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Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation February 17, 2013 1 / 30

Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

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Page 1: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection

Applied to Computation

Stephanie Forrest

February 17, 2013

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 1 / 30

Page 2: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Presented By

April Suknot

Steven Garcia

Jeff Bowles

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 2 / 30

Page 3: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Overview

”Genetic algorithms allow engineers to use a computer to evolve solutions

over time, instead of designing them by hand.”

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Mathematical Analysis of Genetic Algorithms

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 3 / 30

Page 4: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

In the design of a genetic algorithm to solve a specific problem, there are

two major decisions:

Defining a concrete measure of fitness

Representation Problem

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 4 / 30

Page 5: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Function Optimization

Most obvious application: DeJong’s Multiparameter Optimization - many

problems can be formulated as a search for some optimal value.

Assign regions of bit string to represent each parameter and

determine the order

Specify the domains for parameters

The precision of the solution is determined by how many bits are used to

represent each parameter.

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 5 / 30

Page 6: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Function Optimization

Gray codes address the increment/decrement issue because they have the

property that incrementing or decrementing any number by one requires

only a one bit change.

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 6 / 30

Page 7: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Ordering Problems

Ordering problems involve finding an optimal ordering for a sequence of N

items. Some examples are:

Travelling Salesman problem

Bin-Packing

Graph Coloring

DNA Fragment Assembly

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 7 / 30

Page 8: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Automatic Programming

Genetic algorithms have evolved to use special computer programs:

Programs written in a subset of the programming language Lisp.

Can be naturally represented as trees.

Sometimes ”junk” components of genetic programs can be useful in

other areas.

Appear less elegant and more redundant than human-designed

programs.

For Example:

(-1 (* 2 (* sin (sin x))))

versus

(sin (- (- 2 (* x 2)) (sin (sin (sin (sin (sin (sin (* (sin (sin 1)) (sin (sin 1)))))))))))

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 8 / 30

Page 9: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Automatic Programming

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 9 / 30

Page 10: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

Characteristics

highly abstract

unlikely to make exact numerical predictions

reveal conditions under which certain qualitative behaviors are likely

to rise

diversity of phenotypes in a resource rich/poor environment

discover critical parameters that have drastic effects on the outcomes

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 10 / 30

Page 11: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

the Echo system

1 there is no explicit fitness function

2 individuals (agents) have local storage

3 genetic representation is based on a higher cardinality alphabet e.g.

{A,B ,C ,D}.

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 11 / 30

Page 12: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

Implicit Fitness Evaluation

1 resources modeled by elements of alphabet

2 agent genomes consist of elements of the alphabet

3 agents can make copies of themselves if resources allow

4 resources exist free in the environment or stored locally by agent

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 12 / 30

Page 13: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

Interactions

trade between agents

combat

mating

exchange genetic material through crossover

mutation

evolution of new agents

Environment

2-D grid

agents can cohabit sites and migrate

at each timestep a fixed amount of resources become available at

each site

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 13 / 30

Page 14: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

t = 0

1

2

(A,1)

(C,2) (B,1)

(D,1)

(C,1)

(D,3)

Agent 1

genome: A,A,B

storage: ∅

Agent 2

genome: D,C,B

storage: ∅

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 14 / 30

Page 15: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

t = 1

2

1

(C,2) (B,1)

(C,1)

(D,3)

Agent 1

genome: A,A,B

storage: A

Agent 2

genome: D,C,B

storage: D

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 15 / 30

Page 16: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

t = 2

2

1

(B,1)

(D,1)

(C,1)

(D,3)

Agent 1

genome: A,A,B

storage: A,A

Agent 2

genome: D,C,B

storage: D,C

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 16 / 30

Page 17: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

t = 3

2

1

(A,1)

(C,2) (B,1)

(D,1)

(C,1)

(D,3)

Agent 1

genome: A,A,B

storage: A,A

Agent 2

genome: D,C,B

storage: D,C

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 17 / 30

Page 18: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

t = 4

22

1

(A,1)

(C,2)

(D,1)

(C,1)

(D,3)

Agent 1

genome: A,A,B

storage: A,A

Agent 2

genome: D,C,B

storage: ∅

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 18 / 30

Page 19: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Modeling Ecological Systems

Preliminary Simulations

biological arms race

ecological dependence among different species

sensitivity to differing levels of renewable resources

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 19 / 30

Page 20: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

Let’s predict how well a genetic algorithm (GA) will perform!

Good luck with that

Consider problems with the following characteristics:

Little analytical knowledge

Complex

Noisy

Dynamic

Virtually impossible to predict how well any algorithm will perform

Deterministic

Non-deterministic

This may be one reason why research in this area has not produced

definitive answers.

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 20 / 30

Page 21: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

If it’s hard to predict how well a GA will work, can it work well?

Yes, GAs can work well, if a global optimum is not needed.

GAs search for bit strings in {0, 1}n.If n is large, it is not feasible to search entire space

GA is searching for bit strings with high fitness

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 21 / 30

Page 22: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

Schemas

Bit string abstraction: a schema is a template of a bit string.

Schemas **0*11 ****11 **0*** **0**1

Instances 100111 010011 110111 000001

1

Bit strings that match the templates are instances of a schema.

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 22 / 30

Page 23: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

A bit string belongs to 2n schemas

Fit bitstring == fit schema

Implicit parallelism

All bitstrings that match a schema can be judged at the same time

This is a very nice optimization

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 23 / 30

Page 24: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

Matching Schemas

100111

**0**1**0*11 1*0***

Schema A Schema B Schema C

Bit String of High Fitness

1

Example of a high fitness bitstring matching three schemas and the

resulting implicit parallelism

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 24 / 30

Page 25: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

Schema Theorem

The observed best schemas are expected to receive an exponentially

increasing number of samples in successive generations.

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 25 / 30

Page 26: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

Schema Theorem

This property of GAs is a double edged sword:

The strong convergence property can find good solutions fast

The strong convergence property can find bad solutions fast

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 26 / 30

Page 27: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Mathematical Analysis

Deception

There may be some schemas that are templates for high fitness bit strings:

Schemas *0**** **0*** ***0**

Instances 101111 110111 111011

Global Optimum 111111

1

But they lead away from the global optimum. In this case, the GA would

be deceived and led away from the global optimum

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 27 / 30

Page 28: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Summary

We discussed:

Genetic Algorithms for Solving Problems

Genetic Algorithms for Making Models

Mathematical Analysis of Genetic Algorithms

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 28 / 30

Page 29: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Discussion

Can genetic algorithms be used to evolve robots?

What are the characteristics of robots?

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 29 / 30

Page 30: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Discussion

Can the stock market be predicted with GAs?

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 30 / 30

Page 31: Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection ... · Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to Computation Stephanie Forrest February 17, 2013 Stephanie

Discussion

Is the signal in the stock market noisy? Dynamic? Chaotic?

When predicting the stock market, would a GA be looking for local

minima and maxima?

Stephanie Forrest Genetic Algorithms: Principles of Natural Selection Applied to ComputationFebruary 17, 2013 31 / 30