years ago. "This is the third most significant mass extinction and it was caused by plants," Waters said. "Unlike the dinosaur mass extinction, which was related to an asteroid impact, this one was environmentally related." In the Devonian period, Waters explained, the world was experiencing super greenhouse climate conditions. This means that it was very warm, there probably were no ice caps, there was a lot carbon dioxide in the atmosphere (with estimates of 4,000 parts per million). "As plant communities expanded onto land to form the first forests, they depleted the carbon dioxide (CO2) that was in the atmosphere," Waters said. "CO2 levels dropped to 400 ppm toward the end of the Devonian. It got colder. There were glaciation events and the rapid change in the climate caused severe extinction in the tropics and the existing coral reefs became extinct." By comparison, the world's current CO2 level is very close to 400 ppm. Most of the knowledge that geologists have about this mass extinction comes from North America and Europe. Although these two land masses are far apart now, in the Devonian they were very close to each other. Scientists have tried to make inferences about worldwide events based on sample locations that are really quite limited in terms of their geographic history, or paleogeography. Therefore, it is vitally important to obtain samples from locations outside this region for understanding global climate change during this time period. Waters' international team of geoscientists has conducted field work in remote areas of western China for many years, in addition to two recent field seasons in western Mongolia near the Russian and Chinese borders. The changing political climate in China, Russia and Mongolia in recent years has now made it possible to do fieldwork in these locations. The strength of these field collaborations is that they draw on the expertise of scientists from a variety of disciplines to add critical climatic information to a limited database.

U.N. researchers associated with this project are also collecting related data in Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam and Northern China. "The reason we are working in central Asia is that there is a lot of good evidence of what happened at and after this mass extinction -- this is an area that has not been well studied," Waters said. "It's all a part of our work finding the places that give us the best information in sorting out what happened in the extinction event and in its aftermath." Answers about Earth's climate during and after this mass extinction are contained within rock samples from these new field sites, which were once part of the ocean floor, as geochemical signals preserved in the rocks record devastating climate change. The paleogeography of the field sites indicate that Devonian climate change not only had environmental impacts on life associated with large land masses, but also on life in the open ocean. "We now have evidence that the radiation of surviving life following the mass extinction was centered in Central Asia," Waters said. The geochemistry of the samples is being analyzed primarily by students in Appalachian's Department of Geology under Carmichael's supervision, with additional analyses being conducted at UNC-Chapel Hill and a university in Austria. "We are using geochemistry to tie it all together all across Central Asia, which used to be an open ocean, and compare our new data to established sequences in Europe and North America, in order to develop a global understanding of the climate change associated with this mass extinction," Waters said. "Today we are looking at increases in carbon dioxide causing warming and the negative impacts to the ecosystem. In the Devonian period, we are looking at a rapid loss of carbon dioxide, which in geologic time occurred over millions of years rather than hundreds of years," Waters said. "But the lessons are actually quite similar. We clearly are concerned today about climate change and its impact on the environment and its effect on the ecosystem, and the geologic record is really the only record where we can see these events and compare what happened before and after." Waters and Carmichael will present the preliminary results of their research at the Geological Society of America's Annual Meeting in Denver in October and at the American Geophysical Union's annual meeting in San Francisco in December. Next summer, Waters will lead a 20-member team, including Dr. Sarah Carmichael and two students from Appalachian's Department of Geology, for continued field work in Mongolia. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131213092841.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

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East Antarctica Is Sliding Sideways: Ice Loss On We st Antarctica Affecting Mantle Flow Below Dec. 11, 2013 — It's official: East Antarctica is pushing West Antarctica around. Now that West Antarctica is losing weight--that is, billions of tons of ice per year--its softer mantle rock is being nudged westward by the harder mantle beneath East Antarctica. The discovery comes from researchers led by The Ohio State University, who have recorded GPS measurements that show West Antarctic bedrock is being pushed sideways at rates up to about twelve millimeters--about half an inch--per year. This movement is important for understanding current ice loss on the continent, and predicting future ice loss. They reported the results on Thursday, Dec. 12 at the American Geophysical Union meeting in San Francisco. Half an inch doesn't sound like a lot, but it's actually quite dramatic compared to other areas of the planet, explained Terry Wilson, professor of earth sciences at Ohio State. Wilson leads POLENET, an international collaboration that has planted GPS and seismic sensors all over the West Antarctic Ice Sheet. She and her team weren't surprised to detect the horizontal motion. After all, they've been using GPS to observe vertical motion on the continent since the 1990's. They were surprised, she said, to find the bedrock moving towards regions of greatest ice loss. "From computer models, we knew that the bedrock should rebound as the weight of ice on top of it goes away," Wilson said. "But the rock should spread out from the site where the ice used to be. Instead, we see movement toward places where there was the most ice loss." The seismic sensors explained why. By timing how fast seismic waves pass through Earth under Antarctica, the researchers were able to determine that the mantle regions beneath east and west are very different. West Antarctica contains warmer, softer rock, and East Antarctica has colder, harder rock. Stephanie Konfal, a research associate with POLENET, pointed out that

where the transition is most pronounced, the sideways movement runs perpendicular to the boundary between the two types of mantle. She likened the mantle interface to a pot of honey. "If you imagine that you have warm spots and cold spots in the honey, so that some of it is soft and some is hard," Konfal said, "and if you press down on the surface of the honey with a spoon, the honey will move away from the spoon, but the movement won't be uniform. The hard spots will push into the soft spots. And when you take the spoon away, the soft honey won't uniformly flow back up to fill the void, because the hard honey is still pushing on it." Or, put another way, ice compressed West Antarctica's soft mantle. Some ice has melted away, but the soft mantle isn't filling back in uniformly, because East Antarctica's harder mantle is pushing it sideways. The crust is just along for the ride. This finding is significant, Konfal said, because we use these crustal motions to understand ice loss. "We're witnessing expected movements being reversed, so we know we really need computer models that can take lateral changes in mantle properties into account." Wilson said that such extreme differences in mantle properties are not seen elsewhere on the planet where glacial rebound is occurring. "We figured Antarctica would be different," she said. "We just didn't know how different." Ohio State's POLENET academic partners in the United States are Pennsylvania State University, Washington University, New Mexico Tech, Central Washington University, the University of Texas Institute for Geophysics and the University of Memphis. A host of international partners are part of the effort as well. The project is supported by the UNAVCO and IRIS-PASSCAL geodetic and seismic facilities. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131211132449.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

Other stories!!!! - Mesozoic turtle reconstructed. Nov 25, 2013 by Jon Tennant, The Conversation.

http://phys.org/news/2013-11-mesozoic-turtle-reconstructed.html - Antarctic ozone hole is not yet in recovery, DEC 12, 2013,

http://earthsky.org/earth/antarctic-ozone-hole-is-not-yet-in-recovery - ‘Butterflies of the sea’ record ocean conditions in their shells. 11

december 2013. http://blogs.agu.org/geospace/2013/12/11/butterflies-of-the-sea-record-ocean-conditions-in-their-shells/

- Hydrogen squeezed from stone could be new energy source. By Simon Redfern, 2013.12.13. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-25349983

- Well-funded Equatorial hoping for Q1 Congo iron-ore go-ahead. Martin Creamer. 13th December 2013. http://www.miningweekly.com/article/well-funded-equatorial-hoping-for-q1-congo-iron-ore-go-ahead-2013-12-13

NEWS OF/ON THE SPACE / ASTRONOMY Secrets of Mars' Birth Revealed from Unique Meteori te Nov. 20, 2013 — A Florida State University scientist has uncovered what may be the first recognized example of ancient Martian crust. The work of Munir Humayun -- a professor in FSU's Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Science and a researcher at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (MagLab) -- is based on an analysis of a 4.4 billion-year-old Martian meteorite that was unearthed by Bedouin tribesmen in the Sahara desert. The rock (NWA 7533) may be the first recognized sample of ancient Martian crust and holds a wealth of information about the origin and age of the Red Planet's crust. Humayun's groundbreaking discoveries about the crust and what it reveals about the Red Planet's origins will be published in the journal Nature. In order to detect minute amounts of chemicals in this meteorite, Humayun and his collaborators performed complex analysis on the meteorite using an array of highly sophisticated mass spectrometers in the MagLab's geochemistry department. High concentrations of trace metals such as iridium, an element that indicates meteoritic bombardment, showed that this meteorite came from the elusive cratered area of Mars' southern highlands.

"This cratered terrain has been long thought to hold the keys to Mars' birth and early childhood," Humayun said. While craters cover more than half of Mars, this is the first meteoric sample to come from this area and the first time researchers are able to understand Mars' early crustal growth. Using the chemical information found in pieces of soil contained in the meteorite, the researchers were able to calculate the thickness of Mars' crust. Their calculation aligned with estimates from independent spacecraft measurements and confirms that Mars did not experience a giant impact that melted the entire planet in its early history. Using a powerful microprobe at Curtin University in Perth, Australia, the team dated special crystals within the meteorite -- called zircons -- at an astounding 4.4 billion years old. "This date is about 100 million years after the first dust condensed in the solar system," Humayun said. "We now know that Mars had a crust within the first 100 million years of the start of planet building, and that Mars' crust formed concurrently with the oldest crusts on Earth and the Moon."

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Humayun and his collaborators hypothesize that these trailblazing discoveries are just the tip of the iceberg of what continued research on this unique meteorite will uncover. Further studies may reveal more clues about the impact history of Mars, the nature of Martian zircons and the makeup of the earliest sediments on the Red Planet.

Humayun's international team of collaborators include curator of meteorites Brigitte Zanda with the National Museum of Natural History (the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle) in Paris; A. Nemchin, M. Grange and A. Kennedy with Curtin University's Department of Applied Geology in Perth, Australia; and scientists R.H. Hewins, J.P. Lorand, C. Göpel, C. Fieni, S. Pont and D. Deldicque. At http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/11/131120133505.htm

Strange Discovery: Giant Dust Ring Found Near Venus Orbit...

Image Caption and Credit - A huge but diffuse ring of dust near the orbit of Venus is revealed in this surface brightness map compiled using data gathered by NASA's STEREO-A probe in June 2009. Venus' orbit is indicated by the black dots; brighter areas show up as red and dimmer ones as blue. Credit: M.H.Jones / The Open University Scientists have found a huge, diffuse ring of dust near the orbit of Venus, marking the second time such a structure has been discovered in our solar system.

The dust ring stretches about 137 million miles (220 million kilometers) from end to end, though it's just 10 percent denser than the background cloud that pervades interplanetary space and produces the glow known as zodiacal light, researchers said. If we could see it unaided from Earth (which of course we can't because it is far too faint), it would stretch 45 degrees either side of the sun... Read More: http://www.space.com/23683-giant-venus-dust-ring-nasa-stereo.html At FB page of Planetary Landscape, https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=583790515020863&set=a.322690544464196.74729.322676901132227&type=1&theater

Fire in the Sky...IC 1396 H-Alpha Close-Up

Credit - Nick Wright (University College London), IPHAS Collaboration. Additional credit: This image was originally posted by NASA APOD on 2005 September 30. To see it full size/full resolution, click here (and then double click on the image):http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/image/0509/ic1396b_wright_f50.jpg

Clouds of glowing hydrogen gas mingle ominously with dark dust lanes in this close-up of IC 1396, an active star forming region some 2,000 light years away in the constellation Cepheus. In this and other similar emission nebulae, energetic ultraviolet light from a hot

young star strips electrons from the surrounding hydrogen atoms. As the electrons and atoms recombine they emit longer wavelength, lower energy light in a well known characteristic pattern of bright spectral lines. At visible wavelengths, the strongest emission line in this pattern is in the red part of the spectrum and is known as "Hydrogen-alpha" or just H-alpha. Part of IPHAS, a survey of H-alpha emission in our Milky Way Galaxy, this image spans about 20 light-years and highlights bright, dense regions within IC 1396, likely sites where massive new stars are born. In FB Page of Planetary Landscapes: https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=584211741645407&set=a.322690544464196.74729.322676901132227&type=1

Unusual greenhouse gases may have raised ancient Ma rtian temperature This is a split panel comparing a section of Arizona's Grand Canyon on left against a section of Mars' Nanedi Valles on right. Nanedi Valles is located in the Lunae Palus quadrangle of Mars. The northern part of the Nanedi Valles image shows a river once cut through it, similar to the one flowing through the Grand Canyon. Although this section of Nanedi Valles is nearly 2.5 km in width, other portions are at least twice as wide. Slight morphologic differences between the two

canyons are attributable to the great age differences between the regions and the correspondingly higher degree of erosion on Mars. Credit: Penn State Much like the Grand Canyon, Nanedi Valles snakes across the Martian surface suggesting that liquid water once crossed the landscape, according to a team of researchers who believe that molecular hydrogen made it warm enough for water to flow. The presence of molecular hydrogen, in addition to carbon dioxide and water, could have created a greenhouse effect on Mars 3.8 billion years ago that pushed temperatures high enough to allow for liquid water, the researchers state in the current issue of Nature Geoscience. The team includes Ramses M. Ramirez, a doctoral student working with James Kasting, Evan Pugh Professor of Geosciences, Penn State. Previous efforts to produce temperatures warm enough to allow for liquid water used climate models that include only carbon dioxide and water and were unsuccessful. The researchers used a model to show that an atmosphere with sufficient carbon dioxide, water and hydrogen could have made the surface temperatures of Mars warm to above freezing. Those above-freezing temperatures would allow liquid water to flow across the Martian surface over 3.8 billion years ago and form the ancient valley networks, such as Nanedi Valles, much the way sections of the Grand Canyon snake across the western United States today.

