GenocideHolocaustHistory of Genocide and the HolocaustEight (8) Stages of GenocideClassification Us vs. Them.Symbolization1. Jewish star.DehumanizationDerogatory remarks.Considered outcasts of society. Stripped of their dignity and citizenship.Organization Hate groups. Propaganda. S.A. (Brown Shirts)
PolarizationKept separate from society Ghettoes.Preparation Identification: Red J on identity cards.Expropriation: Deprived of ownership of property, take away property and give to another.Concentration: To direct or draw people to one central location.Transportation: Taken to a specific place/concentration camp. ExterminationConcentration camps.Labor camps.Death camps.Work camps.Transit camps.Denial: Genocide or Holocaust never took place.
IntroductionGenocideGenocide: is the systematic, planned annihilation of a racial, religious, or cultural group.First introduced by Raphael Lamkin in 1933.Submitted a proposal to the League of Nations for an international convention on barbaric crime and vandalism.Lemkin was responding to the Turkish massacre of Armenians during World War 1.Convention request denied.Limkin persisted and took another war (WW2) to gain worldwide support for his proposal.
Genocide ConventionCame into being because of the Nazi atrocities.Convention was designed to overcome the claims of Nazi war criminals that they violated no .law.Convention forbids:Killing of persons belonging to a group. Causing grievous bodily or spiritual harm to members of a group.Deliberately enforcing upon the group living conditions which could lead to a complete or partial extermination.Enforcing measures not to prevent births from among the groups.Forcibly removing children from the group and transferring them to another group.Each of these provisions applies to a different stage or deed associated with the holocaust.
Provisions in detail.The killing of persons belonging to another group.Refers to the Final Solution.The plan to murder all Jews.Refers to the killing of Gypsies and all human beings.Causing grievous bodily harm.Refers to concentration camps, death camps, and labor camps.Deliberately enforcing on the group living specific living area and conditions.Refers to ghettoizationEnforcing measures to prevent births.Refers to sterilization as a tool. Medical experiments.Removing children.Refers to the Nazi policy of kidnapping polish children and removing them to Germany to be raised as Aryans.
U.S. Involvement in the Genocide Convention.Played a major role in creating it in 1948.Initially did not sign it do to opposition in the senate.McCarthyism was in play at the time (Communist influence/Red Scare). Senate needed 2/3 majority to ratify convention.Conservatives argued that by ratifying it, the United States would limit its national sovereignty.Thousands of speeches were made on behalf of the treaty.Every president from Harry Truman to Jimmy Carter advocated its ratification.None could muster the 2/3 vote needed.President Ronald Reagan was non-committal.President Reagan was pressed to put his personal prestige behind the drive to ratify the treaty.November 4, 1988, President Reagan signed the ratifying legislation.United States becomes the 98th nation to ratify the convention.
GenocideIs not a crime restricted to the 20th century.There have been many other genocides in the past.World War 1- Armenians:Were subjected to systematic slaughter by the Turks.Turks feared an Armenian Russian alliance on there eastern border. Turks deported many Armenians from there homes.Turks subjected them to:Starvation DiseaseAttacks Massacres There are links between the slaughter of the Armenians in WW1 and the annihilation of Jews a quarter century later.Armenian was a non-Muslim element in Muslim Turkey. Armenians were:Peasants CraftsmanMiddlemanThere economic status and social position resembled that of the Jews of Poland and Russia. They were subjected to a declining empire.
The Ottoman Empire had experienced:The emancipation of GreeceIndependence of RomaniaIndependence of SerbiaSelf-rule of the BulgariansTurks forced out of all of Europe.Assault against the Armenians occurred during World War 1 when the tide of victories turned against Germany and their Turkish allies.Slaughter of Armenians was limited to the provinces.Those Armenians who lived a distance from Russia or lived in the West part of the Empire were not subjected to genocide.Murder of Armenians was not considered essential to Turkish national salvation verses the murder of Jews was essential to Germanys national salvation.
