Gender Gaps in Education - India

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    Gender gaps in education - IndiaAnjini Kochar

    Stanford Center for InternationalDevelopment

    Stanford University

    The views expressed in this paper are the views of the author and do not necessarily reflect the views or policies of the AsianDevelopment Bank (ADB), or its Board of Governors, or the governments they represent. ADB does not guarantee the accuracy ofthe data included in this paper and accepts no responsibility for any consequence of their use. The countries listed in this paper donot imply any view on ADB's part as to sovereignty or independent status or necessarily conform to ADB's terminology.

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    Overview of talk

    Data on gender disparities and trends

    National, rural/urban, regional, caste

    Gender disparities in achievement/quality

    Evidence from within schools, Karnataka

    Data on household expenditure on boys, girls

    Rural/urban, regional

    Theories

    Gender differences in returns and costs of schooling

    Family / cultural factors (son preference)Changing nature of the family (Karnataka)

    Conclusion

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    2007: Gender gaps in completed level of schooling, by age group and rural/urban

    sector (NSS 64th round, major states)

    Age group/

    completed educ

    Rural Urban

    Male Female Male Female

    11-13

    primary 0.70 (0.46) 0.66 (0.47) 0.80 (0.40) 0.79 (0.41)

    Currently - HPS 0.55 (0.50) 0.51 (0.50) 0.59 (0.49) 0.58 (0.49)

    14-16

    Primary 0.83 (0.37) 0.78 (0.41) 0.89 (0.31) 0.88 (0.32)Upper primary 0.51 (0.50) 0.46 (0.50) 0.65 (0.48) 0.66 (0.47)

    Currently enroll -

    secondary

    0.35 (0.48) 0.30 (0.46) 0.42 (0.49) 0.40 (0.49)

    17-19

    Primary 0.83 (0.37) 0.72 (0.45) 0.90 (0.30) 0.89 (0.31)

    Upper primary 0.63 (0.48) 0.52 (0.50) 0.75 (0.43) 0.76 (0.43)

    Sec 0.38 (0.49) 0.31 (0.46) 0.54 (0.50) 0.59 (0.49)

    Higher sec 0.12 (0.31) 0.12 (0.30) 0.22 (0.41) 0.28 (0.45)

    Currently in Hsec 0.16 (0.37) 0.10 (0.31) 0.22 (0.41) 0.20 (0.40)

    Rural: Comparison across cohorts suggests narrowing gaps over timeUrban: insignificant gender gap

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    Trends in gender gaps in completed higher secondary (12 years) by region,

    Rural India, (NSS), Ages 19-25

    Same patterns: Narrowing of gender gaps in all regions; approximately equal gender gaps (2007-08) in

    all regions

    Greatest reductions in Central and West

    With growth, growing disparities in education (male, female) across regions

    0

    .05

    .1

    .15

    .2

    .25

    mean

    ofchsec

    North central East West South

    1995 2007 1995 2007 1995 2007 1995 2007 1995 2007

    Male Female

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    Urban India (NSS) - Trends in gender gaps in completed higher secondary (12

    years) by region, Ages 14-18

    0

    .1

    .2

    .3

    .4

    mean

    ofchsec

    North central East West South

    1995 2007 1995 2007 1995 2007 1995 2007 1995 2007

    Male Female

    Gaps narrowed in all regions, except East

    High growth regions are North, West, South

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    Most recent data is from ASER 2011

    Proportion out-of school children (India, rural)

    Narrowing gender gaps, within each cohort

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    Even in rural Bihar and Punjab

    Rural Bihar Rural Punjab

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    Data suggest that gaps appear at primary level, and then

    sustained or narrowed at higher level

    Ages 20-25, Rural India, 2007

    Proportion of ages 20-25 (2007) completed primary: Males: 0.77; Females 0.57

    - 20 percentage point difference

    1995 survey: Gender gap in primary completions, ages 11-13 (1995): Males

    0.63 (0.48); Females 0.47 (0.50) 16 percentage point difference

    Gender gap in secondary completions, ages 20-25 (2007): Males 0.33 (0.17);

    Females 0.22 (0.10) 11 percentage point difference

    Gender gap in higher secondary completions, ages 20-25 (2007): Males 0.18(0.38); females 0.11 (0.31) 7 percentage point difference

    Contrary to what one might want: everyone gets at least a primary education,

    and gender gaps show up at higher levels here, gender gaps are lowest at low

    levels, and then narrow over time

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    Pattern is true of all regions

    Rural India, ages 20-25 (2007-08, NSS)

    Region Completed primary Completed higher secondary

    Males Females Males Females

    North 0.81

    (0.40)

    0.61

    (0.49)

    0.22

    (0.41)