"This is exciting because explaining how early Mars could have been warm and wet enough to form the ancient valleys had scientists scratching their heads for the past 30 years," said Ramirez. "We think we may have a credible solution to this great mystery." The researchers note that one alternative theory is that the Martian valleys formed after large meteorites bombarded the planet, generating steam atmospheres that then rained out. But this mechanism cannot produce the large volumes of water thought necessary to carve the valleys. "We think that there is no way to form the ancient valleys with any of the alternate cold early Mars models," said Ramirez. "However, the problem with selling a warm early Mars is that nobody had been able to put forth a feasible mechanism in the past three decades. So, we hope that our results will get people to reconsider their positions." Ramirez and post-doctoral researcher Ravi Kopparapu co-developed a one-dimensional climate model to demonstrate the possibility that the gas levels from volcanic activity could have created enough hydrogen and carbon dioxide to form a greenhouse and raise temperatures sufficiently to allow for liquid water. Once they developed the model, Ramirez ran the model using new hydrogen absorption data and used it to recreate the conditions on early Mars, a time when the sun was about 30 percent less bright than it is today. "It's kind of surprising to think that Mars could have been warm and wet because at the time the sun was much dimmer," Ramirez said. Mars' mantle appears to be more reduced than Earth's, based on evidence from Shergotty, Nahkla, and Chassigny meteorites, Martian meteorites named for the towns near which they were found. A more reduced mantle outgasses more hydrogen relative to water, thus bolstering the hydrogen greenhouse effect. "The hydrogen molecule is symmetric and appears to be quite boring by itself," said Ramirez. "However, other background gases, such as carbon dioxide, can perturb it and get it to function as a powerful greenhouse gas at wavelengths where carbon dioxide and water don't absorb too strongly. So, hydrogen fills in the gaps left by the other two greenhouse gases." At http://phys.org/news/2013-11-unusual-greenhouse-gases-ancient-martian.html

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Mach 1000 shock wave lights supernova remnant A photograph of the Tycho supernova remnant taken by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. Low-energy X-rays (red) in the image show expanding debris from the supernova explosion and high energy X-rays (blue) show the blast wave, a shell of extremely energetic electrons.X-ray: NASA/CXC/Rutgers/K. Eriksen et al.; Optical (starry background): DSS

NOV 25, 2013. The appearance of this “new star” stunned those who thought the heavens were constant and unchanging. At its brightest, the supernova rivaled Venus before fading from sight a year later. When a star explodes as a supernova, it shines brightly for a few weeks or months before fading away. Yet the material blasted outward from the explosion still glows hundreds or thousands of years later, forming a picturesque supernova remnant. What powers such long-lived brilliance? In the case of Tycho’s supernova remnant, astronomers have discovered that a reverse shock wave racing inward at Mach 1000 (1000 times the speed of sound) is heating the remnant and causing it to emit X-ray light. “We wouldn’t be able to study ancient supernova remnants without a reverse shock to light them up,” says Hiroya Yamaguchi, who conducted this research at the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). Tycho’s supernova was witnessed by astronomer Tycho Brahe in 1572. The

appearance of this “new star” stunned those who thought the heavens were constant and unchanging. At its brightest, the supernova rivaled Venus before fading from sight a year later. Modern astronomers know that the event Tycho and others observed was a Type Ia supernova, caused by the explosion of a white dwarf star. The explosion spewed elements like silicon and iron into space at speeds of more than 11 million miles per hour (5,000 km/s). When that ejecta rammed into surrounding interstellar gas, it created a shock wave – the equivalent of a cosmic “sonic boom.” That shock wave continues to move outward today at about Mach 300. The interaction also created a violent “backwash” – a reverse shock wave that speeds inward at Mach 1000. “It’s like the wave of brake lights that marches up a line of traffic after a fender-bender on a busy highway,” explains CfA co-author Randall Smith. The reverse shock wave heats gases inside the supernova remnant and causes them to fluoresce. The process is similar to what lights household fluorescent bulbs, except that the supernova remnant glows in X-rays rather than visible light. The reverse shock wave is what allows us to see supernova remnants and study them, hundreds of years after the supernova occurred. More at http://earthsky.org/science-wire/mach-1000-shock-wave-lights-supernova-remnant?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=045d3fb0e0-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-045d3fb0e0-393647361

A fiery drama of star birth and death

The Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the closest galaxies to our own. Astronomers have now used the power of the ESO's Very Large Telescope to explore NGC 2035, one of its lesser known regions, in great detail. This new image shows clouds of gas and dust where hot new stars are being born and are sculpting their surroundings into odd shapes. But the image also shows the effects of stellar death -- filaments created by a supernova explosion (left). Credit: ESO.

2013.11.27. The Large Magellanic Cloud is one of the closest galaxies to

our own. Astronomers have now used the power of ESO's Very Large Telescope to explore one of its lesser known regions. This new image shows clouds of gas and dust where hot new stars are being born and are sculpting their surroundings into odd shapes. But the image also shows the effects of stellar death—filaments created by a supernova explosion. Located only about 160 000 light-years from us in the constellation of Dorado (The Swordfish), the Large Magellanic Cloud is one of our closest galactic neighbours. It is actively forming new stars in regions that are so bright that some can even be seen from Earth with the naked eye, such as the Tarantula Nebula. This new image, taken by ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, explores an area called NGC 2035 (right),

sometimes nicknamed the Dragon's Head Nebula. NGC 2035 is an HII region, or emission nebula, consisting of clouds of gas that glow due to the energetic radiation given off by young stars. This radiation strips electrons from atoms within the gas, which eventually recombine with other atoms and release light. Mixed in with the gas are dark clumps of dust that absorb rather than emit light, creating weaving lanes and dark shapes across the nebula. The filamentary shapes to the left in the image are the not the results of starbirth, but rather stellar death. It was created by one of the most violent events that can happen in the Universe—a supernova explosion. These explosions are so bright that they often briefly outshine their entire host galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. From looking at this image, it may be difficult to grasp the sheer size of these clouds—they are several hundred light-years across. And they are not in our galaxy, but far beyond. The Large Magellanic Cloud is enormous, but when compared to our own galaxy it is very modest in extent, spanning just 14 000 light-years—about ten times smaller than the Milky Way. This image was acquired using the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph instrument attached to ESO's Very Large Telescope, which is located at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, as part of the ESO Cosmic Gems programme. At http://phys.org/news/2013-11-fiery-drama-star-birth-death.html

The search for medium-sized black holes

The magenta spots in this image show two black holes in the spiral galaxy called NGC 1313, or the Topsy Turvy galaxy. Both black holes belong to a class called ultraluminous X-ray sources, or ULXs. The magenta X-ray data come from NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescopic Array, and are overlaid on a visible image from the Digitized Sky Survey. ULXs consist of black holes actively accreting, or feeding, off material drawn in from a partner star. Astronomers are trying to figure out why ULXs shine so brightly with X-rays. NuSTAR's new high-energy X-ray data on

NGC 1313 helped narrow down the masses of the black holes in the ULXs: the black hole closer to the center of the galaxy is about 70 to 100 times that of our sun. The other black hole is probably smaller, about 30 solar masses. Credit: JPL/NASA

Black holes can be petite, with masses only about 10 times that of our sun—or monstrous, boasting the equivalent in mass up to 10 billion suns. Do black holes also come in size medium? NASA's Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, or NuSTAR, is busy scrutinizing a class of black holes that may fall into the proposed medium-sized category.

"Exactly how intermediate-sized black holes would form remains an open issue," said Dominic Walton of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena. "Some theories suggest they could form in rich, dense clusters of stars through repeated mergers, but there are a lot of questions left to be answered." The largest black holes, referred to as supermassive, dominate the hearts of galaxies. The immense gravity of these black holes drags material toward them, forcing the material to heat up and release powerful X-rays. Small black holes dot the rest of the galactic landscape. They form under the crush of collapsing, dying stars bigger than our sun. Evidence for medium-sized black holes lying somewhere between these two extremes might come from objects called ultraluminous X-ray sources, or ULXs. These are pairs of objects in which a black hole ravenously feeds off a normal star. The feeding process is somewhat similar to what happens around supermassive black holes, but isn't as big and messy. In addition, ULXs are located throughout galaxies, not at the cores. The bright glow of X-rays coming from ULXs is too great to be the product of typical small black holes. This and other evidence indicates the objects may be intermediate in mass, with 100 to 10,000 times the mass of our sun.

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Alternatively, an explanation may lie in some kind of exotic phenomenon involving extreme accretion, or "feeding," of a black hole. NuSTAR is joining with other telescopes to take a closer look at ULXs. It's providing the first look at these objects in focused, high-energy X-rays, helping to get better estimates of their masses and other characteristics. In a new paper from Walton and colleagues accepted for publication in the Astrophysical Journal, the astronomers report serendipitously finding a ULX that had gone largely unnoticed before. They studied the object, which lies in the Circinus spiral galaxy 13 million light-years away, not only with NuSTAR but also with the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton satellite. Archival data from NASA's Chandra, Swift and Spitzer space telescopes as well as Japan's Suzaku satellite, were also used for further studies. "We went to town on this object, looking at a range of epochs and wavelengths," said Walton. The results indicate the black hole in question is about 100 times the mass of the sun, putting it right at the border between small and medium black holes.

In another accepted Astrophysical Journal paper, Matteo Bachetti of the Institut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie and colleagues looked at two ULXs in NGC 1313, a spiral galaxy known as the "Topsy Turvy galaxy," also about 13 million light-years way. These are among the best-studied ULXs known. A single viewing with NuSTAR showed that the black holes didn't fit with models of medium-size black holes. As a result, the researchers now think both ULXs harbor small, stellar-mass black holes. One of the objects is estimated to be big for its size category, at 70 to 100 solar masses. "It's possible that these objects are ultraluminous because they are accreting material at a high rate and not because of their size," said Bachetti. "If intermediate-mass black holes are out there, they are doing a good job of hiding from us." At http://phys.org/news/2013-11-medium-sized-black-holes.html

*Discovery* - New Star System Similar to Ours --“We Cannot Stress Just How Important This Discovery Is"

A team of European astrophysicists has discovered the most extensive planetary system to date that orbit star KOI-351 – with seven planets, more than in other known planetary systems arranged in a similar fashion to the eight planets in the Solar System, with small rocky planets close to the parent star and gas giant planets at greater distances. Although the planetary system around KOI-351 is packed together more tightly, “We cannot stress just how important this discovery is. It is a big step in the search for a ‘twin’ to the Solar System, and thus also in finding a second Earth,” said Juan Cabrera, an astrophysicist at the DLR Institute of Planetary Research in Berlin-Adlershof... Read More: http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2013/11/new-star-system-similar-to-ours-discovered-we-cannot-stress-just-how-important-this-discovery-is.html#more At FB page of Planetary Landscapes https://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=586878131378768&set=a.322690544464196.74729.322676901132227&type=1

Subtle Signals of Water Detected on Five Alien Worl ds Image Credit: NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

December 04, 2013. Using the powerful eye of NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, two teams of scientists have found faint signatures of water in the atmospheres of five

distant planets. The presence of atmospheric water was reported previously on a few exoplanets orbiting stars beyond our solar system, but this is the first study to conclusively measure and compare the profiles and intensities of these signatures on multiple worlds. "We're very confident that we see a water signature for multiple planets," said Avi Mandell, a planetary scientist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "This work really opens the door for comparing how much water is present in atmospheres on different kinds of exoplanets, for example hotter versus cooler ones." Although exoplanets are too far away to be imaged, detailed studies of their size, composition and atmospheric makeup are possible. This video explains how researchers investigate those characteristics. The five planets -- WASP-17b, HD209458b, WASP-12b, WASP-19b and XO-1b -- orbit nearby stars. The strengths of their water signatures varied. WASP-17b, a planet with an especially puffed-up atmosphere, and HD209458b had the strongest signals. The signatures for the other three planets, WASP-12b, WASP-19b and XO-1b, also are consistent with water. NASA scientists found faint signatures of water in the atmospheres of five distant planets orbiting three different stars. All five planets appear to be hazy. The studies were part of a census of exoplanet atmospheres led by L. Drake Deming of the University of Maryland in College Park. Both teams used Hubble's Wide Field Camera 3 to explore the details of absorption of light through the planets' atmospheres. The observations were made in a range of infrared wavelengths where the water signature, if present, would appear. The teams compared the shapes and intensities of the absorption profiles, and the consistency of the signatures gave them confidence they saw water. The observations demonstrate Hubble's continuing exemplary performance in exoplanet research.

"To actually detect the atmosphere of an exoplanet is extraordinarily difficult. But we were able to pull out a very clear signal, and it is water," said Deming, whose team reported results for HD209458b and XO-1b in a Sept. 10 paper in the same journal. Deming's team employed a new technique with longer exposure times, which increased the sensitivity of their measurements. illustration depicting the atmosphere of a planet absorbing and transmitting different wavelengths of its star's light to determine what’s in the atmosphere of an exoplanet, astronomers watch the planet pass in front of its host star and look at which wavelengths of light are transmitted and which are partially absorbed. The water signals were all less pronounced than expected, and the scientists suspect this is because a layer of haze or dust blankets each of the five planets. This haze can reduce the intensity of all signals from the atmosphere in the same way fog can make colors in a photograph appear muted. At the same time, haze alters the profiles of water signals and other important molecules in a distinctive way. The five planets are hot Jupiters, massive worlds that orbit close to their host stars. The researchers were initially surprised that all five appeared to be hazy. But Deming and Mandell noted that other researchers are finding evidence of haze around exoplanets. "These studies, combined with other Hubble observations, are showing us that there are a surprisingly large number of systems for which the signal of water is either attenuated or completely absent," said Heather Knutson of the California Institute of Technology, a co-author on Deming's paper. "This suggests that cloudy or hazy atmospheres may in fact be rather common for hot Jupiters." Hubble's high-performance Wide Field Camera 3 is one of few capable of peering into the atmospheres of exoplanets many trillions of miles away. These exceptionally challenging studies can be done only if the planets are spotted while they are passing in front of their stars. Researchers can identify the gases in a planet's atmosphere by determining which wavelengths of the star's light are transmitted and which are partially absorbed. The Daily Galaxy via NASA. At http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/2013/12/-subtle-signals-of-water-detected-on-five-alien-worlds.html

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Jewelled meteorite clue to Martian life GEMSTONE grains in a Martian meteorite have provided fresh evidence that the planet evolved at about the same time as earth, and may once have supported life. An analysis of one of the 70-odd Martian meteorites discovered so far, a chunk of rock found several years ago by Bedouins in the Sahara Desert, has revealed the first known fragments of zircon from the red planet.

While crystallised zircon is noted for its similarity to diamond, the mineral is significant to geoscientists because it provides clues about the formation of planetary crusts and points to the presence of water. “(It) proves there have been a lot of melting or magmatic processes, and allows us to lock down when these things happened,” said team member Allen Kennedy, a Curtin University physicist. “It allows us to look at how the crust was evolving and how things were changing very early in Martian history.”

