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Genetic Engineering

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Genetic Engineering. How is this possible?. Jelly Fish Gene  Mice. Recombinant DNA Technology. Connecting fragments of DNA from different sources. Transgenic Organisms. Plants and animals that contain fragments of DNA from different sources. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Text of Genetic Engineering

  • Genetic Engineering

  • How is this possible?

  • Jelly Fish Gene Mice

  • Recombinant DNA TechnologyConnecting fragments of DNA from different sources

  • Transgenic OrganismsPlants and animals that contain fragments of DNA from different sources.Example: tobacco plant with firefly gene that makes the plant glow

  • Bacteria and Recombinant DNA TechnologyScientists commonly use bacteria to produce substances like human insulin or human growth hormoneThey all use bacteria because they reproduce asexually and reproduce rapidly

  • Creating Bacteria with Human Genes (DNA) Step 1 Cut a piece of DNA that codes for a specific gene using restriction enzymes (act like scissors). They cut DNA at a specific nucleotide sequence. Example:

  • Step 2Cut plasmid (small circular DNA found in bacteria) with restriction enzymes.

  • Step 3Gene splicing: Foreign DNA is attached to the plasmid creating recombinant DNA.The recombinant DNA is inserted into the bacteria. The bacteria will reproduce asexually.

  • Animation

  • Recombinant DNA Technology

  • What do scientists use this for?To produce insulin, human growth hormone, enzymes to break down pollutants, produce natural insecticides, etc.

  • The quest for the perfect tomato.

  • What would arctic fish have to do with making the perfect tomato?

  • Transgenic PlantsGenetically engineered plants with recombinant DNA.Example tomato with the antifreeze gene from fish

  • Transgenic AnimalsGenetically engineered animals with recombinant DNA.Ex Creating animals with human organs for transplants

  • Gene TherapyInserting normal genes into human cells to correct genetic disorders

  • Selective BreedingChoosing animals and plants to mate with desirable traits.Ex Texas cattle and Brahman cattle

  • What are they?

  • HybridizationMating individuals not closely related to introduce new beneficial genes into a populationEx Horse (obedient) + donkey (strong) = mule (obedient and strong)

  • InbreedingMating between closely related individuals to maintain desirable traits.

  • Choosing a MutationSeedless oranges, ancon sheep (short legged). We choose to breed mutations for our benefit.

  • Cloning

  • CloningCreating identical individuals with the desired traits.Ex Dolly the sheep, vegetative propagation, etc.

  • Cloning Pros and Cons

    ProsConsStudy and fight diseasesClone organisms with better traits (better meat, milk, etc.)

    Messing with natureCloning humansChange an ecosystem bring back organisms that are extinctClones live shorter lives because the DNA is aged