Century of Genocide -1997-listred 14 events of genocide in the 20th century Passive Genocide 1933-Ukraine state sponsored acts led to mass starvation and massive deaths among the native population.Several million Ukrainian peasants were starved to death when the Soviet government seized their crops and agricultural goods.Soviets denied it until post communist period when they blamed it on Joseph Stalin and his associates.Other genocides or genocide like events resulted from: ColonialismImperialismDisplacement of 1 population by another.Bangladesh 1971Seeks independence from Pakistan.30 million Bengalis are displaced by the army10 million Bengalis seek refuge in IndiaWomen and girls are raped 3 million natives are murderedVillages are plundered
Indonesia 1975 Invade Portuguese colony of East TimorForced integration reached genocidal proportions resulting in substantial decline in the native population.From October 1965 to march 1966, 1 million people who were communists were killed in a series of massacres in Indonesia.YugoslaviaStruggles for independence between Serbs, Croats, and Bosnians. Cambodia 1975Khmer Rouge takes control of the country.Schools are closed.Factories deserted.Monasteries emptied.Libraries scattered.Money and wages abolishedEverything disappeared for 4 years.8 million Cambodians imprisoned by their own leaders.Estimates of up to 5 million killed.Movie: The Killing Fields depicts this atrocity.
Rwanda-1994April to July 1994, slaughter of massive numbers of Tutsis by the Hutu tribe.Precipitating event for the genocide was the shooting down of the Air Force plane carrying the presidents of Rwanda and Brundis. President had long exercised authoritarian rule.Hutu used this as an excuse to eliminate the Tutsi tribe.Approximately 500,000 to 1 million were killed.Majority by a machete.Military forces from Belgium and France evacuated their own troops only and non-governmental organizations engaged in humanitarian relief efforts, unarmed volunteers remained.Leaders of Non-governmental organizations (NGO) were young people, collage students, and post- graduate students.UNICEF, Care, Save the Children, Doctors without borders remained to rescue, to relieve and to alleviate pain and suffering.Soldiers who were trained for combat were called home by their governments which were fearful of political repercussions that would result if some harm befell them. Western countries feared losing the lives of heavily armed volunteer soldiers and thus turned and ran when the 1st signs of massive murders were perceived.American soldiers came in only to get Americans out.Movie: Hotel Rwanda depicts this incident.
The Holocaust and Genocide The Holocaust as Genocide. CharacteristicsThe Holocaust was a paradigmatic event. Paradigmatic: an example that serves as a model or pattern.Holocaust occurred in a modern, culturally advanced industrial society. Holocaust was initiated in then heart of Western Europe.Holocaust was the most extreme and intense manifestation of genocide. Holocaust although a unique event, can only be understood in the context of other genocides and other instances of massive inhumanity. Holocaust was unique for several reasons.Holocaust was intentional and premeditate.Unlike other state police which resulted in death of entire populations such as:Australian treatment of the Aborigines.British treatment of Irish peasants.The murder of the Jews was the goal of the Nazi policy from at least 1941 onward.
Holocaust served no political or territorial purpose.Unlike Native Americans who were crushed and put on reservations, the Jews posed no territorial threat to the Nazis.Jews murder led to no geographical or political benefit.It yielded no territorial gain. Killing Jews was not the means to an end but a fundamental goal in and of itself.Holocaust was a total and all-encompassing. Unlike Turkish campaign against the Armenians, those living in western Turkey were safe, while those living in the east near Russian border were killed; every Jew in Europe was targeted by the Nazis.At the Wannsee Conference, Reinhard Heydrich noted the Final Solution would have to deal with 11 million Jews including those in Britain and Ireland.Goal of exterminating all Jews was nothing less than a major realignment of the human species.Holocaust was different from all previous anti-Jewish violence.Past attacks on Jews were:Episodic (happen now and then).Confined to isolated geographic areas.Were illegal in that the anti-Semitic outbursts were often not formally sanctioned by law.Throughout history anti-Jewish violence was based on religion, not biology (race).Jews were killed for what they believed and practiced Conversion and emigration were possible.
NazismNazism was unrelenting. Nazis persecuted Jews for 12 years.Destruction of Jewish people was a national priority, even at the cost of national policy.CharacteristicsJewish workers were killed in spite of labor shortages.Railroad trains were made available to carry Jews to death camps instead of supplying German armies at there front with needed supplies. Jews were hunted down throughout Europe from central Russia to the Spanish border. Policy of extermination was sanctioned by: Law.Decrees.Official directives. Legal system itself served as the instrument of oppression and death.1942-Jusitce Hierack turned over jurisdiction of the following people to Heinrich Himmler, head of the gestopo and secret police: JewsGypsiesRussiansPolesUkrainiansCzechs
Germany 1933German Parliament gave over to Adolf Hitler emergency power to enact legislation as he saw fit.Next 12 years, Hitlers decrees had the force of law.Laws were enforced by judges who took an oath of allegiance to Hitler not to the constitution or the state.15 years after the defeat of Germanys Major Adolf Eichmann is captured by the is areal Masad and tried. He stated that the German government was elected by a majority and I was only following the orders of my superiors. He was found guilty and hung.Nazi Germany became a genocidal state.