The analysis, reported today in the journal Nature, suggests the zircons were formed by a re-melting of the original Martian crust about 4.5 billion years ago, coinciding with similar processes on the earth and the moon. Dr Kennedy said this re-melting may have been fuelled by radioactive decay of “short-lived isotopes” in the planet’s original crust, releasing gases that would have produced an entirely different atmosphere. While Mars had now lost much of its water and atmosphere, the findings indicated “there was water, an atmosphere and a different type of environment very early on”. “It gives some indication there may have been conditions that would allow some sort of life on Mars. Perhaps there was an environment that could have had a biosphere of some sort, (with) little bugs or microbes.” Studies so far only indicate the possibility of conditions conducive to life, with more research needed to tell whether life actually existed. But Dr Kennedy said Mars and earth shared similar early histories. “The more information that comes in, the more we realise Mars, the moon and earth all had these types of early evolutionary periods,” he said. At http://www.theaustralian.com.au/higher-education/jewelled-meteorite-clue-to-martian-life/story-e6frgcjx-1226764624106

Two supermassive black holes in death spiral

Two black holes are entwined in a gravitational tango in this artist’s conception. Supermassive black holes at the hearts of galaxies are thought to form through the merging of smaller, yet still massive black holes, such as the ones depicted here. Image credit: NASA

DEC 04, 2013. Astronomers have spotted what appear to be two supermassive black holes 3.8 billion light-years from Earth, circling each other like dance partners. The incredibly rare sighting of what appear to be two supermassive black holes at the heart of a remote galaxy was made with the help of NASA’s Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE. Follow-up observations with the Australian Telescope Compact Array near Narrabri, Australia, and the Gemini South telescope in Chile, revealed unusual features in the galaxy, including a lumpy jet thought to be the result of one black hole causing the jet of the other to sway. “We think the jet of one black hole is being wiggled by the other, like a dance with ribbons,” said Chao-Wei Tsai of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., who is lead author of a paper on the findings appearing in the Dec. 10 issue of Astrophysical Journal. “If so, it is likely the two black holes are fairly close and gravitationally entwined.” The findings could teach astronomers more about how supermassive black holes grow by merging with each other. The WISE satellite scanned the entire sky twice in infrared wavelengths before being put into hibernation in 2011. NASA recently gave the spacecraft a second lease on life, waking it up to search for asteroids, in a project called NEOWISE. The new study took advantage of previously released all-sky WISE data. Astronomers sifted through images of millions of actively feeding supermassive black holes spread throughout our sky before an oddball, also known as WISE J233237.05-505643.5, jumped out. “At first we thought this galaxy’s unusual properties seen by WISE might mean it was forming new stars at a furious rate,” said Peter Eisenhardt, WISE project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., and a co-author of the study. “But on closer inspection, it looks more like the death spiral of merging giant black holes.” Almost every large galaxy is thought to harbor a supermassive black hole filled with the equivalent in mass of up to billions of suns. How did the black holes grow so large? One way is by swallowing ambient materials. Another way is through galactic cannibalism. When galaxies collide, their massive black holes sink to the center of the new structure, becoming locked in a

gravitational tango. Eventually, they merge into one even-more-massive black hole. The dance of these black hole duos starts out slowly, with the objects circling each other at a distance of about a few thousand light-years. So far, only a few handfuls of supermassive black holes have been conclusively identified in this early phase of merging. As the black holes continue to spiral in toward each other, they get closer, separated by just a few light-years. It is these close-knit black holes, also called black hole binaries, that have been the hardest to find. The objects are usually too small to be resolved even by powerful telescopes. Only a few strong candidates have been identified to date, all relatively nearby. The new WISE J233237.05-505643.5 is a new candidate, and located much farther away, at 3.8 billion light-years from Earth. Radio images with the Australian Telescope Compact Array were key to identifying the dual nature of WISE J233237.05-505643.5. Supermassive black holes at the cores of galaxies typically shoot out pencil-straight jets, but, in this case, the jet showed a zigzag pattern. According to the scientists, a second massive black hole could, in essence, be pushing its weight around to change the shape of the other black hole’s jet. Visible-light spectral data from the Gemini South telescope in Chile showed similar signs of abnormalities, thought to be the result of one black hole causing disk material surrounding the other black hole to clump. Together, these and other signs point to what is probably a fairly close-knit set of circling black holes, though the scientists can’t say for sure how much distance separates them. “We note some caution in interpreting this mysterious system,” said Daniel Stern of JPL, a co-author of the study. “There are several extremely unusual properties to this system, from the multiple radio jets to the Gemini data, which indicate a highly perturbed disk of accreting material around the black hole, or holes. Two merging black holes, which should be a common event in the universe, would appear to be simplest explanation to explain all the current observations.” The final stage of merging black holes is predicted to send gravitational waves rippling through space and time. Researchers are actively searching for these waves using arrays of dead stars called pulsars in hopes of learning more about the veiled black hole dancers (see http://www.nasa.gov/centers/jpl/news/pulsar20131106.html). The technical paper is online at http://arxiv.org/abs/1310.2257. Via NASA. At http://earthsky.org/science-wire/two-supermassive-black-holes-in-death-spiral?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=4c7956187c-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-4c7956187c-393647361

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Astronomers discover planet that shouldn’t be there Artist’s conception of a young planet in a distant orbit around its host star. The star still harbors a debris disk, remnant material from star and planet formation, interior to the planet’s orbit (similar to the HD106906 system). Image credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

DEC 05, 2013. The discovery of a giant planet orbiting its star at 650 times the average Earth-sun distance has astronomers puzzled

over how such a strange system came to be. An international team of astronomers, led by a University of Arizona graduate student, has discovered the most distantly orbiting planet found to date around a single, sun-like star. It is the first exoplanet – a planet outside of our solar system – discovered at the UA. Weighing in at 11 times Jupiter’s mass and orbiting its star at 650 times the average Earth-Sun distance, planet HD 106906 b is unlike anything in our own Solar System and throws a wrench in planet formation theories. “This system is especially fascinating because no model of either planet or star formation fully explains what we see,” said Vanessa Bailey, who led the research. Bailey is a fifth-year graduate student in the UA’s Department of Astronomy.

It is thought that planets close to their stars, like Earth, coalesce from small asteroid-like bodies born in the primordial disk of dust and gas that surrounds a forming star. However, this process acts too slowly to grow giant planets far from their star. Another proposed mechanism is that giant planets can form from a fast, direct collapse of disk material. However, primordial disks rarely contain enough mass in their outer reaches to allow a planet like HD 106906 b to form. Several alternative hypotheses have been put forward, including formation like a mini binary star system. “A binary star system can be formed when two adjacent clumps of gas collapse more or less independently to form stars, and these stars are close enough to each other to exert a mutual gravitation attraction and bind them together in an orbit,” Bailey explained. “It is possible that in the case of the HD 106906 system the star and planet collapsed independently from clumps of gas, but for some reason the planet’s progenitor clump was starved for material and never grew large enough to ignite and become a star.” According to Bailey, one problem with this scenario is that the mass ratio of the two stars in a binary system is typically no more than 10-to-1. “In our case, the mass ratio is more than 100-to-1,” she explained. “This extreme mass ratio is not predicted from binary star formation theories – just like planet formation theory predicts that we cannot form planets so far from the host star.” More at http://earthsky.org/science-wire/astronomers-discover-planet-that-shouldnt-be-there?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=aa5d121c13-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-aa5d121c13-393647361

Water seems to flow freely on Mars

Maggie McKee, 10 December 2013. Dark streaks that hint at seasonally flowing water have been spotted near the equator of Mars1. The potentially habitable oases are enticing targets for research. But spacecraft will probably have to steer clear of them unless the craft are carefully sterilized — a costly safeguard against interplanetary contamination that may rule out the sites for exploration. River-like valleys attest to the flow of water on ancient Mars, but today the planet is dry and has an atmosphere that is too thin to support liquid water on the surface for long. However, intriguing clues suggest that water may still run across the surface from time to time.

In 2011, for example, researchers who analysed images from NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) spacecraft observed dark streaks a few metres wide that appeared and lengthened at the warmest time of the year, then faded in cooler seasons, reappearing in subsequent years2. "This behaviour is easy to understand if these are seeps of water," says planetary scientist Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona in Tucson, who led that study. "Water will darken most soils." The streaks, known as recurring slope lineae, initially were found at seven sites in Mars's southern mid-latitudes. The water may have come from ice trapped about a metre below the surface; indeed, the MRO has spotted such ice in fresh impact craters at those latitudes. McEwen and his colleagues have now found the reappearing streaks near the equator, including in the gargantuan Valles Marineris canyon that lies just south of it. The MRO has turned up 12 new sites — each of which has hundreds or thousands of streaks — within 25 degrees of the equator. The temperatures there are relatively warm throughout the year, says McEwen, and without a mechanism for replenishment, any subsurface ice would probably already have sublimated. He says that this suggests that water may come from groundwater deep in the crust, which could have implications for Martian life: "The subsurface is probably the best place to find present-day life if it exists at all because it is protected from the radiation and temperature extremes," he says. "Maybe some of that water occasionally leaks out onto the surface, where we could see evidence for that subsurface life. More at http://www.nature.com/news/water-seems-to-flow-freely-on-mars-1.14343

Hubble discovers water vapour venting from Jupiter’ s moon Europa

12 December 2013. The NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope has discovered water vapour erupting from the frigid surface of Jupiter’s moon Europa, in one or more localised plumes near its south pole.

Europa is already thought to harbour a liquid ocean beneath its icy crust, making the moon one of the main targets in the search for habitable worlds

away from Earth. This new finding is the first observational evidence of water vapour being ejected off the moon's surface. "The discovery that water vapour is ejected near the south pole strengthens Europa's position as the top candidate for potential habitability," said lead author Lorenz Roth of the Southwest Research Institute in San Antonio, Texas. "However, we do not know yet if these plumes are connected to subsurface liquid water or not." The Hubble findings will be published in the 12 December online issue of Science Express, and are being reported today at the meeting of the American Geophysical Union in San Francisco, California, USA. The Hubble discovery makes Europa only the second moon in the Solar System known to have water vapour plumes. In 2005, plumes of water vapour and dust were detected by NASA's Cassini orbiter spewing off the surface of the Saturnian moon Enceladus.

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The Europa plumes were discovered by Hubble observations in December 2012. The Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) detected faint ultraviolet light from an aurora at the moon's south pole. This aurora is driven by Jupiter's intense magnetic field, which causes particles to reach such high speeds that they can split the water molecules in the plume when they hit them, resulting in oxygen and hydrogen ions which leave their telltale imprint in the colours of the aurora. So far, only water vapour has been detected — unlike the plumes on Enceladus, which also contain ice and dust particles. "We pushed Hubble to its limits to see this very faint emission," said co-lead author and principal investigator of the Hubble observing campaign Joachim Saur of the University of Cologne, Germany. "Only after a particular camera on the Hubble Space Telescope had been repaired on the last servicing mission by the Space Shuttle did we gain the sensitivity to really search for these plumes." Roth suggests long cracks on Europa's surface, known as linea, might be venting water vapour into space. Similar fissures have been photographed near Enceladus's south pole by the Cassini spacecraft. It is unknown how deep inside Europa's crust the source of the water may be. Roth asks, "Do

the vents extend down to a subsurface ocean or are the ejecta simply from warmed ice caused by friction stresses near the surface?" Also like Enceladus, the Hubble team found that the intensity of the plumes varies with Europa's orbital position. Active geysers have only been seen when the moon is furthest from Jupiter. But the researchers could not detect any sign of venting when Europa is closer to Jupiter. One explanation is that the long fractures in the ice crust experience more stress as gravitational tidal forces push and pull on the moon and so open vents at larger distances from Jupiter. The vents are narrowed or closed when at closest approach to the gas giant planet. Team member Kurt Retherford, also of the Southwest Research Institute, points out that "the plume variability supports a key prediction that we should see this kind of tidal effect if there is a subsurface ocean on Europa". Future space probe missions to Europa could confirm that the exact locations and sizes of vents and determine whether they connect to liquid subsurface reservoirs. It is important news for missions such as ESA's JUpiter ICy moons Explorer, a mission planned for launch in 2022, and which aims to explore both Jupiter and three of its largest moons: Ganymede, Callisto, and Europa. More at http://www.spacetelescope.org/news/heic1322/

Other stories − Astronomers Solve Temperature Mystery of Planetary Atmospheres.

Dec. 10, 2013. http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/12/131210091134.htm?utm_source=feedburner&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=Feed%3A+sciencedaily%2Fearth_climate+%28ScienceDaily%3A+Earth+%26+Climate+News%29

− Exoplanet Habitable Zone Around Sunlike Stars Bigger Than Thought. by Miriam Kramer, December 11, 2013. http://www.space.com/23921-habitable-zone-exoplanets-sunlike-stars.html

INTERESTING SITES

A Portrait of Global Winds - http://orbiterchspacenews.blogspot.com/2013/11/a-portrait-of-global-winds.html NASA A-Z List of Publications - The following list includes the titles of the official NASA education print publications. The list makes it easy to locate specific publications http://www.nasa.gov/audience/foreducators/topnav/materials/A-Z_Pubs.html#A International Space Station - Spot The Station - http://spotthestation.nasa.gov/ RSOE EDIS - Emergency and Disaster Information Service - http://hisz.rsoe.hu/alertmap/index2.php Karoo Shale Gas - http://www.karooshalegas.org/ Zambia: The Worlds Largest Emerald Mine (Video) - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ecL6nMl20a8 Video: Flying over an extraterrestrial land of lakes - http://earthsky.org/science-wire/video-flying-over-an-extraterrestrial-land-of-lakes?utm_source=EarthSky+News&utm_campaign=881d770e0a-EarthSky_News&utm_medium=email&utm_term=0_c643945d79-881d770e0a-393647361 LITERATURE ON AFRICA

• Jessica R. Stanley, Rebecca M. Flowers, and David R. Bell. Kimberlite (U-Th)/He dating links surface erosion with lithospheric heating, thinning, and metasomatism in the southern African Plateau. Geology 2013;41 1243-1246 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/12/1243?etoc • J.J. van Tol, P.A.L. Le Roux, S.A. Lorentz, and M. Hensley. Hydropedological Classification of South African Hillslopes. Vadose Zone Journal. 2013; 12(4): p. vzj2013.01.0007 Open Access http://vzj.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/4/vzj2013.01.0007?ct=ct • Sabastine Ugbemuna Ugbaje and Hannes Isaak Reuter. Functional Digital Soil Mapping for the Prediction of Available Water Capacity in Nigeria using Legacy Data. Vadose Zone Journal. 2013; 12(4): p. vzj2013.07.0140 http://vzj.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/4/vzj2013.07.0140?ct=ct • Catherine Cronier, Fatima Zohara Malti, Angela Francois, Madani Benyoucef, and Denise Brice. First occurrence of a phacopid trilobite faunule from the Upper Devonian of Saoura Valley, Algeria and biodiversity fluctuations. Geological Magazine 2013;150 1002-1021 http://geolmag.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/6/1002?etoc • T.S. Mccarthy. The Okavango Delta And Its Place In The Geomorphological Evolution Of Southern Africa. South African Journal of Geology, June 2013, v. 116, p. 1-54,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.1 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • H. Mouri, W.D. Maier, And G. Brandl. On The Possible Occurrence Of Komatiites In The Archaean High-Grade Polymetamorphic Central Zone Of The Limpopo Belt, South Africa. South African Journal of Geology, June 2013, v. 116, p. 55-66,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.55 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • A.E. Moore. Anatomy Of A Distal Kimberlite Indicator Mineral (Kim) Anomaly In The Central Kalahari, Botswana. South African Journal of Geology, June 2013,

v. 116, p. 67-78,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.67 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • H. Siemes. Microstructure And Crystallographic Preferred Orientation (Cpo) Of Hematite Ores From The Sishen Mine, Northern Cape Province, South Africa.

