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fx-95MSfx-100MSfx-115MS (fx-912MS)fx-570MSfx-991MS
User's Guidekfx-912MS ownersPlease be sure to read the important notice of this manual.
http://world.casio.com/edu_e/E
CASIO ELECTRONICS CO., LTD.Unit 6, 1000 North Circular Road,London NW2 7JD, U.K.
1
Removing and Replacingthe Calculators Cover
Before starting .....1Holding the cover as shown in the illustration, slide theunit out of the cover.
After you are finished .....2Holding the cover as shown in the illustration, slide theunit out of the cover.
Always slide the keyboard end of the unit into the coverfirst. Never slide the display end of the unit into the cover.
.....1
.....2
2
Caution
This symbol is used to indicate information that canresult in personal injury or material damage if ignored.
Batteries After removing the battery from the calculator, put it
in a safe place where it will not get into the hands ofsmall children and accidentally swallowed.
Keep batteries out of the reach of small children. Ifaccidentally swallowed, consult with a physician im-mediately.
Never charge batteries, try to take batteries apart, orallow batteries to become shorted. Never exposebatteries to direct heat or dispose of them by incin-eration.
Misuse of batteries can cause them to leak and dam-age nearby items, and can create the risk of fire andpersonal injury. Always make sure that the batterys positive k and
negative l ends are facing correctly when you loadit into the calculator.
Remove the battery if you do not plan to use thecalculator for a long time (fx-95MS/100MS/570MS).
Use only the type of battery specified for this calcu-lator in this manual.
Disposing of the Calculator Never dispose of the calculator by burning it. Doing
so can cause certain components to suddenly burst,creating the risk of fire and personal injury.
The displays and illustrations (such as key markings)shown in this Users Guide are for illustrative purposes
Safety PrecautionsBe sure to read the following safety precautions beforeusing this calculator. Keep this manual handy for later ref-erence.
3
only, and may differ somewhat from the actual items theyrepresent.
The contents of this manual are subject to change with-out notice.
In no event shall CASIO Computer Co., Ltd. be liable toanyone for special, collateral, incidental, or consequentialdamages in connection with or arising out of the purchaseor use of these materials. Moreover, CASIO ComputerCo., Ltd. shall not be liable for any claim of any kindwhatsoever against the use of these materials by anyother party.
Be sure to press the 5 key before using the calcu-lator for the first time.
Even if the calculator is operating normally, replacethe battery at least once every three years for the fx-115MS/fx-570MS/fx-991MS, or at least once every twoyears for the fx-95MS/fx-100MS.A dead battery can leak, causing damage to and mal-function of the calculator. Never leave a dead battery inthe calculator.
The battery that comes with this unit dischargesslightly during shipment and storage. Because ofthis, it may require replacement sooner than thenormal expected battery life.
Low battery power can cause memory contents tobecome corrupted or lost completely. Always keepwritten records of all important data.
Avoid use and storage in areas subjected to tem-perature extremes.Very low temperatures can cause slow display response,total failure of the display, and shortening of battery life.Also avoid leaving the calculator in direct sunlight, neara window, near a heater or anywhere else it might beexposed to very high temperatures. Heat can cause dis-coloration or deformation of the calculators case, anddamage to internal circuitry.
Handling Precautions
4
Avoid use and storage in areas subjected to largeamounts of humidity and dust.Take care never to leave the calculator where it might besplashed by water or exposed to large amounts of hu-midity or dust. Such conditions can damage internal cir-cuitry.
Never drop the calculator or otherwise subject it tostrong impact.
Never twist or bend the calculator.Avoid carrying the calculator in the pocket of your trou-sers or other tight-fitting clothing where it might be sub-jected to twisting or bending.
Never try to take the calculator apart. Never press the keys of the calculator with a ball-
point pen or other pointed object. Use a soft, dry cloth to clean the exterior of the cal-
culator.If the calculator becomes very dirty, wipe it off with acloth moistened in a weak solution of water and a mildneutral household detergent. Wring out all excess mois-ture before wiping the calculator. Never use thinner, ben-zene or other volatile agents to clean the calculator. Do-ing so can remove printed markings and can damagethe case.
