Genetic Transformation - Richmond County School Transformation_ . What is transformation?

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  • Genetic Transformation

  • What is transformation?

    When a cell takes up and expresses a new piece of genetic material—DNA— in order to change the organism’s traits

    A gene is a piece of DNA which provides the instructions for making (coding for) a particular protein

    DNA Protein Trait

  • History of Transformation

    1928 – Fredrick Griffth first described transformation

     Pneumococcus bacteria (pneumonia) and mice

    1944 – Oswald Avery, Colin MacLeod, Maclyn McCarty identified the “transforming principle” as DNA

  • History of Transformation

    1952 – Alfred Hershey and Martha Chase provided final proof that DNA was the molecule of heredity

    1970 – Morton Mandel and Akiko Higa developed a protocol for transforming E. coli bacteria

  • What is transformation used for?


     Genes coding for traits such as frost, pest or drought resistance can be genetically transformed into plants

  • What is transformation used for?


     Bacteria can be genetically transformed with genes enabling them to digest oil spills or remove pollutants from the environment

  • What is transformation used for?


     Production of human proteins to treat genetic diseases

    Protein Disease/Disorder

    Human insulin Diabetes mellitus

    Human Growth Hormone Deficiency in children

    Erythropoietin Anemia

    DNase I Cystic fibrosis

    Human antibody blocker Asthma

  • What are we doing?

    We will transform bacteria (E. coli), giving it the ability to make green fluorescent proteins

  • Green Fluorescent Protein

    Used in science as a visual marker…  Biological processes (protein production)

     Localization and regulation of gene expression

     Cell movement

     Cell fate during development

     Formation of different organs

     Marker to identify transgenic organisms

  • How does it work?





    Cell membrane

  • Making Plasmids





  • pGLO Plasmid



    To make green fluorescent proteins

    To survive with Ampicillin (antibiotic)