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South African Journal of Geology, June 2013, v. 116, p. 79-100,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.79 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • C. Harris, D.S. Fourie, and A. Fagereng. Stable Isotope Evidence For Impact-Related Pseudotachylite Formation At Vredefort By Local Melting Of Dry Rocks. South African Journal of Geology, June 2013, v. 116, p. 101-118,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.101 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • Wilson, B. Groenewald, and C. Palmer. Volcanic And Volcaniclastic Rocks Of The Mesoarchaean Pongola Supergroup In South Africa And Swaziland: Distribution, Physical Characteristics, Stratigraphy And Correlations. South African Journal of Geology, June 2013, v. 116, p. 119-168,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.119 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • Tshibubudze, K.A.A. Hein, L.F.H. Peters, A.J. Woolfe, and T.C. McCuaig. Oldest U-Pb Crystallisation Age For The West African Craton From The Oudalan-Gorouol Belt Of Burkina Faso. South African Journal of Geology, June 2013, v. 116, p. 169-181,doi:10.2113/gssajg.116.1.169 http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/content/116/1.toc • Matías Reolid, Saïd Chakiri, Zohra Bejjaji. Adaptative strategies of the Toarcian benthic foraminiferal assemblages from the Middle Atlas (Morocco): Palaeoecological implications. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 84, Pages 1-12 (August 2013)

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/84 • U.A. Lar, C.S. Ngozi-Chika, E.C. Ashano. Human exposure to lead and other potentially harmful elements associated with galena mining at New Zurak, central Nigeria. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 84, Pages 13-19 (August 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/84 • Rigobert Tchameni, Jean Claude Doumnang, Marambaye Deudibaye, Yannick Branquet. On the occurrence of gold mineralization in the Pala Neoproterozoic

formations, South-Western Chad. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 84, Pages 36-46 (August 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/84 • Hanane Reddad, Issam Etabaai, Ali Rhoujjati, Maurice Taieb, Florian Thevenon, Brahim Damnati. Fire activity in North West Africa during the last 30,000 cal years BP inferred from a charcoal record from Lake Ifrah (Middle atlas–Morocco): Climatic implications. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 84, Pages

47-53 (August 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/84 • Abdellah Ait Addi, Driss Chafiki. Sedimentary evolution and palaeogeography of mid-Jurassic deposits of the Central High Atlas, Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 84, Pages 54-69 (August 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/84 • Maurice Kwékam, Pascal Affaton, Olivier Bruguier, Jean-Paul Liégeois, Gerald Hartmann, Emmanuel Njonfang. The Pan-African Kekem gabbro-norite (West-Cameroon), U–Pb zircon age, geochemistry and Sr–Nd isotopes: Geodynamical implication for the evolution of the Central African fold belt. Journal of African

Earth Sciences, Volume 84, Pages 70-88(August 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/84 • Abla Azzouni-Sekkal, Bernard Bonin, Riad Ben El Khaznadji. Occurrence of fluororichterite and fluorian biotite in the In Tifar trachyte neck (Tazrouk district, Hoggar volcanic province, Sahara, Algeria). Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 1-12 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Nawal Al Farrah, Marc Van Camp, Kristine Walraevens. Deducing transmissivity from specific capacity in the heterogeneous upper aquifer system of Jifarah Plain, NW-Libya. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 12-21 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • W.A. Gose, R.E. Hanson, R.E. Harmer, E.K. Seidel. Reconnaissance paleomagnetic studies of Mesoproterozoic alkaline igneous complexes in the Kaapvaal craton, South Africa. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 22-30 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Samir M. Zaid. Provenance, diagenesis, tectonic setting and reservoir quality of the sandstones of the Kareem Formation, Gulf of Suez, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 31-52 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Denis Geraads, René Bobe, Fredrick Kyalo Manthi. New ruminants (Mammalia) from the Pliocene of Kanapoi, Kenya, and a revision of previous collections, with a note on the Suidae. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 53-61 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • W. Toé, O. Vanderhaeghe, A.-S. André-Mayer, J.-L. Feybesse, J.-P. Milési. From migmatites to granites in the Pan-African Damara orogenic belt, Namibia.

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 62-74 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Etienne Jaillard, Thierry Dumont, Jamel Ouali, Jean-Pierre Bouillin, Abir Chihaoui, Jean-Louis Latil, Hubert Arnaud, Annie Arnaud-Vanneau, Ihsen Zghal. The Albian tectonic “crisis” in Central Tunisia: Nature and chronology of the deformations. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 75-86 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Mohamed F. Abdelwahed, Sami El-Khrepy, Atef Qaddah. Three-dimensional structure of Conrad and Moho discontinuities in Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 87-102 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Behnam Sadeghi, Masoumeh Khalajmasoumi, Peyman Afzal, Parviz Moarefvand, Amir Bijan Yasrebi, Andy Wetherelt, Patrick Foster, Afshar Ziazarifi. Using ETM+ and ASTER sensors to identify iron occurrences in the Esfordi 1:100,000 mapping sheet of Central Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 103-114 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • M.H. Masoud, M. Schneider, M.M. El Osta. Recharge flux to the Nubian Sandstone aquifer and its impact on the present development in southwest Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 85, Pages 115-124 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/85 • Mohamed Ali Tagorti, Elhoucine Essefi, Jamel Touir, Rihab Guellala, Chokri Yaich. Geochemical controls of groundwaters upwelling in saline environments: Case study the discharge playa of Sidi El Hani (Sahel, Tunisia). Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 1-9 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86John Takem Eyong, Paul Wignall, Wilson Yetoh Fantong, Jim Best, Joseph Victor Hell. Paragenetic

sequences of carbonate and sulphide minerals of the Mamfe Basin (Cameroon): Indicators of palaeo-fluids, palaeo-oxygen levels and diagenetic zones. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 25-44 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86Sandow Mark Yidana, Larry Pax Chegbeleh. The hydraulic conductivity field and groundwater flow in the unconfined aquifer system of the Keta Strip, Ghana. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 45-52 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86Shimba Kwelwa, Shukrani Manya, Ivo M.A. Vos. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of intrusions at the Golden Pride gold deposit in the Nzega greenstone belt, Tanzania. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 53-64 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86H. Fritz, M. Abdelsalam, K.A. Ali, B. Bingen, A.S. Collins, A.R. Fowler, W. Ghebreab, C.A. Hauzenberger, P.R. Johnson, T.M. Kusky, P. Macey, S. Muhongo, R.J. Stern, G. Viola. Orogen styles in the East African Orogen: A review of the Neoproterozoic to Cambrian tectonic evolution. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 65-106 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86Shukrani Manya. Geochemistry and U–Pb zircon dating of the high-K calc-alkaline basaltic andesitic lavas from the Buanji Group, south-western Tanzania. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 107-118 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86M. Gomo, D. Vermeulen. Investigation of hydrogeochemical processes in groundwater resources located in the vicinity of a mine process water dam. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 86, Pages 119-128 (October 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/86B. Moussaid, H. El Ouardi, A. Casas-Sainz, J.J. Villalaín, T. Román-Berdiel, B. Oliva-Urcia, R. Soto, S. Torres-López. Magnetic fabrics in the Jurassic–Cretaceous continental basins of the northern part of the Central High Atlas (Morocco): Geodynamic implications. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 13-32 (November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87

• M.E. Sanz-Montero, H. Wanas, M.B. Muñoz-García, L. González-Acebrón, M.V. López. The uppermost deposits of the stratigraphic succession of the Farafra Depression (Western Desert, Egypt): Evolution to a Post-Eocene continental event. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 33-43 (November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • Nsifa Nkonguin Emmanuel, Tchameni Rigobert, Nédélec Anne, Siqueira Roberto, Pouclet André, Bascou Jérôme. Structure and petrology of Pan-African nepheline syenites from the South West Cameroon; Implications for their emplacement mode, petrogenesis and geodynamic significance. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 44-58 (November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • Mohammad Sahraeyan, Mohammad Bahrami, Mohammad Hooshmand, Shahid Ghazi, Ali Ismail Al-Juboury. Sedimentary facies and diagenetic features of the Early Cretaceous Fahliyan Formation in the Zagros Fold-Thrust Belt, Iran. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 59-70 (November 2013),

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http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • M. Descloitres, K. Chalikakis, A. Legchenko, A.M. Moussa, P. Genthon, G. Favreau, M. Le Coz, M. Boucher, M. Oï. Investigation of groundwater resources in the Komadugu Yobe Valley (Lake Chad Basin, Niger) using MRS and TDEM methods. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 71-85 (November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • Nicolas Vialle, Gilles Merzeraud, Cyrille Delmer, Monique Feist, Suzanne Jiquel, Laurent Marivaux, Anusha Ramdarshan, Monique Vianey-Liaud, El Mabrouk Essid, Wissem Marzougui, Hayet Khayati Ammar, Rodolphe Tabuce. Discovery of an embrithopod mammal (Arsinoitherium?) in the late Eocene of Tunisia.

Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 85-92 (November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • Abdelbaset El-Sorogy, Ahmed El Kammar, Abdelmohsen Ziko, Mohsen Aly, Hamdy Nour. Gastropod shells as pollution indicators, Red Sea coast, Egypt. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 93-99 (November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • Adel Zghibi, Jamila Tarhouni, Lahcen Zouhri. Assessment of seawater intrusion and nitrate contamination on the groundwater quality in the Korba coastal plain of Cap-Bon (North-east of Tunisia). Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 87, Pages 1-12 (November 2013),

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/87 • Hind Ghanem, Ghaleb H. Jarrar. Geochemistry and petrogenesis of the 595 Ma shoshonitic Qunai monzogabbro, Jordan. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 1-14 (December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • C.K. Mosoh Bambi, H.E. Frimmel, A. Zeh, C.E. Suh. Age and origin of Pan-African granites and associated U–Mo mineralization at Ekomédion, southwestern

Cameroon. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 15-37 (December 2013) -http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • Hamid Slimani, Abdelkabir Toufiq. A Cretaceous–Palaeogene boundary geological site, revealed by planktic foraminifera and dinoflagellate cysts, at Ouled Haddou, eastern external Rif Chain, Morocco. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 38-52 (December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • Sphiwe Emmanuel Mhlongo, Francis Amponsah-Dacosta, Nndweleni Fredrick Mphephu. Rehabilitation prioritization of abandoned mines and its application to Nyala Magnesite Mine. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 53-61 (December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • Maria Helena Henriques, Alexandre O. Tavares, Abel L.M. Bala. The geological heritage of Tundavala (Angola): An integrated approach to its characterization. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 62-71 (December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • F. Delpomdor, C. Blanpied, A. Virgone, A. Préat. Paleoenvironments in Meso–Neoproterozoic carbonates of the Mbuji-Mayi Supergroup (Democratic Republic of Congo) – Microfacies analysis combined with C–O–Sr isotopes, major-trace elements and REE + Y distributions. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 72-100 (December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • André Michard, Dominique Frizon de Lamotte, Mohamad Hafid, André Charrière, Hamid Haddoumi, Hassan Ibouh. Comment on “The Jurassic–Cretaceous basaltic magmatism of the Oued El-Abid syncline (High Atlas, Morocco): Physical volcanology, geochemistry and geodynamic implications” by Bensalah et al.,

J. Afr. Earth Sci. 81 (2013) 60–81. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 101-105 (December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • M. Mbina Mounguengui, J. Lang, M. Guiraud. Erratum to “Sedimentary dynamics and extensional structuring related to Early Cretaceous rifting of Neocomian and Barremian deposits of the interior basin of Gabon” [J. African Earth Sci. 51 (5) (2008) 239–256]. Journal of African Earth Sciences, Volume 88, Pages 106

(December 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X/88 • G.H. Grantham, P.H. Macey, K. Horie, T. Kawakami, M. Ishikawa, M. Satish-Kumar, N. Tsuchiya, P. Graser, S. Azevedo. Comparison of the metamorphic history of the Monapo Complex, northern Mozambique and Balchenfjella and Austhameren areas, Sør Rondane, Antarctica: Implications for the Kuunga Orogeny and the amalgamation of N and S. Gondwana. Precambrian Research, Volume 234, Pages 85-135 (September 2013) - Crossing of Neoproterozoic

orogens, Edited by M. Satish Kumar and Tomokazu Hokada. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/234 • Gregory J. Retallack, Evelyn S. Krull, Glenn D. Thackray, Dula Parkinson. Problematic urn-shaped fossils from a Paleoproterozoic (2.2 Ga) paleosol in South Africa. Precambrian Research, Volume 235, Pages 71-87 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/235 • Boukare Tapsoba, Ching-Hua Lo, Urbain Wenmenga, Bor-Ming Jahn, Sun-Lin Chung. 40Ar/39Ar thermochronology of Paleoproterozoic granitoids of northeast Burkina Faso, West African Craton: Implications for regional tectonics. • Precambrian Research, Volume 235, Pages 208-229 (September 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/235 • Nasrrddine Youbi, Djiky Kouyaté, Ulf Söderlund, Richard E. Ernst, Abderrahmane Soulaimani, Ahmid Hafid, Moha Ikenne, Abdelhakim El Bahat, Hervé Bertrand, Khalid Rkha Chaham, Mohamed Ben Abbou, Abdelaziz Mortaji, Mustapha El Ghorfi, Mohamed Zouhair, M’hamed El Janati. The 1750 Ma Magmatic Event of the West African Craton (Anti-Atlas, Morocco). Precambrian Research, Volume 236, Pages 106-123 (October 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/236 • Daouda Dawaï, Jean-Luc Bouchez, Jean-Louis Paquette, Rigobert Tchameni. The Pan-African quartz-syenite of Guider (north-Cameroon): Magnetic fabric and U–Pb dating of a late-orogenic emplacement. Precambrian Research, Volume 236, Pages 132-144 (October 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/236 • Janine Cole, Carol A. Finn, Susan J. Webb. Overview of the magnetic signatures of the Palaeoproterozoic Rustenburg Layered Suite, Bushveld Complex, South

Africa. Precambrian Research, Volume 236, Pages 193-213 (October 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/236 • C. Ishwar-Kumar, B.F. Windley, K. Horie, T. Kato, T. Hokada, T. Itaya, K. Yagi, C. Gouzu, K. Sajeev. A Rodinian suture in western India: New insights on India-Madagascar correlations. Precambrian Research, Volume 236, Pages 227-251 (October 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/236 • Ayelet Weissman, Ronit Kessel, Oded Navon, Mordechai Stein. The petrogenesis of calc-alkaline granites from the Elat massif, Northern Arabian–Nubian shield. Precambrian Research, Volume 236, Pages 252-264 (October 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/236 • Brian Kendall, David van Acken, Robert A. Creaser. Depositional age of the early Paleoproterozoic Klipputs Member, Nelani Formation (Ghaap Group, Transvaal Supergroup, South Africa) and implications for low-level Re–Os geochronology and Paleoproterozoic global correlations. Precambrian Research, Volume 237, Pages 1-12 (October 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/237 • Jodie A. Miller, Carly Faber, Christie D. Rowe, Paul H. Macey, Anton du Plessis. Eastward transport of the Monapo Klippe, Mozambique determined from field kinematics and computed tomography and implications for late tectonics in central Gondwana. Precambrian Research, Volume 237, Pages 101-115 (October -

2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268/237 • Chokri Jallouli, Saad Mogren, Kevin Mickus, Mohamed Moncef Turki. Evidence for an east–west regional gravity trend in northern Tunisia: Insight into the structural evolution of northern Tunisian Atlas. Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 149-160 (26 November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • Stavros Arsenikos, Dominique Frizon de Lamotte, Nicolas Chamot-Rooke, Geoffroy Mohn, Marie-Claude Bonneau, Christian Blanpied. Mechanism and timing of tectonic inversion in Cyrenaica (Libya): Integration in the geodynamics of the East Mediterranean. Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 319-329 (26 November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • S.H. Büttner, S. Sherlock, L. Fryer, J. Lodge, T. Diale, R. Kazondunge, P. Macey. Controls of host rock mineralogy and H2O content on the nature of pseudotachylyte melts: Evidence from Pan-African faulting in the foreland of the Gariep Belt, South Africa. Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 552-575 (26

November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • Youssef Belguith, Laurent Geoffroy, Regis Mourgues, Adel Rigane. Analogue modelling of Late Miocene–Early Quaternary continental crustal extension in the Tunisia–Sicily Channel area. Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 576-585 (26 November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • Carmen Martinez-Arevalo, Flor de Lis Mancilla, George Helffrich, Alicia Garcia. Seismic evidence of a regional sublithospheric low velocity layer beneath the