5
Contents
Removing and Replacing theCalculators Cover ................................... 1
Safety Precautions .................................. 2
Handling Precautions ............................. 3
Two-line Display ...................................... 7
Before getting started... .......................... 7kModes .................................................................... 7kInput Capacity ........................................................ 8kMaking Corrections During Input ........................... 9kReplay Function ..................................................... 9kError Locator .......................................................... 9kMulti-statements .................................................. 10kExponential Display Formats ............................... 10kDecimal Point and Separator Symbols ................ 11k Initializing the Calculator ...................................... 11
Basic Calculations ................................ 11kArithmetic Calculations ........................................ 11kFraction Operations ............................................. 12kPercentage Calculations ...................................... 14kDegrees, Minutes, Seconds Calculations ............ 15kFIX, SCI, RND ..................................................... 15
Memory Calculations ............................ 16kAnswer Memory ................................................... 16kConsecutive Calculations .................................... 17kIndependent Memory ........................................... 17kVariables .............................................................. 17
Scientific Function Calculations.......... 18kTrigonometric/Inverse Trigonometric Functions ... 18kHyperbolic/Inverse Hyperbolic Functions ............ 19
6
kCommon and Natural Logarithms/Antilogarithms ...................................................... 19
kSquare Roots, Cube Roots, Roots, Squares, Cubes,Reciprocals, Factorials, Random Numbers, , andPermutation/Combination .................................... 20
kAngle Unit Conversion ......................................... 21kCoordinate Conversion (Pol (x, y), Rec (r, )) ..... 21kEngineering Notation Calculations ...................... 22
Equation Calculations .......................... 22kQuadratic and Cubic Equations ........................... 22kSimultaneous Equations ...................................... 24
Statistical Calculations ......................... 26Standard Deviation .................................................. 26Regression Calculations .......................................... 28
Technical Information ........................... 32kWhen you have a problem...... ............................. 32kError Messages ................................................... 32kOrder of Operations ............................................. 34kStacks .................................................................. 35kInput Ranges ....................................................... 36
Power Supply (fx-95MS only) ...................... 38
Specifications (fx-95MS only) ..................... 39
7
Two-line Display
The two-line display makes it possible to viewboth the calculation formula and its result atthe same time. The upper line shows the calculation formula. The lower line shows the result.
A separator symbol is displayed every three digits whenthe integer part of the mantissa has more than three dig-its.
Before getting started...
kModesBefore starting a calculation, you must first enter the cor-rect mode as indicated in the table below. The following table shows the modes and required
operations for the fx-95MS only. Users of other mod-els should refer to the Users Guide 2 (AdditionalFunctions) for information about modes and theirselection.
fx-95MS ModesTo perform this type of Perform this To enter
calculation: key operation: this mode:
Basic arithmetic calculations F 1 COMP
Standard deviation F 2 SD
Regression calculations F 3 REG
Solution of equations F F 1 EQN
8
Pressing the F key more than twice displays additionalsetup screens. Setup screens are described in the sec-tions of this manual where they are actually used tochange the calculator setup.
In this manual, the name of the mode you need to enterin order to perform the calculations being described isindicated in the main title of each section.
Example:
Note! To return the calculation mode and setup to the initial
defaults shown below, press A B 2(Mode) =.
Calculation Mode: COMPAngle Unit: DegExponential Display Format: Norm 1Fraction Display Format: ab/cDecimal Point Character: Dot
Mode indicators appear in the upper part of the display. Be sure to check the current calculation mode (SD, REG,
COMP) and angle unit setting (Deg, Rad, Gra) beforebeginning a calculation.
k Input Capacity The memory area used for calculation input can hold 79
steps. One step is taken up each time you press anumber key or arithmetic operator key ( +, ,, -, \ ).A A or p key operation does not take up a step, soinputting A D, for example, takes up only one step.
You can input up to 79 steps for a single calculation.Whenever you input the 73rd step of any calculation, thecursor changes from _ to k to let you know memoryis running low. If you need to input more than 79 steps,you should divide your calculation into two or more parts.
Pressing the g key recalls the last result obtained, whichyou can use in a subsequent calculation. See AnswerMemory for more information about using the g key.
EquationCalculations
EQN
9
kMaking Corrections During Input Use e and r to move the cursor to the location you
want. Press [ to delete the number or function at the current
cursor position. Press A K to change to an insert cursor t. Inputting
something while the insert cursor is on the display in-serts the input at the insert cursor position.
