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General Information…. Started on July 28, 1914 Ended on November 11, 1918. Almost 8,000,000 dead. *** Russia the most = 1.7 million Almost 22,000,000 wounded…. Map of Europe greatly changed . Roots of WWI. Causes of World War I. M A N I A. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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General Information…• Started on July 28, 1914• Ended on November 11, 1918

• Almost 8,000,000 dead. *** Russia the most = 1.7 million• Almost 22,000,000 wounded…..

• Map of Europe greatly changed.

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Roots of WWI

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Causes of World War I






ilitarism – policy of building up strong military forces to prepare for war

lliances - agreements between nations to aid and protect one another

ationalism – pride in or devotion to one’s country

mperialism – when one country takes over another country economically and politicallyssassination – murder of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand


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1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 191494 130 154 268 289 398

1910-1914 Increase in Defense Expenditures

France 10%Britain 13%Russia 39%

Germany 73%

Causes of World War I - MilitarismTotal Defense Expenditures for the Great Powers

(Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy, France, Britain, Russia) in millions of £s (British pounds)

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Triple Entente: Triple Alliance:Germany



Great Britain



Causes of World War I - Alliances


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NATIONALISM Often nationalism led

to rivalries and conflicts between nations

Additionally, various ethnic groups resented domination by others and wanted independence

Russia and Austria-Hungary disagreed over the treatment of Serbs in central Europe

Germany was allied with Austria-Hungary while Russia, France

and Britain were partners

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Archduke Franz Ferdinand and Duchess Sophie Sarajevo, Bosnia - June 28th, 1914.

Causes of World War I - Assassination

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Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand was killed in Bosnia by a Serbian nationalist who believed that Bosnia should belong to Serbia.

Causes of World War I - Assassination

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Gavrilo Princip after his assassination of Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand.

Causes of World War I - Assassination

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The Point of No Return:

The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Austria blamed Serbia for Ferdinand’s death and declared war on Serbia.

Germany pledged their support for Austria -Hungary.· example of Pan-German nationalism

Russia pledged their support for Serbia.· example of Pan-Slavic nationalism

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The Point of No Return:

The Assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand

Germany declares war on Russia.

France pledges their support for Russia.

Germany declares war on France.

Germany invades Belgium on the way to France.

Great Britain supports Belgium and declares war on Germany.

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World War I

Allied Powers: Central Powers:Great Britain






Ottoman Empire

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THE FIGHTING BEGINS The Alliance system pulled

one nation after another into the conflict – The Great War had begun

On August 3, 1914, Germany invaded Belgium, following a strategy known as the Schlieffen Plan

This plan called for a quick strike through Belgium to Paris, France

Next, Germany would attack Russia

The plan was designed to prevent a two-front war for Germany The Schliefflen


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War in Europe

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Technology and WWI

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• This picture epitomizes 3 of the major characteristics of war during this time.

What do you think they are?


Gas Masks

Machine Guns

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Machine Guns• combination of machine guns and barbed

wire responsible for greatest # of deaths• Guns now lighter and more mobile

– Maxim gun from earlier wars had wheels

• BAR (Browning Automatic Rifle)– Gas operated– 16 to 19 lbs.– Slow or fully automatic

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Chemical Warfare• Chemical warfare was a major distinguishing factor of

the war. • Only a small portion of casualties were caused by gas

– Caused blindness and death by choking– achieved harassment and psychological effects.

• Effective countermeasures to gas were found in gas masks – Its effectiveness was diminished.– Wind could blow gases back at aggressor

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Tanks• Armored combat vehicle used mostly for

crossing rough terrain and over barbed wire.

• Introduced by the British in 1916• Armored cars used before tanks

The name tank came when the British shipped them in crates marked "tanks“ trying to cover up what they really were

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Submarines / U-Boats• German (unterseeboot)• Primary targets were merchant convoys

bringing supplies from the United States and Canada to Europe – Lusitania

Unrestricted Submarine Warfare – means you don’t have to give warning before destroying

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THE WAR BECOMES A STALEMATE Unable to save Belgium, the

Allies retreated to the Marne River in France where they halted the German advance in September of 1914

Both sides dug in for a long siege

By the spring of 1915, two parallel systems of deep trenches crossed France from Belgium to Switzerland

Between enemy trenches was “no man’s land” – an area pockmarked with shell craters and filled with barbed wire

British soldiers standing in mud

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The conditions in these trenches were horrific; aside from the fear of bombardment, soldiers also had to contend with the mud, flooding and disease associated with living in such a harsh environment.