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Canary Islands. Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 586-599 (26 November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • Federico Rossetti, Andrea Dini, Federico Lucci, Mohamed Bouybaouenne, Claudio Faccenna. Early Miocene strike-slip tectonics and granite emplacement in the Alboran Domain (Rif Chain, Morocco): significance for the geodynamic evolution of Western Mediterranean. Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 774-791 (26 November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • Mary-Alix Kaczmarek, Steven M. Reddy. Mantle deformation during rifting: Constraints from quantitative microstructural analysis of olivine from the East African Rift (Marsabit, Kenya). Tectonophysiscs, Volume 608, Pages 1122-1137 (26 November 2013), http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • J. Robinet, P. Razin, J. Serra-Kiel, A. Gallardo-Garcia, S. Leroy, J. Roger, C. Grelaud. The Paleogene pre-rift to syn-rift succession in the Dhofar margin (northeastern Gulf of Aden): Stratigraphy and depositional environments. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 1-16 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • Raphaël Pik, Nicolas Bellahsen, Sylvie Leroy, Yoann Denèle, Philippe Razin, Abdulhakim Ahmed, Khaled Khanbari. Structural control of basement denudation during rifting revealed by low-temperature (U–Th–Sm)/He thermochronology of the Socotra Island basement—Southern Gulf of Aden margin. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 17-31 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • N. Bellahsen, S. Leroy, J. Autin, P. Razin, E. d'Acremont, H. Sloan, R. Pik, A. Ahmed, K. Khanbari. Pre-existing oblique transfer zones and transfer/transform relationships in continental margins: New insights from the southeastern Gulf of Aden, Socotra Island, Yemen. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 32-50 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • Julia Autin, Nicolas Bellahsen, Sylvie Leroy, Laurent Husson, Marie-Odile Beslier, Elia d'Acremont. The role of structural inheritance in oblique rifting: Insights from analogue models and application to the Gulf of Aden. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 151-64 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • Sascha Brune, Julia Autin. The rift to break-up evolution of the Gulf of Aden: Insights from 3D numerical lithospheric-scale modelling. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 65-79 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • N. Bellahsen, L. Husson, J. Autin, S. Leroy, E. d'Acremont. The effect of thermal weakening and buoyancy forces on rift localization: Field evidences from the Gulf of Aden oblique rifting. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the

YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 80-97 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • Derek Keir, Ian D. Bastow, Carolina Pagli, Emma L. Chambers. The development of extension and magmatism in the Red Sea rift of Afar. Edited by Gwenn Peron-Pinvidic and Per Terje Osmundsen: The Gulf of Aden rifted margins system : Special Issue dedicated to the YOCMAL project (Young Conjugate Margins

Laboratory in the Gulf of Aden). Tectonophysics, Volume 607, Pages 98-114 (11 November 2013) http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/607 • Carmen Gaina, Trond H. Torsvik, Douwe J.J. van Hinsbergen, Sergei Medvedev, Stephanie C. Werner, Cinthia Labails. The African Plate: A history of oceanic crust accretion and subduction since the Jurassic. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A. Glasmacher (Eds.): Progress in understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 4-25 (24 September 2013).

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • Joana Kristin Rohde, Paul van den Bogaard, Kaj Hoernle, Folkmar Hauff, Reinhard Werner. Evidence for an age progression along the Tristan-Gough volcanic track from new 40Ar/39Ar ages on phenocryst phases. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A. Glasmacher (Eds.): Progress in understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 60-71 (24 September 2013). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • Yuriy P. Maystrenko, Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, Alexander Hartwig, Zahie Anka, Antony B. Watts, Katja K. Hirsch, Stewart Fishwick. Structural features of the Southwest African continental margin according to results of lithosphere-scale 3D gravity and thermal modelling. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A. Glasmacher (Eds.): Progress in understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 104-121 (24 September 2013). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • O. Dauteuil, D. Rouby, J. Braun, F. Guillocheau, F. Deschamps. Post-breakup evolution of the Namibian margin: Constraints from numerical modeling. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A. Glasmacher (Eds.): Progress in understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 122-138 (24 September 2013). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • C. von Nicolai, M. Scheck-Wenderoth, M. Warsitzka, N. Schødt, J. Andersen. The deep structure of the South Atlantic Kwanza Basin — Insights from 3D structural and gravimetric modelling. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A. Glasmacher (Eds.): Progress in

understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 139-152 (24 September 2013). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • Zahie Anka, Robert Ondrak, Astrid Kowitz, Niels Schødt. Identification and numerical modelling of hydrocarbon leakage in the Lower Congo Basin: Implications on the genesis of km-wide seafloor mounded structures. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A. Glasmacher (Eds.):

Progress in understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 153-171 (24 September 2013). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • Gabriela Marcano, Zahie Anka, Rolando di Primio. Major controlling factors on hydrocarbon generation and leakage in South Atlantic conjugate margins: A comparative study of Colorado, Orange, Campos and Lower Congo basins. Magdalena Scheck-Wenderoth, François Roure, Hans-Peter Bunge and Ulrich A.

Glasmacher (Eds.): Progress in understanding the South Atlantic margins. Tectonophysics, Volume 604, Pages 172-190 (24 September 2013). http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951/604 • Rui Castanhinha, ., Ricardo Araújo, Luís C. Júnior, Kenneth D. Angielczyk, Gabriel G. Martins, Rui M. S. Martins, Claudine Chaouiya, Felix Beckmann, Fabian Wilde. Bringing Dicynodonts Back to Life: Paleobiology and Anatomy of a New Emydopoid Genus from the Upper Permian of Mozambique. PLOS ONE |

www.plosone.org 1 December 2013 | Volume 8 | Issue 12: 30 pp. http://www.plosone.org/article/fetchObject.action?uri=info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080974&representation=PDF • R. Moustafa, M. E. Salama, S. M. Khalil, and H. G. A. Fouda. Sinai hinge belt: a major crustal boundary in NE Africa. Journal of the Geological Society. published 25 November 2013, 10.1144/jgs2013-021 http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/jgs2013-021v1?ct=ct • Brian R. Jicha, Brad S. Singer, and Michael J. Valentine. 40Ar/39Ar Geochronology of Subaerial Ascension Island and a Re-evaluation of the Temporal Progression of Basaltic to Rhyolitic Volcanism. J. Petrology. 2013; 54(12): p. 2581-2596 http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/12/2581?ct=ct • R. Moustafa, M. E. Salama, S. M. Khalil, and H. G. A. Fouda. Sinai hinge belt: a major crustal boundary in NE Africa. Journal of the Geological Society published 25 November 2013, 10.1144/jgs2013-021 http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/jgs2013-021v1?source=gsw • Eduard Saura, Jaume Verges, Juan Diego Martin-Martin, Gregoire Messager, Mar Moragas, Philippe Razin, Carine Grelaud, Remi Joussiaume, Manon Malaval, Stephane Homke, and David W. Hunt. Syn- to post-rift diapirism and minibasins of the Central High Atlas (Morocco): the changing face of a mountain belt. Journal of the Geological Society published 25 November 2013, 10.1144/jgs2013-079 http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/jgs2013-079v1?source=gsw • Mohamed A. Obeid and Andre E. Lalonde. The Geochemistry And Petrogenesis Of The Late Cretaceous Abu Khuruq Alkaline Complex, Eastern

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Desert, Egypt. Can Mineral. 2013; 51(4): p. 537-558 http://www.canmin.org/cgi/content/abstract/51/4/537?ct=ct • Massimiliano Ghinassi, Paolo Billi, Yosief Libsekal, Mauro Papini, and Lorenzo Rook. Inferring Fluvial Morphodynamics and Overbank Flow Control

From 3D Outcrop Sections of A Pleistocene Point Bar, Dandiero Basin, Eritrea. Journal of Sedimentary Research. 2013; 83(11): p. 1065-1083 http://jsedres.sepmonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/83/11/1065?source=gsw

• Giovanna Agrosi, Gioacchino Tempesta, Eugenio Scandale, and Jeff W. Harris. Growth and post-growth defects in a diamond from Finsch mine (South Africa). Eur J Mineral 2013;25 551-559 http://eurjmin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/4/551?etoc

OTHER INTERESTING LITERATURE • D. Trippanera, M. Porreca, J. Ruch, A. Pimentel, V. Acocella, J. Pacheco, and M. Salvatore. Relationships between tectonics and magmatism in a

transtensive/transform setting: An example from Faial Island (Azores, Portugal). Geological Society of America Bulletin published 6 December 2013, 10.1130/B30758.1 http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/cgi/content/abstract/B30758.1v1?source=gsw

• Jessica R. Creveling, David T. Johnston, Simon W. Poulton, Benjamin Kotrc, Christian Marz, Daniel P. Schrag, and Andrew H. Knoll. Phosphorus sources for phosphatic Cambrian carbonates. Geological Society of America Bulletin published 6 December 2013, 10.1130/B30819.1 http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/cgi/content/abstract/B30819.1v1?source=gsw

• Vincent Soustelle, Nicolas P. Walte, M.A. Geeth M. Manthilake, and Daniel J. Frost. Melt migration and melt-rock reactions in the deforming Earth's upper mantle: Experiments at high pressure and temperature. Geology published 6 December 2013, 10.1130/G34889.1 http://geology.gsapubs.org/cgi/content/abstract/G34889.1v1?source=gsw

• Maria Wierzbicka-Wieczorek and Uwe Kolitsch. BaYb6(Si2O7)2(Si3O10) - the first silicate containing both Si2O7 and Si3O10 groups: synthesis, crystal chemistry and topology. Eur J Mineral 2013;25 509-517 http://eurjmin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/4/509?etoc

• Federica Zaccarini, Evgeny Pushkarev, Giorgio Garuti, Joachim Krause, Gennady P. Dvornik, Chris Stanley, and Luca Bindi. Platinum-group minerals (PGM) nuggets from alluvial-eluvial placer deposits in the concentrically zoned mafic-ultramafic Uktus complex (Central Urals, Russia). Eur J Mineral 2013;25 519-531 http://eurjmin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/4/519?etoc

• Victor V. Sharygin, Igor V. Pekov, Natalia V. Zubkova, Alexander P. Khomyakov, Francesco Stoppa, and Dmitry Yu. Pushcharovsky. Umbrianite, K7Na2Ca2[Al3Si10O29]F2Cl2, a new mineral species from melilitolite of the Pian di Celle volcano, Umbria, Italy. Eur J Mineral 2013;25 655-669 http://eurjmin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/4/655?etoc

• Sergey V. Krivovichev, Lidiya P. Vergasova, Stanislav K. Filatov, Dmitry S. Rybin, Sergey N. Britvin, and Vladimir V. Ananiev. Hatertite, Na2(Ca, Na)(Fe3+, Cu)2(AsO4)3, a new alluaudite-group mineral from Tolbachik fumaroles, Kamchatka peninsula, Russia. Eur J Mineral 2013;25 683-691 http://eurjmin.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/25/4/683?etoc

• E.C. Grunsky. Predicting Archaean volcanogenic massive sulphide deposit potential from lithogeochemistry: application to the Abitibi Greenstone Belt. Geochem. 2013;13 317-336. http://geea.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/4/317?etoc

• Stephen W. Adcock, Wendy A. Spirito, and Robert G. Garrett. Geochemical data management - issues and solutions. Geochem. 2013;13 337-348. http://geea.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/13/4/337?etoc

• Hai-Bin Li, Dong Jia, Long Wu, Yong Zhang, Hong-Wei Yin, Guo-Qi Wei, and Ben-Liang Li. Detrital zircon provenance of the Lower Yangtze foreland basin deposits: constraints on the evolution of the early Palaeozoic Wuyi-Yunkai orogenic belt in South China. Geological Magazine. 2013; 150(6): p. 959-974 http://geolmag.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/6/959?ct=ct • Qing-Dong Zeng, Yan Sun, Xiao-Xia Duan, and Jian-Ming Liu. U-Pb and Re-Os geochronology of the Haolibao porphyry Mo-Cu deposit, NE China: implications for a Late Permian tectonic setting. Geological Magazine. 2013; 150(6): p. 975-985 http://geolmag.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/150/6/975?ct=ct • Andrea Rustichelli, Fabrizio Agosta, Emanuele Tondi, Jesus Galindo-Zaldivar, Claudio Di celma, and Vincenzo Spina. Fault growth as a key control on the sedimentary architecture and depositional environments of extensional basins: the case study of the Tablate area (Granada Basin, Spain). Italian Journal of Geoscience. 2013; 132(3): p. 422-442 http://ItalianJGeo.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/132/3/422?ct=ct • Thomas Maurer, Anna Schneider, and Horst H. Gerke. Scenario-Based Three-Dimensional Distributed Sediment Structures for a Constructed Hydrological

Catchment. Vadose Zone Journal. 2013; 12(4): p. vzj2013.02.0047 http://vzj.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/12/4/vzj2013.02.0047?ct=ct • David L. Huston, David C. Champion, and Kevin F. Cassidy. Tectonic Controls on the Endowment of Neoarchean Cratons in Volcanic-Hosted Massive Sulfide Deposits: Evidence from Lead and Neodymium Isotopes. Economic Geology. 2014; 109(1): p. 11-26 http://economicgeology.org/cgi/content/abstract/109/1/11?source=gsw • Vicki McNicoll, Jean Goutier, Benoit Dube, Patrick Mercier-Langevin, Pierre-Simon Ross, Claude Dion, Thomas Monecke, Marc Legault, John Percival, and Harold Gibson. U-Pb Geochronology of the Blake River Group, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Quebec, and Implications for Base Metal Exploration. Economic Geology. 2014; 109(1): p. 27-59 http://economicgeology.org/cgi/content/abstract/109/1/27?source=gsw • Russell Rogers, Pierre-Simon Ross, Jean Goutier, and Patrick Mercier-Langevin. Using Physical Volcanology, Chemical Stratigraphy, and Pyrite Geochemistry for Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Exploration: An Example from the Blake River Group, Abitibi Greenstone Belt. Economic Geology. 2014; 109(1): p. 61-88

http://economicgeology.org/cgi/content/abstract/109/1/61?source=gsw • P.-S. Ross, V. J. McNicoll, J.-A. Debreil, and P. Carr. Precise U-Pb Geochronology of the Matagami Mining Camp, Abitibi Greenstone Belt, Quebec: Stratigraphic Constraints and Implications for Volcanogenic Massive Sulfide Exploration. Economic Geology. 2014; 109(1): p. 89-101 http://economicgeology.org/cgi/content/abstract/109/1/89?source=gsw • Michael E. Pasyanos. A Lithospheric Attenuation Model of North America. Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America 2013;103 3321-3333 http://bssa.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/103/6/3321?etoc • Damien Gaboury. Does gold in orogenic deposits come from pyrite in deeply buried carbon-rich sediments?: Insight from volatiles in fluid inclusions. Geology 2013;41 1207-1210 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/12/1207?etoc • Clemens V. Ullmann, Stephen P. Hesselbo, and Christoph Korte. Tectonic forcing of Early to Middle Jurassic seawater Sr/Ca. Geology 2013;41 1211-1214 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/12/1211?etoc • Peir K. Pufahl, Franco Pirajno, and Eric. E. Hiatt. Riverine mixing and fluvial iron formation: A new type of Precambrian biochemical sediment. Geology 2013;41 1235-1238 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/12/1235?etoc • Willingshofer, D. Sokoutis, S.W. Luth, F. Beekman, and S. Cloetingh. Subduction and deformation of the continental lithosphere in response to plate and crust-mantle coupling. Geology 2013;41 1239-1242 http://geology.geoscienceworld.org/cgi/content/abstract/41/12/1239?etoc • Mingjun Zou, Chongtao Wei, Xuehai Fu, Yuan Bao, and Zhixiang Cai. Role of forced regression in controlling Brent Group reservoir architecture Investigating reservoir pressure transmission for three types of coalbed methane reservoirs in the Qinshui Basin in Shan'xi Province, China. Petroleum Geoscience. 2013; 19(4): p. 375-383 http://pg.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/19/4/375?source=gsw