Pressing A K, or = returns to the normal cursor fromthe insert cursor.
kReplay Function Every time you perform a calculation, the replay function
stores the calculation formula and its result in replaymemory. Pressing the [ key displays the formula andresult of the calculation you last performed. Pressing [again back steps sequentially (new-to-old) through pastcalculations.
Pressing the e or r key while a replay memory cal-culation is on the display changes to the editing screen.
Pressing the e or r key immediately after you finisha calculation displays the editing screen for that calcula-tion.
Pressing t does not clear replay memory, so you canrecall the last calculation even after you press t.
Replay memory capacity is 128 bytes for storage of bothexpressions and results.
Replay memory is cleared by any of the following ac-tions.When you press the 5 keyWhen you initialize modes and settings by pressing AB 2 (or 3) =.When you change from one calculation mode to anotherWhen you turn off the calculator.
kError Locator Pressing r or e after an error occurs displays the
calculation with the cursor positioned at the locationwhere the error occurred.
10
kMulti-statementsA multi-statement is an expression that is made up of twoor more smaller expressions, which are joined using a colon( : ). Example: To add 2 + 3 and then multiply the result by 4
2 + 3 p \ g - 4 =
=
kExponential Display FormatsThis calculator can display up to 10 digits. Larger valuesare automatically displayed using exponential notation. Inthe case of decimal values, you can select between twoformats that determine at what point exponential notationis used. To change the exponential display format, press the F
key a number of times until you reach the exponentialdisplay format setup screen shown below.
Press 3. On the format selection screen that appears,press 1 to select Norm 1 or 2 for Norm 2.
uNorm 1With Norm 1, exponential notation is automatically usedfor integer values with more than 10 digits and decimalvalues with more than two decimal places.
uNorm 2With Norm 2, exponential notation is automatically usedfor integer values with more than 10 digits and decimalvalues with more than nine decimal places. All of the examples in this manual show calculation re-
sults using the Norm 1 format.
5.2+3
Disp
20.Ans4
1 2 3F i x Sc i No r m
11
kDecimal Point and Separator SymbolsYou can use the display setup (Disp) screen to specify thesymbols you want for the decimal point and 3-digit sepa-rator. To change the decimal point and separator symbol set-
COMPBasic Calculations
ting, press the F key a number of times until you reachthe setup screen shown below.
1D i s p
fx-95MS: 1 rOther Models: 1 r r
Press the number key ( 1 or 2) that corresponds tothe setting you want to use.
1(Dot): Period decimal point, comma separator2(Comma): Comma decimal point, period separator
k Initializing the Calculator Perform the following key operation when you want to
initialize the calculation mode and setup, and clear re-play memory and variables.
A B 3(All) =
kArithmetic Calculations
Use the F key to enter the COMP Mode when youwant to perform basic calculations.
COMP .............................................................F 1
Negative values inside of calculations must be enclosedwithin parentheses.
sin 1.23 S R D 1.23 T
Display the selection screen.
12
It is not necessary to enclose a negative exponent withinparentheses.
sin 2.34 105 S 2.34 e D 5
Example 1: 3(5109) 1.5108
3 - 5 e D 9 =
Example 2: 5(97) 80 5 - R 9 + 7 T =
You can skip all T operations before =.
kFraction OperationsuFraction Calculations Values are displayed in decimal format automatically
whenever the total number of digits of a fractional value(integer + numerator + denominator + separator marks)exceeds 10.
15
23
13 15.00
1315
Example 1:
2 C 3 + 1 C 5 =
Example 2: 3 1 4
3 C 1 C 4 +
1 C 2 C 3 =
23
14
1112
12
Example 4: 1.6 2.1 1 C 2 + 1.6 =
Example 3: 2 C 4 =24
12
Results of calculations that mix fraction and decimal val-ues are always decimal.
uDecimal Fraction Conversion Use the operation shown below to convert calculation
results between decimal values and fraction values. Note that conversion can take as long as two seconds to
perform.
4 11 12.00
13
1 2.00
12 Example 2: 0.5 (Fraction Decimal)
1 C 2 =
C
C
0.500
1 2.00
2 3 4.00
11 4.00
Example 1: 2.75 2 (Decimal Fraction)
2.75 = 2.75
C
A B
34
114
uMixed Fraction Improper FractionConversion
Example: 1
1 C 2 C 3 =
A B
A B
5 3.00
1 2 3.00
53
23
1 2 3.00
You can use the display setup (Disp) screen to specifythe display format when a fraction calculation result isgreater than one.