    0.16

    (0.36)

    Central 0.71(0.45)

    0.45(0.50)

    0.15(0.36)

    0.08(0.28)

    East 0.72

    (0.45)

    0.59

    (0.49)

    0.12

    (0.32)

    0.08

    (0.27)

    West 0.87

    (0.33)

    0.72

    (0.45)

    0.23

    (0.42)

    0.15

    (0.36)

    South 0.83

    (0.38)

    0.67

    (0.47)

    0.22

    (0.42)

    0.16

    (0.36)

    Gender gaps much larger at primary level (those who did not complete primary), then at higher secondary level, suggesting

    that gender differences in completed years of schooling is primarily because of gender differences in those completingprimary

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    Urban India, ages 20-25 (2007-08, NSS)

    Region Completed primary Completed higher secondary

    Males Females Males Females

    North 0.86

    (0.35)

    0.80

    (0.40)

    0.39

    (0.49)

    0.31

    (0.59)

    Central 0.82(0.38)

    0.72(0.45)

    0.33(0.47)

    0.34(0.47)

    East 0.86

    (0.34)

    0.78

    (0.42)

    0.36

    (0.48)

    0.31

    (0.46)

    West 0.92

    (0.28)

    0.88

    (0.33)

    0.39

    (0.49)

    0.39

    (0.49)

    South 0.92

    (0.27)

    0.87

    (0.34)

    0.39

    (0.48)

    0.39

    (0.49)

    Gender gaps much larger at primary level (those who did not complete primary), then at higher secondary level, suggesting

    that gender differences in completed years of schooling is primarily because of gender differences in those completingprimary

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    By caste - In North, South and West (high growth regions), gender gaps are

    LARGER amongst upper castes, rural India, ages 14-18, 2007-08 (NSS)

    Region Upper castes SC/ST

    Males Females Males Females

    Prop completed

    upper primary

    North 0.67

    (0.47)

    0.55

    (0.50)

    0.44

    (0.50)

    0.36

    (0.48)

    Central 0.50

    (0.50)

    0.43

    (0.49)

    0.39

    (0.49)

    0.32

    (0.46)

    East 0.49

    (0.50)

    0.52

    (0.50)

    0.40

    (0.49)

    0.31

    (0.46)

    West 0.72

    (0.45)

    0.59

    (0.49)

    0.58

    (0.49)

    0.52

    (0.50)

    South 0.78

    (0.41)

    0.71

    (0.45)

    0.64

    (0.48)

    0.63

    (0.48)

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    Alternative way of looking at gender gaps: Of currently enrolled,

    percentage who are women (NSS, 2007-08)

    Doesnt standardize for age: gender gaps may reflect differences in

    acceptable ages at enrollment

    Differences across levels reflect cohort effects

    Currently

    enrolled in

    Rural Urban

    Primary 45% 46%

    Middle 46% 46%

    Secondary 42% 46%

    Higher

    secondary

    38% 46%

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    Even here, trend is declining gender gaps

    MHRD: Number of girls per 100 boys, class IX-XII

    Region/State 2001-02 2005-06 Region/state 2001-02 2005-06

    South West

    A.P. 71 80 Gujarat 68 67

    Karnataka 82 89 Maharashtra 76 92

    Kerala 107 100

    Tamil Nadu 84 97 Central

    North Bihar 44 47

    Punjab 83 84 MP 52 58

    Haryana 68 76 UP 36 58

    H.P. 86 88 Chattisgarh 57 65

    Rajasthan 38 46 Jharkhand 54 62

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    While data suggests narrowing gaps in levels of education, what

    is the evidence regarding quality?

    Learning gaps less research and data

    Current (on-going) study of rural Karnataka schools (720

    schools, 11 districts)

    Very little evidence of a gender gap in learning in the South,

    and, instead, a reverse gap favoring girls.

    Government schools only, so results will be biased if

    brighter boys go to private schools

    Complete picture will require data which surveys all

    schools in an area, and conducts same test in all schools

    (eg. LEAPS, Pakistan)

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    Test score Full

    sample

    Quartile of District EDI rank

    1 (top) 2 3 4

    Language (max=100)

    Male 33.91

    (0.33)

    41.17

    (0.83)

    40.19

    (0.60)

    33.14

    (0.81)

    26.83

    (0.50)

    Female 37.01

    (0.34)

    45.61

    (0.80)

    43.57

    (0.62)

    39.60

    (0.80)

    26.78

    (0.52)

    F test for equality

    Prob > F

    42.39*

    (0.00)

    14.77*

    (0.00)

    15.27*

    (0.00)

    32.75*

    (0.00)

    0.00

    (0.95)

    Mathematics

    (max=100)