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• Zeming Zhang, Xin Dong, Hua Xiang, J. G. Liou, and M. Santosh. Building of the Deep Gangdese Arc, South Tibet: Paleocene Plutonism and Granulite-Facies Metamorphism. J. Petrology. 2013; 54(12): p. 2547-2580 http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/12/2547?ct=ct • K. Shuto, M. Sato, H. Kawabata, Y. Osanai, N. Nakano, and R. Yashima. Petrogenesis of Middle Miocene Primitive Basalt, Andesite and Garnet-bearing Adakitic Rhyodacite from the Ryozen Formation: Implications for the Tectono-magmatic Evolution of the NE Japan Arc. J. Petrology. 2013; 54(12): p. 2413-2454 http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/12/2413?ct=ct • E. V. Mikhalsky, S. D. Boger, and F. Henjes-Kunst. The Geochemistry and Sm-Nd Isotopic Systematics of Precambrian Mafic Dykes and Sills in the Southern

Prince Charles Mountains, East Antarctica. J. Petrology. 2013; 54(12): p. 2487-2520 http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/12/2487?ct=ct • Andrew K. Matzen, Michael B. Baker, John R. Beckett, and Edward M. Stolper. The Temperature and Pressure Dependence of Nickel Partitioning between Olivine and Silicate Melt. J. Petrology. 2013; 54(12): p. 2521-2545 http://petrology.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/54/12/2521?ct=ct • Monika A. Kusiak, Martin J. Whitehouse, Simon A. Wilde, Daniel J. Dunkley, Martina Menneken, Alexander A. Nemchin, and Chris Clark. Changes in zircon chemistry during Archean UHT metamorphism in the Napier Complex, Antarctica. Am J Sci. 2013; 313(9): p. 933-967

http://www.ajsonline.org/cgi/content/abstract/313/9/933?ct=ct • Kenneth J. Chew. The future of oil: unconventional fossil fuels. Phil Trans R Soc A. 2013; 372(2006): p. 20120324 http://rsta.royalsocietypublishing.org/cgi/content/abstract/372/2006/20120324?ct=ct • Chris Yakymchuk and Michael Brown. Consequences of open-system melting in tectonics. Journal of the Geological Society published 25 November 2013, 10.1144/jgs2013-039 http://jgs.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/jgs2013-039v1?source=gsw • N. Coint, C.G. Barnes, A.S. Yoshinobu, M.A. Barnes, and S. Buck. Use of trace element abundances in augite and hornblende to determine the size, connectivity, timing, and evolution of magma batches in a tilted batholith. Geosphere. 2013; 9(6): p. 1747-1765 http://geosphere.gsapubs.org/cgi/content/abstract/9/6/1747?ct=ct • Yuri N. Palyanov, Yuliya V. Bataleva, Alexander G. Sokol, Yuri M. Borzdov, Igor N. Kupriyanov, Vadim N. Reutsky, and Nikolai V. Sobolev. Mantle-slab interaction and redox mechanism of diamond formation. PNAS. published 2 December 2013, 10.1073/pnas.1313340110

http://www.pnas.org/cgi/content/abstract/1313340110v1?ct=ct • Simon L. Harley, Ian C. W. Fitzsimons, and Yue Zhao. Antarctica and supercontinent evolution: historical perspectives, recent advances and unresolved issues. Geological Society, London, Special Publications. 2013; 383(1): p. 1-34 http://sp.lyellcollection.org/cgi/content/abstract/383/1/1?ct=ct

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• Energies: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/energies • Engineering Geology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00137952 • Environmental and Engineering Geoscience: http://eeg.geoscienceworld.org/ • Environmental Health Perspectives: http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ • ENVOLVERDE: Revista Digital de Meio Ambiente e Desenvolvimento (Portuguese): http://envolverde.com.br/ • Episodes: http://www.episodes.co.in/ • Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02727714 • Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02727714 • Estudos Geologicos (Spanish):

http://estudiosgeol.revistas.csic.es/index.php/estudiosgeol/issue/archive • Estudos Geologicos (Spanish):

http://estudiosgeol.revistas.csic.es/index.php/estudiosgeol/issue/archive • European Journal of Mineralogy: http://eurjmin.geoscienceworld.org/ • Fuel: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00162361 • Fuel Processing Technology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03783820 • Geobios: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00166995 • GEOBRASIL (Portuguese): http://www.geobrasil.net/geobrasil.htm • Geochimica et Cosmochimica Acta: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00167037 • Geoderma: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00167061 • Geologica Acta: http://www.geologica-acta.com/ContentsAC.do • Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland Bulletin:

http://www.geus.dk/publications/bull/index-uk.htm • Geomorphology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0169555X • Geoscience Australia AusGeo: http://www.ga.gov.au/ausgeonews/ausgeonews201309/ • Geoscience Data Journal: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)2049-6060 • Geoscience e-Journals At-A-Glance: http://www.univ-brest.fr/geosciences/e-

journals/iconography.html • Geoscience Frontiers: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/16749871 • Geosciences: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/geosciences • Geotextiles and Geomembranes: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02661144 • Geothermics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03756505 • Global and Planetary Change: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09218181 • Global Biogeochemical Cycles: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1944-9224 • Gondwana Research: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1342937X • GSA-Field Guides Book Reviews: http://fieldguides.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Geological Society of America Bulletin: http://gsabulletin.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Geology: http://geology.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Geosphere: http://geosphere.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Lithosphere: http://lithosphere.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Memoirs: http://memoirs.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Reviews in Engineering Geology: http://reg.gsapubs.org/ • GSA-Special Papers: http://specialpapers.gsapubs.org/ • Hydrometallurgy: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0304386X • Icarus: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00191035

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• International Council for Science (ICSU) Newsletter: http://www.icsu.org/news-centre/insight • International Geosphere-Biosphere Programme (IGBP) E-bulletin:

http://www.igbp.net/ • International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03032434 • International Journal of Coal Geology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01665162 • International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/22124209 • International Journal of Greenhouse Gas Control:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/17505836 • International Journal of Mineral Processing:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03017516 • International Journal of Mining Science and Technology:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/20952686 • International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13651609 • International Journal of Sediment Research:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10016279 • International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics (IUGG) E-Journals:

http://www.iugg.org/publications/ejournals/ • Island Arc: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1440-1738 • ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09242716 • ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/ijgi • Journal for Nature Conservation: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/16171381 • Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems:

http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/(ISSN)1942-2466 • Journal of Aerosol Science: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00218502 • Journal of African Earth Sciences: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1464343X • Journal of Applied Geophysics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09269851 • Journal of Arid Environments: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01401963 • Journal of Asian Earth Sciences: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13679120 • Journal of Atmospheric and Solar-Terrestrial Physics:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/13646826 • Journal of Contaminant Hydrology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01697722 • Journal of Environmental Quality: https://www.agronomy.org/publications/jeq • Journal of Flood Risk Management http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1753-

318X • Journal of Geochemical Exploration: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03756742 • Journal of Geodynamics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02643707 • Journal of Geography and Regional Planning:

http://www.academicjournals.org/JGRP/Archive.htm • Journal of Great Lakes Research: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03801330 • Journal of Hydrology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00221694 • Journal of Marine Systems: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09247963 • Journal of Natural Gas Science and Engineering:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/18755100 • Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09204105 • Journal of Rock Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/16747755 • Journal of Sedimentary Research: http://jsedres.geoscienceworld.org/ • Journal of South American Earth Sciences:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08959811 • Journal of Structural Geology- http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01918141 • Journal of Terramechanics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00224898 • Journal of Unconventional Oil and Gas Resources:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/22133976 • Journal of Volcanology and Geothermal Research:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03770273 • Laboratório Nacional de Engenharia e Geologia (Portuguese)

http://www.lneg.pt/iedt/unidades/16/paginas/26/30/38 • Lithology and Mineral Resources: http://www.springerlink.com/content/106290/ • Lithos: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00244937 • Marine and Petroleum Geology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02648172 • Marine Chemistry: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03044203 • Marine Environmental Research: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01411136 • Marine Geology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00253227 • Marine Micropaleontology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03778398 • Marine Pollution Bulletin: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0025326X • Mineral Research & Exploration Bulletin (Turkey): http://www.mta.gov.tr/v2.0/eng/all-

bulletins.php?id=145#down • Minerals: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/minerals • Minerals Engineering: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08926875 • Mining Science and Technology (China):

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/16745264 • Mining Weekly: http://www.miningweekly.com/

• Monthly Notes of the Astronomical Society of Southern Africa: http://www.mnassa.org.za/ • NERC Open Research Archive: http://nora.nerc.ac.uk/ • New Scientist: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02624079 • New Zealand Journal of Geology & Geophysics:

http://www.royalsociety.org.nz/publications/journals/nzjg • Ocean & Coastal Management: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/09645691 • Ocean Modelling: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14635003 • Oil Geology in Geology & Geophysics: Africa- Offshore Magazine:

http://www.offshore-mag.com/geology-geophysics/africa.html • Ore Geology Reviews: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01691368 • Organic Geochemistry: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01466380 • Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00310182 • Palaeoworld: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/1871174X • Petroleum Exploration and Development:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/18763804 • Petroleum Geoscience: http://pg.eage.org/publication/latestissue?p=3 • Photogrammetria: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00318663 • Physics and Chemistry of the Earth, Parts A/B/C:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/14747065 • Physics of the Earth and Planetary Interiors:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00319201 • Planetary and Space Science: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00320633 • PLOS ONE: http://www.plosone.org/ • Polar Science: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/18739652 • Precambrian Research: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03019268 • Procedia Earth and Planetary Science: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/18785220 • Proceedings of the Geologists' Association:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00167878 • ProGEO – The European Association for the Conservation of the Geological Heritage: http://www.progeo.se/ • Progress in Oceanography: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00796611 • Quaternary Geochronology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/18711014 • Quaternary International: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10406182 • Quaternary Research: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00335894 • Quaternary Science Reviews: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02773791 • Remote Sensing: http://www.mdpi.com/journal/remotesensing • Remote Sensing of Environment: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00344257 • Resources Policy: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03014207 • Review of Palaeobotany and Palynology:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00346667 • Revista de Geociencias (Portuguese): http://www.revistageociencias.com.br/ • Revista geologica de Chile (Spanish):

http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?script=sci_issuetoc&pid=0716-020820050002&lng=es&nrm=iso • Revue de Micropaléontologie (French): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00351598 • Royal Society Publishing: Earth Sciences:

http://royalsocietypublishing.org/site/authors/earthscience.xhtml • Russian Geology and Geophysics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/10687971 • Science Frontiers Digest of Scientific Anomalies: http://www.science-

frontiers.com/index.htm • Science Magazine Online: http://www.sciencemag.org/contents-by-date.0.shtml • Sedimentary Geology: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00370738 • Société Algérienne de Géophysique (SAGA) Newsletter: http://www.sag.dz/ • Soil Dynamics and Earthquake Engineering:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02677261 • Soils and Foundations: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00380806 • South African Journal of Geology: http://sajg.geoscienceworld.org/archive/ • Space Research Today: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/17529298 • Spatial Statistics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/22116753 • Tectonophysics: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401951 • The Egyptian Journal of Remote Sensing and Space Science:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/11109823 • The Open Geology Journal: http://bentham.org/open/togeoj/index.htm • Trends in Ecology & Evolution: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01695347 • Tunnelling and Underground Space Technology:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/08867798 • Turkish Journal of Earth Sciences: http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/earth/index.php • UN-SPIDER Knowledge Portal: http://www.un-spider.org/about/updates/ • Urban Climate: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/22120955 • Waste Management: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/0956053X • Water Research: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00431354 • Wave Motion: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/01652125 • Weather and Climate Extremes: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/22120947

EVENTS The events not announced in former Bulletins are highlighted with dates in yellow

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In Africa and about Africa Next Month: 2014.01.19-22 IMSC 2014 - 6th Annual Igneous and Metamorphic Studies Group, Grahamstown, South Africa. http://www.ru.ac.za/geology/imsg2014/ 2014.01.27-31 Southern African Powder Diffraction Conference and Workshop, Johannesburg, South Africa, https://www.regonline.com/builder/site/Default.aspx?EventID=1265331 2014.02.19-2 Global Gender & Water Conference, East London, South Africa, http://www.bwa.co.za/Events/GLOBAL%20GENDER%20and%20WATER%20CONFERENCE%2019%20to%2021.pdf 2014.03.04-05 21st Century Challenges To The Southern African Coal Sector 2014, Johannesburg, South Africa, http://www.saimm.co.za/saimm-events/upcoming-events?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_events.tpl&product_id=58&category_id=2 2014.03.11-13 SAIMM Young Professionals Conference http://www.saimm.co.za 2014.03.16-22 Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society – 50th Annual International Conference & Exhibitions, Benin, Nigeria. Contact

[email protected] or [email protected] 2014.03.17-19 Power Gen Africa 2014, Cape Town, South Africa. http://www.events-africa.com/power-gen-africa-2014-events-africa.html 2014.03.24-26 1st International Symposium on Medical Geology in Africa (ISMGAf), Johannesburg, South Africa.

http://iugs.org/uploads/1stSYMPOSIUM_MedicalGeologyInAfrica.pdf 2014.03.24-27 SIEE Pollutec Algeria 2014: The 10th edition of International exhibition of water equipment, technologies and services, Oran, Algeria.

http://www.semide.dz/EN/Events/news_item.asp?NewsID=14032410 2014.03.27-29 MMEC2014 – Mozambique Mining & Energy Confereccne, Maputo, Mozambique. http://www.mozmec.com/ 2014.04.05-10 THE 11th International Conference On The Geology Of The Arab World (GAW 11), Cairo, Egypt. http://gaw.cu.edu.eg/ 2014.05.12-14 6th South African Rock Engineering Symposium - SARES 2014: "Creating value through innovative rock engineering ", Muldersdrift, South Africa,

http://www.saimm.co.za/saimm-events/upcoming-events?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_events.tpl&product_id=57&category_id=2 2014.04.14-16 Republic of Congo International Hydrocarbons Conference & Exhibition 2014, Brazzaville, Congo. http://ciehc.com/englishhome/ 2014.04.14-16 20th Western Africa Oil, Gas/LNG & Energy 2014, Windhoek, Namibia, http://www.petro21.com/events/?id=858 2014.04.28-30 5th Eastern Africa Oil, Gas/LNG & Energy 2014, Naitobi, Kenya. http://www.petro21.com/events/?id=851 2014.05.04-14 6th International Orogenic Lherzolite Conference Marrakech, Morocco, http://yes-morocco.blogspot.com.es/2013/07/sixth-international-orogenic-

lherzolite.html 2014.05.06-08 Esri Africa User Conference, Cape Town, South Africa. http://www.esri-southafrica.com 2014.05.12-14 SARES 6th South African Rock Engineering Symposium, Johannesburg, South Africa http://www.saimm.co.za 2014.05.22-23 Uganda Mining & Energy Conference and Exhibition, Kampala, Uganda, http://www.umec-uganda.com/the-event/an-overview/ 2014.06.10-12 The Premier East Africa Oil & Gas Summit, London, UK. http://eastafrica-oil-gas.com/?utm_medium=email&utm_source=The+CWC+Group&utm_campaign=3335130_JK+-+EAOG+2014+EM1&dm_i=S3A,1ZHEI,6U8J7E,750YT,1 2014.06.18-20 Water Africa and West Africa Building & Construction, Accra, Ghana, http://www.bwa.co.za/Events/Water%20and%20Building%20event%20set%20for%20Ghana%20in%20June%202014.pdf 2014.06.22-26 2014 Conference, of the Southern African Society of Aquatic Scientists, Black Mountain Leisure Hotel, FS, South Africa, http://www.riv.co.za/sasaqs/pdf/SASAQS2014_first_announcement20131016.pdf 2014.06.24-25 4th Zambia International Mining and Energy Conference. Lusaka, Zambia, http://www.zimeczambia.com/ 2014.06.26-30 25th Society of Mining Professors Conference, Sandton, J’burg, South Africa, http://www.saimm.co.za/saimm-events/upcoming-events?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_events.tpl&product_id=68&category_id=2 2014.07.02-03 Geomatique et cartographie, une vision prospective, Orleans, France http://www.univ-orleans.fr/cedete/geomatique-et-cartographie-une-vision-prospective 2014.07.07-11 Changing Climates, Ecosystems and Environments of Arid Southern Africa. A Tribute to Louis Scott. Bloemfontein, South Africa. http://lscott-tribute.co.za/ 2014.07.14-19 The African Association of Women in Geosciences (AAWG) - 7TH Conference - Earth Sciences and Climate Change: Challenges to Development in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.aawg.org/ 2014.07.14-19 Earth Sciences and Climate Change: Challenges to Development in Africa, Nairobi, Kenya. http://www.aawg.org 2014.07.27-2014.08.02 Inaugural Workshop On West African Sedimentology And Sedimentary Basins, Ibadan, Nigeria.

http://www.sedimentologists.org/docs/meetings/index/102.pdf 2014.08.