Goal of annihilation called for participation by every arm of the government.Policy of extermination involved every level of German society and the entire apparatus of the German bureaucracy.Parish Churches and MinistrySupplied birth records that defined and isolated Jews.Post OfficeDelivered the notification of:DefinitionExpropriationDenaturalizationDeportation
Finance ministryConfiscated Jewish wealth and property.Universities refused to admit Jewish students.Denied degrees to those already enrolled.Dismissed Jewish faculty.German Industrial and Commercial Firms Fired Jewish workers, officers and board members.Disfranchised Jewish stockholdersGovernment Transportation BureauHandled billing arrangements with railroads for trains that carried Jews to their death.Medical ProfessionDoctors enforced so called euthanasia program.Participated in murder of handicapped Germans.Signed false death certificates.Supervised the selection process at the death camps.Chose who would live or die. In concentration camps, exploited victims for vicious medical experimentation.
Location and operation of camps was based on the calculation of accessibility and cost effectiveness.Pharmaceutical firms tested drugs on camp inmates without any regard for toxic side affects.Companies bid for contracts to build ovens and supply gas used for exterminations.German engineers working for Topf & Sons supplied 1 camp with 46 ovens, capable of burning 500 bodies per hour.Kristallnacht (Night of broken Glass- 1938)Murder process escalated.Murder by mass shooting by mobile killing units.The Final Solution to the Jewish problem was Germanys greatest achievement.
t. The Holocaust was the perverse perfection. Auschwitz III or Monowitz(located next to Auschwitz I/Berkenau) housed the industrial operation of I.G. Auschwitz II, a division of the giant conglomerate, I.G. Farban, the maker of Zyklon B gas.The vast petrochemical complex reduced human beings to consumable raw materials.Every part of the human body was recycled to serve the Nazi war economy:Gold teeth went to the treasury. Hair was used to stuff mattresses.Ashes from incinerated corpses became fertilizer. Final Solution was a managerial triumph.There was no budget for the program. Nazi bureaucratic and German industry cooperated to run the entire operation in the black.Holocaust represented a quasi-apocalyptic triumph for Nazi ideology.In the Nazi world view, the annihilation of the Jews was essential to the survival and salvation of the German state.
ConclusionNazis came to power in Germany in 1933, legally.They used power to undermine democracy and facilitate a dictatorship of 1 man, Adolf Hitler.Used violence and terror to achieve their goals at home and abroad.Came to power with an ideology that was racist, believing in a:Hierarchy of race.Innate inequality of peoples.Superiority of their own race which they called the Aryan Race.Inferiority of many races.The Demonic role of 1 people whom they called the Jewish race.
20th Century Genocide AtrocitiesAlgeria 1962 Occupied by France for 130 years.French-Algerians accuse each other of atrocities during the war for liberation (1954-1962). Over 30,000 people who collaborated with the French were killed.
Angola - 1975-1995 & 1998-2002Occupied by Portugal.3 rival independent movements formed: MPLA.UNTA.FNLA.Angolas rich natural resources, include diamonds and oil, interested several foreign nations. These nations back 1 of the 3 groups. Over 600,000 people killed.
Argentina 1976-1980 Military coup occurs.Fighting starts and over 20,000 people were killed or disappeared.1998, 98 junta members indicted on human rights violations. Democracy is restored in 1983.Bosnia- 1992- 1995(Yugoslavia) Bosnia-Herzegovina declares independence from Yugoslavia. Fighting breaks out between the Serbs who wanted to stay with Yugoslavia, the Croats who wanted to join Croatia. Over 225,000 died. China 1949-197529 years rule of Mae Zedong is responsible for the death of at least 30,000,000 people. Land reform caused massive famines.Purges claimed millions in the 1940s and 1950s. Cultural Revolution of 1966-1975 created violence against the Tibetans.
. El Salvador Military grabs power.Village of El Mozote wiped out...