German Soldiers

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Trench Warfare – type of fighting during World War I in which both sides dug trenches protected by mines and barbed wire

Trench Warfare

Cross-section of a front-line trench 

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British trench, France, July 1916 (during the Battle of the Somme)

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Trench Rats

"The rats were huge. They were so big they would eat a wounded man if he couldn't defend himself."

"I saw some rats running from under the dead men's greatcoats, enormous rats, fat with human flesh. My heart pounded as we edged towards one of the bodies. His helmet had rolled off. The man displayed a grimacing face, stripped of flesh; the skull bare, the eyes devoured and from the yawning mouth leapt a rat."

Many men killed in the trenches were buried almost where they fell. These corpses, as well as the food scraps that littered the trenches, attracted rats.

Quotes from soldiers fighting in the trenches:

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Trench Rats

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Soldiers digging trenches while protected against gas attacks

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U.S. enters WWI

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In 1914, most Americans saw no reason to join a struggle 3,000 miles away – they wanted neutrality

Some simply did not want their sons to experience the horror of warfare

German-Americans supported Germany in World War I

However, many American felt close to the British because of a shared ancestry and language

Most importantly, American economic interests were far stronger with the Allies French propaganda poster portrayed

the Germans as inhuman and impacted American attitudes toward the Germans

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THE WAR HITS HOME During the first two years of

the war, America was providing (selling) the allied forces dynamite, cannon powder, submarines, copper wire and tubing and other war material

Both the Germans and British imposed naval blockades on each other

The Germans used U-boats (submarines) to prevent shipments to the North Atlantic

Any ship found in the waters around Britain would be sunk

German U-boat 1919

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THE LUSITANIA DISASTER United States involvement in

World War I was hastened by the Lusitania disaster

The Lusitania was a British passenger liner that carried 1,198 persons on a fateful trip on May 7, 1915

A German U-boat sank the British passenger liner killing all aboard including 128 American tourists

The Germans claimed the ship was carrying Allied ammunition

Americans were outraged and public opinion turned against Germany and the Central Powers

May 7, 1915

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The N.Y. Times reports on the Lusitania

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Was the sinking of the Lusitania justified?

• U.S. claimed the Lusitania carried an innocent cargo

• Lusitania was in fact heavily armed;* – 1,248 cases of shells– 4,927 boxes of cartridges (1,000 round/box)– 2,000 cases of small-arms ammunition

*Information from Howard Zinn’s A People’s History of the United States

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The November 1916 election pitted incumbent Democrat Woodrow Wilson vs. Republican candidate Supreme Court Justice Charles Evans Hughes

Wilson won a close election using the slogan, “He kept us out of war”

That slogan would prove ironic because within a few months the United States would be embroiled in World War I


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Several factors came together to bring the U.S. into the war;

1) Germany ignored Wilson’s plea for peace

2) The Zimmerman Note, a telegram from the German foreign minister to the German Ambassador in Mexico, proposed an alliance

Germany promised Mexico a return of their “lost territory” in Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona

3) Next came the sinking of four unarmed U.S. merchant ships by German subs

Encoded message from Germany to Mexico

(Zimmerman note)

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Zimmerman note intercepted by a British agent and decoded

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A light drizzle fell on Washington on April 2, 1917, as senators, representatives, ambassadors, members of the Supreme Court, and other guests crowded into the Capital building to hear Wilson deliver his declaration of war

Wilson said, “The world must be safe for democracy”

Congress passed the resolution a few days later

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SECTION 2: The Home Front

The entire U.S. economy was focused on the war effort

The shift from a consumer economy to war economy required a collaboration between business and government

In the process, the power of the U.S. government expanded

Congress gave President Wilson direct control over the economy

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WAR INDUSTRIES BOARD The War Industries Board

(WIB) encouraged companies to use mass-production techniques

Under the WIB, industrial production and wages increased 20%

Union membership almost doubled during the war years – from 2.5 million to 4 million