14-16 25th Colloquium of African Geology and 15th Congress of the Geological Society ofAfrica: Earth Science for Improving Livelihood in Africa, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.http://www.cag25.or.tz

2014.08.11-14 3rd Young Earth Scientists-YES Congress, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. http://www.yescongress.org/2014/ 2014.08.18-20 The Roy Miller Symposium - A conference to recognise a lifetime of service to the geological sciences in Namibia, Windhoek, Namibia. For more

information http://www.geolsocnamibia.org/symp Please reply to: [email protected] (new website) 2014.09.01-0 The 21st General Meeting of the International Mineralogical Association (IMA). Johannesburg, SA. http://www.ima2014.co.za/ 2014.09.07-09 ICDP Workshop “Drilling the Bushveld Complex- the world’s largest layered intrusion”, Johannesburg, South Africa.

http://tracker1.co.za/weblink/4ccb37fe-c8bc-4331-b377-b26af4a69ad3.htm 2014.09.07-14 Annual Meeting of the Meteoritical Society, Casablanca, Morocco, http://www.meteoritical-society.org 2014.09.09-11 2nd Geological Congress of Mozambique and 12th Geochemocal Congress of the Portuguese Speaking Countries, Maputo, Mozambique. 2014.09.11-13 Kimberley Diamond Symposium and Trade Show. Kimberley, Northern Cape, South Africa. Contact: http://www.gssa.org.za/event/kimberley-

diamond-symposium-trade-show/ 2014.09.16-17 Surface Mining 2014 Conference, Nasrec Expo Centre, South Africa, http://www.saimm.co.za/saimm-events/upcoming-

events?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_events.tpl&product_id=65&category_id=2 2014.09.23-25 Africa Petroleum Storage and Transport Conference and Exhibition (APESTRANS 2014), Yaounde, Cameroon. http://apestrans.com/ 2014.10.01-04 2nd Conference on African and Arabian Geoparks, Dakar, Senegal website under construction.

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2014.10.04-14 6th Orogenic Lherzolite Conference, Marrakesh, Morocco, http://www.gm.univ-montp2.fr/lherzolite/ 2014.10.20-22 6th International Platinum Conference, Sun City, South Africa, http://www.saimm.co.za/saimm-events/upcoming-events?page=shop.product_details&flypage=flypage_events.tpl&product_id=71&category_id=2 2014.11.04-06 3rd Senegal International Mining Conference & Exhibitions 2014, Dakar, Senegal, http://www.events-africa.com/senegal-international-mining-conference-&-exhibitions-events-africa-2014.html# 2015 67th Annual Meeting of the ICCP (International Committee for Coal & Organic Petrology), Maputo, Mozambique. 2016.08.27-2016.09.04

35th International Geological Congress (35IGC), Cape Town, South Africa. http://www.35igc.org/ Announcement: IMA 2014, Johannesburg, 1-5 September, 2014 (http://www.ima2014.co.za) Abstract Submission to the Special Session on: Medical Mineralogy - With Particular Focus on Developing Countries Convenors: Prof. Theophilus Davies; Prof. Benjamin Mapani; Prof. Hassina Mouri: (IMGA South Africa Chapter) Description: The causal links between geomaterials and specific diseases in humans have long been recognised, but to date, there are still aspects of these links that remain unclear. The minimum exposure levels needed to trigger disease, the influence of genetic factors, and the exact mechanisms of toxicity, have all been the focus of considerable research over the last decade or so. This research, thankfully, is buoyed by recent developments in analytical techniques (such as spectroscopy, molecular modelling and high resolution imaging); and new avenues are being opened for investigating the interaction between minerals and the human body at scales that are well beyond those accessible to geomedical researchers just 20 years ago. However, while new techniques may enable advancement in Medical Mineralogy research to be made, real progress would only be truly realised when scientists in the fields of biomineralogy, biomedicine, geochemistry and public health collaborate and harness the expertise in these clearly related disciplines. Many of the examples in Medical Mineralogy research presented in similar meetings in the past have been from study populations in developed regions of the world, where, ironically, human interactions with geomaterials are far less common than in Africa and other developing regions. However, over the last few years, much more of this research has been directed towards populations in developing countries, with particular reference to silica-induced diseases in mining and agriculture. This "Session" intends to display these areas of active and fruitful research as keenly as possible through oral and poster presentations. ‘Abstract Submission’ at this Special Session of IMA 2014 at: (http://www.ima2014.co.za/images/documents/instructions-for-abstract-submission.pdf) before 17:00 on 28 February, 2014.

Rest of the World Next Month: 2014.01.06-08 Volcanic and Magmatic Studies Group, Edinburgh, UK, 50th Anniversary Meeting, http://www.vmsg.org.uk/vmsg-edinburgh/ 2014.01.06-11 2014 Winter Conference on Plasma Spectrochemistry, Amelia Island, Florida, USA. http://icpinformation.org/uploads/2014_Winter_Conference_General_Information.pdf 2014.01.29-30 2014 Geodesign Summit, Redlands, California, USA. http://www.geodesignsummit.com/index.html?WT.mc_id=EmailCampaign16766 2014.02.03-06 7th Workshop on Remote Sensing of Land Ice and Snow: Remote Sensing of the Earth's Cryosphere. Bern, Switzerland. http://www.earsel.org/SIG/Snow-Ice/workshop/call.php 2014.02.04-07 2014.02.06-07 Vertical geology conference 2014, Lausanne, Switzerland, http://www3.unil.ch/wpmu/vgc14/ 2014.02.17-18 EAGE/FESM Joint Regional Conference Petrophysics Meets Geoscience"From Nano Pores to Mega Structures", Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1058&Opendivs=s3 2014.02.23-28 2014 Ocean Sciences Meeting, Honolulu, Hawai, USA. http://www.sgmeet.com/osm2014/default.asp 2014.02.23-26 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Salt Lake City, USA. http://www.smenet.org/calendar/detail.cfm?eventKey=1052 2014.02.25-27 SPE/EAGE European Unconventional Resources Conference and Exhibition Unlocking European Potential, Vienna, Austria. http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=948&Opendivs=s3 2014 March 5th Rio Gas Forum, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. http://www.cwcriogas.com 2014.03.09-12 Geo2014, Bahrein, http://www.geo2014.com/ 2014.03.10-14 International Symposium on Sea Ice in a Changing Climate, Hobart, Australia, http://seaice.acecrc.org.au/igs2014/ 2014.03.17.18 5th Land Use & Land Cover Workshop. Berlin, Germany. http://www.geographie.hu-berlin.de/labs/geomatics/events/earsel-en/workshop/ 2014.03.17-20 Asia Mining Congress, Singapore. http://www.terrapinn.com/2014/asia-mining-congress/ 2014.03.18-20 Intersol 2014, Lille, France, http://www.intersol.fr/ 2014.03.19-21 North Atlantic Craton Conference 2014, Fife, Scotland, UK, http://www.nac-conference2014.org.uk 2014.03.22-23 Gordon Research Seminar: Natural Gas Hydrate Systems, Galveston, USA www.grc.org/programs.aspx?year=2014&programs.grs.netgas 2014.03.24-28 9th EGU Alexander von Humboldt International Conference on High Impact Natural Hazards Related to the Euro-Mediterranean Region, Istanbul,

Turkey, http://static2.egu.eu/media/filer_public/2013/10/01/avhistanbul_first_circular_1oct2013.pdf 2014.03.25-28 World CTX 2014 Conference, Beijing, China. http://www.worldctx.com/ 2014.03.26-28 Tools in Quaternary research: environmental indicators and geochronology, Lyon, France http://www.afeq.cnrs-bellevue.fr/Documents/colloques/Q9%20Lyon%202014_09092013.pdf 2014.04.06-09 9th South American Symposium on Isotope Geology (9th SSAGI). SãoPaulo, Brazil. http://www.acquacon.com.br/9ssagi/ 2014.04.06-09 AAPG Annual Convention & Exhibition (ACE), Houston, Tx, USA, http://www.aapg.org 2014.04.07-10 Saint Petersburg 2014 - Geosciences – Investing in the Future, Saint Petersburg, Russia

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1010&Opendivs=s3 2014.04.07-12 Arctic Science Summit Week (ASSW) 2014 , Helsinki, Finland, http://www.assw2014.fi/ 2014.04.21-25 Engineering Geophysics 2014 Conference and Exhibition Gelendzhik, Russia,

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1096&Opendivs=s3http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1096&Opendivs=s3 2014.04.23-25 Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century – The Quest for Sustainable Energy, Ekaterinburg, Russia, http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-

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conferences/energy-quest-2014.html 2014.04.23-25 Energy Quest 2014 - Energy Production and Management in the 21st Century – The Quest for Sustainable Energy, Ekaterinburg, Russia.

http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/energy-quest-2014.html 2014.04.27-30 The Geosciences Information For Teachers workshop, Vienna, Austria, http://www.egu.eu/news/75/educators-apply-now-to-take-part-in-the-2014-

gift-workshop/ 2014.04.27-2014.05.02

European Geosciences Union General Assembly 2014. Vienna, Austria http://www.egu2014.eu/abstract_management/how_to_submit_an_abstract.html

2014.05.05-09 Geospatial World Forum, 2104, Geneve, Switzerland, http://www.geospatialworldforum.org/ 2014.05.11-16 5th International Congress on Arsenic in the Environment, Buenos Aires, Argentina, http://www.as2014.com.ar/home.html 2014.05.14-16 Environmental Impact 2014 - 2nd International Conference on Environmental and Economic Impact on Sustainable Development, Ancona, Italy. http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/environmental-impact-2014.html 2014.05.21-23 2014 Geological Association of Canada–Mineralogical Association of Canada Joint Annual Meeting, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, http://www.unb.ca/conferences/gacmac2014/ 2014.05.20-22 11th International Symposium on Mining with Backfill, Perth, Australia http://www.minefill2014.com 2014.05.22.25 XVI Serbian Geological Congress Donji Milanovac, Serbia http://www.sgd.rs/eng/index.php/xvi-serbian-geological-congress 2014.05.25-28 4th International Symposium On Sialons And Non-Oxides (ISSNOX4), Shiga, Japan, http://ceramics.ynu.ac.jp/issnox4/index.html 2014.05.26-28 Water Pollution 2014 - 12th International conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Water Pollution, The Algarve, Portugal. http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/water-pollution-2014.html 2014.05.26-28 EUROCK 2014 - ISRM European Regional Symposium - Rock Engineering and Rock Mechanics: Structures in and on Rock Masses, Vigo, Spain, http://www.isrm.net/conferencias/detalhes.php?id=3119&show=conf 2014.05.26-30 E-MRS 2014 SPRING MEETING (European Materials Research Society), Lille, France, http://www.emrs-strasbourg.com/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=691&Itemid=1619 2014.05.27-29 Urban Water 2014 - 2nd International Conference on the Design, Construction, Maintenance, Monitoring and Control of Urban Water Systems, The Algarve, Portugal. https://mail.google.com/mail/u/0/?tab=wm#inbox/13dd7831e9db6b64 2014.05.27-29 2014 LIPE Forum and Northern Arabian Geoscience Conference – New Frontiers, New Challenges, Beirut, Lebanon, http://www.middleeast.aapg.org 2014.05.28-29 GEO Business 2014, London, UK, http://www.geobusinessshow.com/ 2014.06.01-06 International Conference on Atmospheric Dust – DUST 2014, Castellaneta Marina, Italy http://www.dust2014.org/index.html 2014.06.02-06 World Landslide Forum III. Beijing, China http://icl.iplhq.org/HomePage.aspx?TabID=4945&Site=Portal&Lang=en-US 2014.06.02-06 XIX Congreso Geológico Argentino (19th Argenitinain Geological Congress) Córdoba, Argentina. http://www.congresogeologico.org.ar/ 2014.06.03-05 13th International Conference on Structures Under Shock and Impact, New Forest, UK http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/susi-2014.html 2014.06.04-06 9th International Conference on Risk Analysis and Hazard Mitigation, New Forest, UK. http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/risk-analysis-2014.html 2014.06.08-09 20th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS) in Korea. http://www.20wcss.org/ 2014.06.08-13 ZEOLITE 2014, Belgrade, Serbia, http://www.inza.unina.it/upcoming-events/111-zeolite-2014-full 2014.06.08-13 Goldschmidt Conference 2014, Sacramento, USA. http://goldschmidt.info/ 2014.06.09-13 IC EST2014 - The Seventh International Conference on Environmental Science and Technology. Houston, Texas, USA.

http://www.aasci.org/conference/env/2014/index.html 2014.06.09-13 20th World Congress of Soil Science (WCSS), Jeju, South Korea, http://www.20wcss.org 2014.06.11-12 3rd Tight & Shale Gas Summit, Edinburgh, UK, http://www.wplgroup.com/aci/conferences/eu-eug3.asp 2014.06.15-19 3rd World Petroleum Congress, Moscow, Russia, http://www.21wpc.com/ 2014.06.16-19 76th EAGE Conference & Exhibition 2014 - Experience the Energy, Amsterdam, Netherlands,

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1000&Opendivs=s3 2014.06.16-20 34th EARSeL Symposium. Warsaw, Poland. http://www.earsel.org/symposia/2014-symposium-Warsaw/ 2014.06.17-19 Sustainable Irrigation 2014 - 5th International Conference on Sustainable Irrigation and Drainage: Management, Technologies and Policies, Poznan,

Poland. http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/sustainable-irrigation-2014.html 2014.06.17-26 14th International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference & EXPO SGEM2014, Albena, Bulgaria, http://sgem.org/ 2014.06.18-20 4th International Conference on Flood Recovery, Innovation and Response, Poznan, Poland. http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/friar-2014.html 2014.06.18-21 EUCOP4 - 4th European Conference on Permafrost, Évora, Portugal, http://www.eucop4.org/ 2014.06.23-27 Integrated Marine Biogeochemistry and Ecosystem Research (IMBER) Open Science Conference, Bergen, Norway. http://www.imber.info/index.php/Meetings/IMBER-OSC-2014 2014.06.26-31 9th European Palaeobotanical Palynological Conference (EPPC), Padua, Italia. http://www.geoscienze.unipd.it/9th-european-palaeobotany-palynology-conference 2014.06.29-2014.07.04 Shechtman International Symposium on Sustainable Mining, Minerals, Metal and Materials Processing, Cancun, Mexico, http://www.flogen.org/conferences.php?spage=1 2014.06.30 – 2014.07.03 17th Joint Geomorphological Meeting, Liege, Belgium. http://www.17th-jgm-liege2014.org/ 2014.06.30 – 2014.07.04 30th International Conference of the Society of Environmental Geochemistry and Health - European Section, will be held at Northumbria University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK. http://www.northumbria.ac.uk/sd/academic/ee/news/2832658 2014.06.30 – 2014.07.04

Asteroids, Comets, Meteors, Helsinki, Finland, http://www.helsinki.fi/acm2014 2014.07.01-03 The 2014 Norwich Conference on "Access and Allocation in the Anthropocene". University of East Anglia, UK. http://www.earthsystemgovernance.org/news/2013-09-21-norwich-conference-earth-system-governance-call-papers 2014.06.29-2014.07.04

Australasia Quaternary Association. Mildura/Mungo, Australia, http://aqua.org.au/?page_id=301 2014.07.05-11 CIMP General Meeting 2014 - "What’s trending in palynology?!" Liège, Belgium

http://cimp.weebly.com/uploads/6/4/0/5/6405206/lettre_annonce_congrs.pdf 2014.07.06-10 39th INHIGEO Symposium – International Commission on the History of Geological Sciences Symposium, Pacific Grove, USA,

http://www.geosocieity.org/meetings/INHIGEO2014 2014.07.07-09 Air Pollution 2014 - 22nd International Conference on Modelling, Monitoring and Management of Air Pollution, Opatija, Croatia.