To change the fraction display format, press the q keya number of times until you reach the setup screen shownbelow.
1D i s p
Display the selection screen.fx-95MS: 1Other Models: 1 r
Press the number key ( 1 or 2) that corresponds tothe setting you want to use.
1(ab/c): Mixed fraction2(d/c): Improper fraction
14
An error occurs if you try to input a mixed fraction whilethe d/c display format is selected.
kPercentage Calculations
Example 1: To calculate 12% of 1500 (180)
1500 - 12 A v
Example 2: To calculate what percentage of 880 is 660(75%)
660 \ 880 A v
Example 3: To add 15% onto 2500 (2875)
2500 - 15 A v +
Example 4: To discount 3500 by 25% (2625)
3500 - 25 A v ,
Example 5: To discount the sum of 168, 98, and 734 by20% (800)
168 + 98 + 734 = g A j 1p 1 - 20 A v ,
* As shown here, if you want to use the current AnswerMemory value in a mark up or discount calculation, youneed to assign the Answer Memory value into a variableand then use the variable in the mark up/discountcalculation. This is because the calculation performedwhen v is pressed stores a result to Answer Memorybefore the , key is pressed.
Example 6: If 300 grams are added to a test sampleoriginally weighing 500 grams, what is the percentageincrease in weight? (160%)
300 + 500 A v
Example 7: What is the percentage change when a valueis increased from 40 to 46? How about to 48?
(15%, 20%)
46 , 40 A v
e e e e e e 8 =
*
15
kDegrees, Minutes, SecondsCalculations
You can perform sexagesimal calculations using degrees(hours), minutes, and seconds, and convert betweensexagesimal and decimal values.
Example 1: To convert the decimal value 2.258 to asexagesimal value and then back to a decimal value
2.258 = 2.258
A O 21528.8
I 2.258
Example 2: To perform the following calculation:123456 3.45
12 I 34 I 56 I - 3.45 = 432431.2
kFIX, SCI, RND To change the settings for the number of decimal places,
the number of significant digits, or the exponential dis-play format, press the F key a number of times untilyou reach the setup screen shown below.
1 2 3F i x Sc i No r m
Press the number key ( 1, 2, or 3) that correspondsto the setup item you want to change.
1 (Fix): Number of decimal places2 (Sci): Number of significant digits3 (Norm):Exponential display format
Example 1: 200 7 14
200 \ 7 - 14 =
F..... 1(Fix) 3 (Specifies threedecimal places.)
400.00
400.00000FIX
16
200 \ 7 =
- 14 =
(Internal calculation continuesusing 12 digits.) 28.57100
400.00000
28.57100
28.57100
399.99400
200 \ 7 =
(Internal rounding) A Q
- 14 =
The following performs the same calculation using thespecified number of decimal places.
Press F .....3(Norm) 1 to clear the Fix specifica-
tion.
Example 2: 1 3, displaying result with two significantdigits (Sci 2)
F..... 2(Sci) 2 1 \ 3 = 3.301SCI
Press F .....3(Norm) 1 to clear the Sci specifica-
tion.
kAnswer Memory Whenever you press = after inputting values or an ex-
pression, the calculated result automatically updates An-swer Memory contents by storing the result.
In addition to =, Answer Memory contents are also up-dated with result whenever you press A v, |, A{, or A j followed by a letter (A through F, or M, X,or Y).
COMPMemory Calculations
Use the F key to enter the COMP Mode when youwant to perform a calculation using memory.
COMP .............................................................F 1
17
You can recall Answer Memory contents by pressing g. Answer Memory can store up to 12 digits for the mantissa
and two digits for the exponent. Answer Memory contents are not updated if the opera-
tion performed by any of the above key operations re-sults in an error.
kConsecutive Calculations You can use the calculation result that is currently on the
display (and also stored in Answer Memory) as the firstvalue of your next calculation. Note that pressing anoperator key while a result is displayed causes the dis-played value to change to Ans, indicating it is the valuethat is currently stored in Answer Memory.
The result of a calculation can also be used with a sub-sequent Type A function (x2, x3, x1, x!, DRG'), +, ,^(xy), x , , , nPr and nCr.
k Independent Memory Values can be input directly into memory, added to
memory, or subtracted from memory. Independentmemory is convenient for calculating cumulative totals.
Independent memory uses the same memory area asvariable M.