To deal with disputes between management and labor, President Wilson set up the National War Labor Board in 1918

Poster encouraging production

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VICTORY GARDENS To conserve food, Wilson

set up the Food Administration (FA)

The FA declared one day a week “meatless” another “sweetless” and two days “wheatless”

Homeowners planted “victory gardens” in their yards

Schoolchildren worked after-school growing tomatoes and cucumbers in public parks

Farmers increased production by almost 30% by adding 40 million acres of farmland

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The U.S. had two major tasks; raising money and convincing the public to support the war

The U.S. spent $35.5 billion on the war effort

The government raised about 1/3 of that through an income tax and “sin” taxes

The rest was raised through war bonds sold to the public (Liberty Loans & Victory Loans)

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PROPAGANDA To popularize the war, the

government set up the nations first propaganda agency called the Committee on Public Information (CPI)

George Creel led the agency and persuaded many of the nation’s artists to create thousands of paintings, posters, cartoons and sculptures to promote the war

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LIMITING CIVIL LIBERTIES As the war progressed, Civil

Liberties were limited Anti-Immigrant feelings were

openly expressed especially anti-German and Austrian- Hungarian

Espionage and Sedition Acts were passed by Congress

These acts were designed to prevent anti-war protests but some argued that they went against the spirit of the First Amendment (Free speech)

Socialists and labor leaders were targeted

Any anti-American sentiments were targeted

during wartime

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The greatest effect of the First World War on the African American population was that it accelerated the Great Migration

The Great Migration was the large scale population shift for hundreds of thousands of African-Americans from the south to Northern cities

They left to escape discrimination and to seek greater job opportunities

Popular destinations included Chicago, New York and Philadelphia

This African American family

settled in Chicago

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WOMEN IN THE WAR Many women were called

upon to take on jobs previously held by men who were serving in the war

They became railroad workers, cooks, dockworkers, factory workers, and miners

Many women served as volunteers in organizations such as the Red Cross

Their service hastened the passage of the 19th Amendment in 1920 giving women the right to vote

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Despite the hero’s welcome he received in Europe, Wilson’s plan for peace would be rejected by the Allies

Wilson’s plan was called the “Fourteen points”

Included in his “points” were: No secret treaties

Freedom of the Seas

More free trade

Reduction of arms

Less colonialism

League of Nations to promote peace


Wilson’s 14 points in his own

short hand

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The Big Four leaders, Wilson (U.S.), Clemenceau (France), Lloyd George (England), and Orlando (Italy), worked out the Treaty’s details

Wilson conceded on most of his 14 points in return for the establishment of the League of Nations

On June 28, 1919, the Big Four and the leaders of the defeated nations gathered in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles and signed the Treaty of Versailles

Hall of Mirrors

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TREATY OF VERSAILLES The Treaty established nine new nations including; Poland, Czechoslovakia, and

Yugoslavia The Treaty broke up the

Austro-Hungarian Empire and the Ottoman Empire

The Treaty barred Germany from maintaining an army, required them to give Alsace-Lorraine back to France, and forced them to pay $33 billion in reparations to the Allies The Big Four met at Versailles

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The harsh treatment of Germany prevented the Treaty from creating a lasting peace in Europe The Treaty humiliated

the Germans by forcing them to admit sole responsibility for the war (War-Guilt Clause)

Furthermore, Germany would never be able to pay $33 billion in reparations

Germans felt the Versailles Treaty was unfair

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In the United States, the Treaty was hotly debated especially the League of Nations

Conservative senators, headed by Henry Cabot Lodge, were suspicious of the Leagues’ joint economic and military commitments

Many wanted the U.S. Congress to maintain the right to declare war

Ultimately, Congress rejected U.S. involvement in the very League the U.S. President had created


The U.S. never did join the league

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THE LEGACY OF WWI At home, the war strengthened

both the military and the power of the government

The propaganda campaign provoked powerful fears in society

For many countries the war created political instability and violence that lasted for years

Russia established the first Communist state during the war

Americans called World War I, “The War to end all Wars” --- however unresolved issues would eventually drag the U.S. into an even deadlier conflictWWI 1914-1918

22 million dead, more than half civilians. An additional 20 million wounded.