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http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-conferences/air-pollution-2014.html 2014.07.07-10 Australian Earth Sciences Convention (AESC) 2014, Newcastle, NSW, Australia, http://www.aesc2014.gsa.org.au 2014.07.13-18 Gondwana 15 international conference, Madrid, Spain. http://www.gondwana15.org/ 2014.07.12-15 2014 Esri Education GIS Conference, San Diego, Ca., USA. http://www.esri.com/events/educ/call-for-papers?WT.mc_id=EmailCampaignb2801 2014.07.13-17 BIOGEOMON, Bayreuth, Germany, http://www.bayceer.uni-bayreuth.de/biogeomon2014/ 2014 August 24th Congress and General Assembly of the International Union of Crystallography, Montreal, Canada. http://www.iucr2014.org/ 2014.08.02-10 40th COSPAR (Committee on Space Research) Scientific Assembly; Moscow, Russia. http://cosparhq.cnes.fr/Meetings/sciass.htm 2014.08.03-07 Microscopy and Microanalysis 2014, Hartford, Connecticut, USA, http://www.microprobe.org/events/microscopy-microanalysis-2014 2014.08.05-12 Congress of the International Union of Crystallography, Montreal, Canada. http://www.iucr2014.org/welcome_e.shtml 2014.08.11-14 XII International Platinum Symposium, Yekaterinburg, Russia. http://12ips.uran.ru 2014.08.11-15 22nd IAHR International Symposium on Ice, Singapore, http://www.iahr-ice2014.org/ 2014.08.13-16 XXVIII Nordic Hydrological Conference, Stockholm, Sweden, http://nhf-hydrology.squarespace.com/nhc-2014-2/ 2014.08.16-21 World Weather Open Science Conference 2014, Montréal, Canada. http://www.ecmwf.int/publications/cms/get/ecmwfnews/327 2014.08.18-20 Ninth International Mining Geology Conference Adelaide, Australia, http://www.ausimm.com.au/imgc2014/ 2014.08.18-22 GeoBaikal 2014 - Exploration and Field Development in East Siberia, Irkutsk, Russia,

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1131&Opendivs=s3 2014.08.18-22 IGU Regional Conference, Kraków, Poland http://www.igu2014.org/ 2014.08.19-22 14th Quadrennial IAGOD Symposium, Urumqi, China. http://www.iagod.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=11&Itemid=13 2014.08.24-29 Second European Conference on Earthquake Engineering and Seismology; 15th European Conference on Earthquake Engineering; 34th General Assembly of European Seismological Commission, Istanbul, Turkey. http://www.2eceesistanbul.org/ 2014.08.26-31 9th European Paleobotany and Palynology Conference, Padova, Italy, http://www.geoscienze.unipd.it/eppc2014/index.html 2014.09.01-05 GEOMOD 2014 – Modeling in Geoscience, Berlin, Germany, http://www.geo-x.net/geomod2014 2014.09.07-12 The International Microscopy Congress 2014, Prague, Czech Republic, http://www.imc2014.com/ 2014.09.08-11 ECMOR XIV - 14th European Conference on the Mathematics of Oil Recovery, Catania, Sicily, Italy.

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1093&Opendivs=s3 2014.09.09-13 Cities on Volcanoes 8, Yogyakarta, Indonesia, http://citiesonvolcanoes8.com/ 2014.09.10-12 Planet Formation and Evolution 2014, Kiel, Germany, http://www1.astrophysik.uni-kiel.de/ 2014.09.14-18 Near Surface Geoscience 2014, Athens, Greece. http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1013&Opendivs=s3 2014.09.14-18 Fifteenth Australian Coal Preparation Society, Broadbeach, Queensland, Australia, https://www.acps.com.au/conference-2014/home/ 2014.09.15-17 First Applied Shallow Marine Geophysics Conference, Athens, Greece, http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1120&Opendivs=s3 2014.09.15-19 IAEG XII Congress – Engineering Geology for Society & Territory, Torino, Italy. http://www.iaeg2014.com 2014.09.16-18 Seventh International Conference on Deep and High Stress Mining , Sudbury, Canada, http://www.deepmining2014.com 2014.09.17-22 5th International Maar Conference, Querétaro, Mexico, http://maar2014.geociencias.unam.mx/ 2014.09.19-22 6th International Unesco Conference on Global Geoparks, Saint John New Brunswick, Canada http://www.geoparks2014.com/main.html 2014.09.21-25 UMH VII 2014 – Uranium Mining and Hydrogeology 2014, Freiburg, Germany http://tu-freiburg.de/umh-vii-2014 2014.09.21-26 47º Congresso Brasileiro de Geologia (47th Brazilian Congress of Geology) Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. http://www.47cbg.com.br/ 2014.09.23-25 Sustainable City 2014 - 9th International Conference on Urban Regeneration and Sustainability, Siena, Italy. http://www.wessex.ac.uk/city2014?e=1-

225297 2014.09.24-26 XX Congress of Carpathian Balkan Geological Association, Tirana, Albania, http://www.cbga2014.org/ 2014.09.27-30 SEG 2014, Keystone, CO, USA, http://www.seg2014.org 2014.09.27-2104.10.03 31st Annual Meeting of the Society for Organic Petrology (TSOP), Sydney, Australia http://wp.csiro.au/tsop2014 2014.09.28-2014.10.05 4th International Paleontological Congress, The history of life: a view from the Southern Hemisphere. Mendoza, Argentina, http://ipa.geo.ku.edu/pdf/IPC4.pdf 2014.10.19-22 Geological Society of America Annual Meeting, Vancouver, BC, Canada, http://www.geosociety.org/meetings 2014.10.21-23 Petroleum 2014. 2nd International Conference on Petroleum and Mineral Resources. Koya, Kurdistan, Irak, http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-

conferences/petroleum-2014.html 2014.10.27-29 KazGeo 2014 - From Challenges to Opportunities, Almaty, Kazakhstan. http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1108&Opendivs=s3 2014.11.02-05 XIV ALAGO (Latin-American Association of Organic Geochemistry) Congres Armação dos Búzios (Rio de Janeiro, Brasil). http://alago.co/blog/xiv-

congresso-da-alago 2014.11.06-08 2nd International Conference – Urban Transitions and Transformations: Science, Synthesis and Policy, Taipei, Taiwan. http://ugec.org/2nd-

international-ugec-conference/ 2014.11.16-19 Second EAGE Integrated Reservoir Modelling Conference - Uncertainty Quantification: Are we Doing it Right? Dubai, United Arab Emirates,

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1147&Opendivs=s3 2014.12.07-09 Second EAGE Forum for Students & Young Professionals - Mentoring, Empowering & Valuing Young Talents, Muscat, Oman.

http://www.eage.org/events/index.php?eventid=1123&Opendivs=s3 2014.12.16-18 Energy and Sustainability 2014 - 5th International Conference on Energy and Sustainability, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, http://www.wessex.ac.uk/14-

conferences/energy-and-sustainability-2014.html 2015 27th International Cartographic Conference and 16th General Assembly of ICA. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. http://icaci.org/calendar 2015.02.22-25 SME Annual Meeting and Exhibit, Denver, USA. http://www.smenet.org/calendar/detail.cfm?eventKey=1052 2015.04.29-2015.05.06

ISRM 13th International Congress on Rock Mechanics, Montreal, Canada, http://www.isrm.net/conferencias/detalhes.php?id=3024&show=conf 2015.06.01-04 77th EAGE Conference & Exhibition 2015, Madrid, Spain. http://www.eage.org/index.php?evp=4021 2015.06.22-2014.07.02 IAVCEI General Assembly, Prague, Czech Republic, http://www.iugg2015prague.com/ 2015.08.07-15 18th International Congress on the Carboniferous and Permian, Kazan, Russia. http://www.iccp2015.ksu.ru 2015.08.16-21 Goldschmidt Conference 2015, Prague, Czech Republic, http://goldschmidt.info/2015/ 2015.08.23-28 European Crystallographic Meeting – ECM 29, Rovinj (Croatia). http://ecm29.ecanews.org/

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2015.11.01-04 GSA 2015, Baltimore, USA, http://www.globaleventslist.elsevier.com/events/2015/11/the-geological-society-of-america-gsa-2015-annual-meeting/ 2016.06.26-2016.07.01 Goldschmidt Conference 2015, Yokohama, Japan, http://goldschmidt.info/2016/

PROFESSIONAL COURSES/WORKSHOPS/SCHOLARSHIPS

PhD opportunities in petrology/economic geology at Cardiff University 2014 • The relationship of gold mineralization to ocean crust structures and hydrothermal systems in the Troodos ophiolite, Cyprus • The mineralogy of platinum, palladium and rhodium particles emitted from vehicle catalytic converters and dispersed into the urban environment • An asteroid clast in the melt sheet of the giant 144 Ma Morokweng meteorite impact crater, South Africa • Development of nascent arc lithosphere following subduction initiation: controls on post-axial magmatism in the Oman UAE ophiolite • Formation and age of the Arran central ring complex • Layered intrusions in the Monchegorsk area, Kola Peninsula, Russia: Petrogenesis and economic potential of one of the largest layered complexes on Earth • Unconventional olivine-rich cumulates, magma dynamics and development of platinum-group element mineralization in the Main Zone of the northern Bushveld Complex • Reactive porous flow and the evolution of the Bushveld Complex • How does the mantle drive plate tectonics? • Constraining Earth’s engine and the role of composition in mantle convection • Hydration, dehydration, and deformation of oceanic crust before and during subduction • Processes and products of fragmentation and transport in rocks • Development, deformation style, and seismic hazard of large normal faults • Diffusion and reaction in metamorphic and metasomatic rocks For further details, please check http://www.cardiff.ac.uk/earth/ Application deadline: 10 January 2014

Georg Forster Research Fellowship Programme Every year, the Alexander von Humboldt Foundation enables highly-qualified academics from transition and developing countries to spend time in Germany working on research under theGeorg Forster Research Fellowship Programme. In this way, the Foundation promotes the sharing of knowledge and methods between Germany and the researchers’ own countries. For this fellowship programme, which is funded by the Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ), the Humboldt Foundation has managed to acquire approx. seven million EUR in additional funding from the EU. This additional EU support will be available until 2018. The EU funding will be used to finance additional benefits: • a subsidy towards a pension plan to compensate for any disadvantages ensuing from a fellowship in comparison with an employment contract • a bridging grant to cover periods of unemployment in Germany • improved family allowances • a subsidy towards the costs of chi ld care to help reconcile research and family life Post-doctoral researchers (up to a maximum of four years after completing a doctorate) receive a monthly fellowship of 2,650 EUR. Experienced researchers (up to a maximum of 12 years after completing a doctorate) receive 3,159 EUR per month. The first selection meeting for Georg Forster Research Fellowships (HERMES) will take place in February 2014.

Visit www.humboldt-foundation.de/georgforster for additional information on the programme. You can also download our information leaflet at www.humboldt-foundation.de/web/gf-short-information.html. If you have any other questions, please do not hesitate to send an email to [email protected].

The International School on Foraminifera Urbino, It aly 3 June – 21 June 2014

Since its inception in 2006, the International School on Foraminifera in Urbino has been the world’s leading training school devoted to the study of foraminifera. The three-week training course is held at the newly-refurbished Collegio Internazionale at the University of Urbino. The school boasts an international teaching faculty who are among the world’s leading experts in their respective research fields. The full course consists of approximately 50 hours of lectures and 50 hours of practical work. The course consists of four modules: Introduction to the Foraminifera, smaller benthic foraminifera, larger benthic foraminifera, and planktonic foraminifera. Course participants have the option of registering for one or more modules, or participating in the entire course. The course includes a one-day field trip to visit the classic micropaleontological localities near Gubbio, Italy. The course is primarily intended for young researchers at the PhD or MSc stages of their careers and industrial staff working with Foraminifera, Meiofauna, Micropalaeontology, Paleoceanography, Paleoecology, and Climate History. For industrial staff, additional training modules or individual tutorials may be arranged upon request after the course. Contact Details: Email: [email protected] Tel: (+39) 0722 304309 Fax: (+39) 0722 304220

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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. 40

INTERESTING PHOTOS

Volcanic Islands of São Tomé and Príncipe

1. http://www.africanidade.com/articles/1020/1/Turismo-baixa-18-por-cento-em-SAo-TomA-e-PrAncipe/Paacutegina1.html 2. http://ruipauloalmas.blogspot.com/2011/10/its-time-for-sao-tome.html 3. http://saotome.org/ 4. http://www.orbitaviagens.com/ofertas/s-tome-e-principe.html 5. http://www.portalsaofrancisco.com.br/alfa/capas/turismo/sao-tome-e-principe.php 6. http://dxing.at-communication.com/en/s9dx_sao-tome_and_principe_islands/

Location: 0°20′N / 6°44′E

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Newsletter of the Geological Society of Africa (GSAf) – Nr. 12; December, 2013 – Annum 3. 41

GEOLOGY OF AFRICAN COUNTRIES/TERRITORIES

TCHAD

Adapted from: Schlüter, T., 2006. Geological Atlas of Africa. Ed. S pringer. 272 pp: CD-ROM