To clear independent memory (M), input 0 A j 3(M+).
Example:
23 9 32 23 + 9 A j 3 (M+)
53 6 47 53 , 6 |
) 45 2 90 45 - 2 A {
(Total) 11 0 3 (M+)
kVariables There are nine variables (A through F, M, X and Y), which
can be used to store data, constants, results, and othervalues.
Use the following operation to delete data assigned to a
18
COMP
particular variable: 0 A j 1. This operation de-letes the data assigned to variable A.
Perform the following key operation when you want toclear the values assigned to all of the variables.
A B 1(Mcl) =
Example: 193.2 23 8.4
193.2 28 6.9
193.2 A j 1 \ 23 = p 1 \ 28 =
Scientific FunctionCalculations
Use the F key to enter the COMP Mode when youwant to perform basic arithmetic calculations.
COMP .............................................................F 1
Certain types of calculations may take a long time tocomplete.
Wait for the result to appear on the display before start-ing the next calculation.
= 3.14159265359
kTrigonometric/Inverse TrigonometricFunctions
To change the default angle unit (degrees, radians,grads), press the F key a number of times until youreach the angle unit setup screen shown below.
1 2 3Deg Rad Gr a
Press the number key (1, 2, or 3) that correspondsto the angle unit you want to use.
(90 = radians = 100 grads)2
19
Example 1: sin 635241 0.897859012
q ..... 1(Deg)S 63 I 52 I 41 I =
Example 2: cos ( rad) 0.5q ..... 2(Rad)
W R A x \ 3 T =
3
Example 3: cos1
q ..... 2 (Rad)A V R L 2 \ 2 T = g \ A x =
0.25 (rad) ( (rad))4
22
Example 4: tan1 0.741 36.53844577 q ..... 1(Deg)A g 0.741 =
kHyperbolic/Inverse HyperbolicFunctions
Example 1: sinh 3.6 18.28545536 M S 3.6 =
Example 2: sinh1 30 4.094622224
M A j 30 =
kCommon and Natural Logarithms/Antilogarithms
Example 1: log 1.23 0.089905111 R 1.23 =
Example 2: In 90 (= loge 90) = 4.49980967
T 90 =
ln e 1 T p P =
Example 3: e10 22026.46579 A U 10 =
Example 4: 101.5 31.6227766 A Q 1.5 =
Example 5: 24 16 2 W 4 =
20
kSquare Roots, Cube Roots, Roots,Squares, Cubes, Reciprocals,Factorials, Random Numbers, , andPermutation/Combination
1 13 4
1 Example 6: 12
R 3 a , 4 a T a =
Example 7: 8! 40320 8 A f =
Example 4: 123 302 1023 123 + 30 K =
Example 5: 123 1728 12 N * =
* A N in the case of fx-570MS/fx-991MS.
17 Example 3: 7 123 ( = 123 ) 1.988647795
7 A H 123 =
Example 1: 2 3 5 5.287196909
L 2 + L 3 - L 5 =
Example 2: 3 5 3 27 1.290024053
A D 5 + A D R D 27 T =
0.66400
Example 8: To generate a random number between0.000 and 0.999
A M =
(The above value is a sample only. Results differ each time.)
Example 9: 3 9.424777961 3 A x =
Example 10: To determine how many different 4-digitvalues can be produced using the numbers 1 through 7 Numbers cannot be duplicated within the same 4-digit
value (1234 is allowed, but 1123 is not). (840)
7 A m 4 =
Example 11: To determine how many different 4-mem-ber groups can be organized in a group of 10 individuals
(210)
10 n* 4 =
21
* A n in the case of fx-100MS/fx-115MS/fx-570MS/fx-991MS.
kAngle Unit Conversion Press A v to display the following menu.
1 2 3D R G
Pressing 1, 2, or 3 converts the displayed value tothe corresponding angle unit.
Example: To convert 4.25 radians to degrees
q ..... 1(Deg)4.25 A v 2(R) = 243.5070629
4 . 2 5 r
kCoordinate Conversion (Pol (x, y),Rec (r, ))
Calculation results are automatically assigned to vari-ables E and F.
Example 1: To convert polar coordinates (r2, 60)to rectangular coordinates (x, y) (Deg)
x 1 A F 2 P 60 T =
y 1.732050808 0 o
Press 0 n to display the value of x, or 0 o to dis-play the value of y.
