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Genetic Engineering - Ms. Bailey's Website · PDF file 2018-09-07 · Genetic Engineering • Genetic engineering is the alteration of genetic code by means, and is therefore different

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  • Genetic Engineering

    • Genetic engineering is the alteration of genetic code by means,

    and is therefore different from traditional selective breeding. Only allowing desired characteristics to reproduce.

    • Scorpion DNA is located and inserted into cabbage DNA.

    Cabbage kills caterpillars (insecticide).

    Changing the Living World Selective breeding

    • Hybridization - the act or process of mating organisms of ____ varieties or species to create a hybrid.

    Insecticide _____ crops

    Herbicide resistant crops

    Vitamin enriched crops • Inbreeding-is the continued breeding of individuals with _____


    Pros- maintains characteristics of the breed

    Cons- genetic _____ more common

    Increasing Variation • In nature there is a lot of genetic variation found in wild natural


    • Breeders can variation by inducing mutations. • Ex. Belgium Blue -myostatin muscle mutation • Oil eating bacteria strains created using mutations • Plants have success by introducing chromosomes (mutation) . • Polyploidy is caused by drugs that or triple the amount of

    chromosomes. The effect causes larger and stronger plants.

    • Citrus fruits, bananas • successful with animals

  • Manipulating DNA • Scientists use their knowledge of the structure of DNA and its chemical

    properties to and DNA molecules. Different techniques are used to extract DNA from Cells.

    Different techniques are used to :

    • extract DNA from cells • cut DNA into smaller pieces • identify the sequence of bases in a DNA molecule • make unlimited copies of DNA.

    The Tools of Molecular Biology

    • Genetic Engineering - changes in the DNA code • DNA Extraction - The cells are opened and the DNA is from

    the other cell parts.

    Cutting DNA • DNA strands are too long to work with so scientists use ____

    enzymes to DNA into fragments, at precise points, on the DNA strand.

    • Fits like a "lock and when the DNA is opened.II

    Separating DNA • How DNA is separated and analyzed • Gel electrophoresis-used to genomes or gene composition of

    different organisms or individuals

    Using the DNA Sequence

    • Once DNA is in a manageable form, it sequence can be read, studied, and even changed. Knowing the DNA sequence allows researchers to study specific genes, to them, and to try to discover the _____ of different genes and gene combinations.

    • A chemical dye is added as a on bases to help read the DNA sequence before electrophoresis is started.

  • Cutting and Pasting • "Synthetic" sequences can be joined to "natural" sequences using

    ______ that splice DNA together. It's like taking a gene from one organism and implanting it in organism.

    • Recombinant DNA is produced by combining DNA from different

    Making Copies • Scientists need many of a particular gene to study • Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) is a technique used to DNA


    Cell Transformation • During transformation, a cell takes in DNA from ____ the cell. This

    external DNA becomes a component of the cell's DNA.

    -ex. Griffith's experiment, in 1928, proved bacteria transform DNA • Bacteria can be transformed recombinant DNA • Foreign DNA is joined to the bacteria's DNA in the ______

    • Plasmid's contain in the bacteria

    -contains DNA sequences that _____ plasmid replication

    -Plasmid's contain genetic making it easy to identify

    transformed bacteria.

    Transforming Plant Cells • Many plants are transformed by using bacteria that ___ their DNA

    into a plant cell to produce tumors

    1} Scientists turn off the gene for ____ and insert recombinant DNA into the plasmid.

    2) Then the recombinant plasmid can be used to infect plant cells

    • When plant cell walls are , plant cells in culture will sometimes take up DNA on their own. -DNA can also be into some plant cells.

    • Tobacco plant cells transformed with reprogrammed virus. Virus makes chromophores to energy from the sun to be used in solar panels

  • Applications of Genetic Engineering • Genetic engineering makes it possible to transfer DNA sequences, including

    whole genes, from one organism to _____

    -including plants to animals

    -Enzyme luciferase, gene fireflys glow, combined with tobacco plant • Proved that the basic mechanisms of gene expression are by plants

    and animals.

    Transgenic Organisms

    • DNA allows us to ____ organisms that are transgenic. • Transgenic means that organisms contain genes from other species. • Transformed cells can create whole organisms

    ex. Glow in dark cats, transgenic salmon compared to regular salmon after

    one yr.

    Transgenic Microorganisms • Transgenic bacteria used to create important substances in

    health and industry

    -reproduce rapidly

    -easy to grow

    ex. Insulin, growth hormone, clotting factor,

    Pic- chickens that can't pass the bird flu

    Transgenic Animals • Used to study genes and to improve the ___ supply • Mice given human genes to mimic our immune systems to study

    diseases • Livestock given extra growth hormone to grow faster • Chickens bacterial resistant to bacteria that cause food poisoning • Sheep and pigs make human milk (proteins)

  • ----

    Transgenic Plants

    • Important part of the food supply • Insecticide and herbicide resistant • Food with more (Vit.A rice)

    • May soon produce

    -human antibodies that

    can be used to disease

    -Plastics from plants (maybe)?

    - Food resistant to rot and spoilage

    Cloning • A clone is a member of a population of genetically _____ cells

    produced from a single cell.

    • Bacteria are to clone • Multi-cellular organisms are difficult to clone • Help endangered species • 1997 William Wilmut cloned Dolly