Example 2: To convert rectangular coordinates (1, 3)to polar coordinates (r,) (Rad)
r 2 f* 1 P L 3 T =* A f in the case of fx-100MS/fx-115MS/fx-570MS/
fx-991MS.
1.047197551 0 o
Press 0 n to display the value of r, or 0 o to dis-play the value of .
22
kEngineering Notation Calculations
2 3Deg r ee?
EQN
Example 1: To convert 56,088 meters to kilometers
56.088 103 56088 = J(km)
Example 2: To convert 0.08125 grams to milligrams
81.25 10 3 0.08125 = J(mg)
EquationCalculations
The EQN Mode lets you solve equations up to three de-grees and simultaneous linear equations with up to threeunknowns.
Use the F key to enter the EQN Mode when you wantto solve an equation.
EQN .......................... F F 1 (fx-95MS)F F F 1 (Other Models)
kQuadratic and Cubic EquationsQuadratic Equation: ax2 + bx + c = 0Cubic Equation: ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0
Entering the EQN Mode and pressing r displays the ini-tial quadratic/cubic equation screen.
Use this screen to specify 2 (quadratic) or 3 (cubic) as thedegree of the equation, and input values for each of thecoefficients.
0.a?
Element value
Coefficient name Arrow indicatesdirection youshould scroll toview otherelements.
23
0.x1=
Solution
Variable name Arrow indicatesdirection youshould scroll toview othersolutions.
Press the ] key to view other solutions. Use [ and ]to scroll between all of the solutions for the equation.Pressing the t key at this point returns to the coefficientinput screen. Certain coefficients can cause calculation to take more
time.
Example 1: To solve the equationx3 2x2 x + 2 = 0 (x = 2, 1, 1)
(Degree?) 3
(a?) 1 =
(b?) D 2 =
(c?) D 1 =
(d?) 2 =
(x1 = 2) ]
(x2 = 1) ]
(x3 = 1)
If a result is a complex number, the real part of the firstsolution appears first. This is indicated by the RIsymbol on the display. Press A r to toggle the displaybetween the real part and imaginary part of a solution.
Any time until you input a value for the final coefficient (cfor a quadratic equation, d for a cubic equation), you canuse the [ and ] keys to move between coefficientson the screen and make changes, if you want.
Note that you cannot input complex numbers for co-efficients.
Calculation starts and one of the solutions appears as soonas you input a value for the final coefficient.
24
0.25x1=
0.75x1=
i
RI
RI
D
D
A r
Example 2: To solve the equation8x2 4x + 5 = 0 (x = 0.25 0.75 i)
(Degree?) 2
(a?) 8 =
(b?) D 4 =
(c?) 5 =(x1 = 0.25 + 0.75i) ]
(x2 = 0.25 0.75i)
Simultaneous Linear Equations with Two Unknowns:a1x + b1y = c1a2x + b2y = c2
Simultaneous Linear Equations with Three Unknowns:a1x + b1y + c1z = d1a2x + b2y + c2z = d2a3x + b3y + c3z = d3
Entering the EQN Mode displays the initial simultaneousequation screen.
kSimultaneous Equations
2 3Unknowns?
Use this screen to specify 2 or 3 as the number of un-knowns, and input values for each of the coefficients.
0.a1?
Element value
Coefficient name Arrow indicatesdirection youshould scroll toview otherelements.
25
Any time until you input a value for the final coefficient(c2 for two unknowns, d3 for three unknowns), you canuse the [ and ] keys to move between coefficientson the screen and make changes, if you want.
Note that you cannot input complex numbers for coeffi-cients.
Calculation starts and one of the solutions appears as soonas you input a value for the final coefficient.
0.x=
Solution
Variable name Arrow indicatesdirection youshould scroll toview othersolutions.
Press the ] key to view other solutions. Use [ and ]to scroll between all of the solutions for the equation.Pressing the t key at this point returns to the coefficientinput screen.
Example: To solve the following simultaneous equations2x + 3y z = 153x 2y + 2z = 45x + 3y 4z = 9 (x = 2, y = 5, z = 4)
(Unknowns?) 3
(a1?) ....... (d1?) 2 = 3 = D1 = 15 =
(a2?) ....... (d2?) 3 = D 2 = 2 = 4 =
(a3?) ....... (d3?) 5 = 3 = D 4 = 9 =
(x = 2) ]
(y = 5) ]
(z = 4)
26
SD
SD
REGStatisticalCalculations
Standard Deviation
Use the F key to enter the SD Mode when you wantto perform statistical calculations using standard de-viation.
SD ....................................F 2 (fx-95MS)F F 1 (Other Models)
Always start data input with A B 1 (Scl) = to clearstatistical memory.
Input data using the key sequence shown below. S
Input data is used to calculate values for n, x, x2, o,n and n-1, which you can recall using the key opera-tions noted nearby.
To recall this type of value: Perform this key operation:
x2 A U 1x A U 2n A U 3o A X 1
n A X 2n-1 A X 3
Example: To calculate n1, n, o, n, x, and x2 forthe following data : 55, 54, 51, 55, 53, 53, 54, 52
In the SD Mode:A B 1 (Scl) = (Stat clear)
55 S
Each time you press S to register your input,the number of data input up to that point is
indicated on the display (n value).
54 S 51 S 55 S53 S S 54 S 52 S
Sample Standard Deviation (n1) = 1.407885953 A X 3 =
1.n= SD
27
Population Standard Deviation (n) = 1.316956719 A X 2 =Arithmetic Mean (o) = 53.375 A X 1 =
Number of Data (n) = 8 A U 3 =
Sum of Values (x) = 427 A U 2 =
Sum of Squares of Values (x2) = 22805 A U 1 =
Data Input Precautions S S inputs the same data twice. You can also input multiple entries of the same data us-
ing A G. To input the data 110 ten times, for example,press 110 A G 10 S.
You can perform the above key operations in any order,and not necessarily that shown above.
While inputting data or after inputting data is complete,you can use the [ and ] keys to scroll through datayou have input. If you input multiple entries of the samedata using A G to specify the data frequency (numberof data items) as described above, scrolling through datashows both the data item and a separate screen for thedata frequency (Freq).
You can then edit the displayed data, if you want. Inputthe new value and then press the = key to replace theold value with the new one. This also means that if youwant to perform some other operation (calculation, recallof statistical calculation results, etc.), you should alwayspress the t key first to exit data display.
Pressing the S key instead of = after changing a valueon the display registers the value you input as a newdata item, and leaves the old value as it is.
You can delete a data value displayed using [ and ]by pressing A U. Deleting a data value causes allvalues following it to be shifted up.
Data values you register are normally stored in calcula-tor memory. The message Data Full appears and youwill not be able to input any more data if there is nomemory left for data storage. If this happens, press the= key to display the screen shown below.
1 2Ed i t OFF ESC
28
Press 2 to exit data input without registering the valueyou just input.Press 1 if you want to register the value you just input,without saving it in memory. If you do this, however, youwill not be able to display or edit any of the data youhave input.
To delete data you have just input, press A U. After inputting statistical data in the SD Mode or REG
Mode, you will be unable to display or edit individual dataitems any longer after perform either the followingoperations.Changing to another modeChanging the regression type (Lin, Log, Exp, Pwr, Inv,Quad)
1 2 3L i n Log Exp
1 2 3Pw r I nv Quad
r e
Use the F key to enter the REG Mode when you wantto perform statistical calculations using regression.
REG .................................F 3 (fx-95MS)F F 2 (Other Models)
Entering the REG Mode displays screens like the onesshown below.
Press the number key ( 1, 2, or 3) that correspondsto the type of regression you want to use.
1 (Lin) : Linear regression2 (Log) : Logarithmic regression3 (Exp) : Exponential regression
r 1 (Pwr) : Power regressionr 2 (Inv) : Inverse regressionr 3 (Quad) : Quadratic regression
REGRegression Calculations
29
Always start data input with A B 1 (Scl) = to clearstatistical memory.
Input data using the key sequence shown below. P S
The values produced by a regression calculation dependon the values input, and results can be recalled usingthe key operations shown in the table below.
To recall this type of value: Perform this key operation:
x2 A U 1x A U 2n A U 3y2 A U r 1y A U r 2xy A U r 3o A X 1xn A X 2xn-1 A X 3p A X r 1yn A X r 2yn-1 A X r 3
Regression coefficient A A X r r 1Regression coefficient B A X r r 2
Regression calculation other than quadratic regression
Correlation coefficient r A X r r 3m A X r r r 1n A X r r r 2
The following table shows the key operations you shoulduse to recall results in the case of quadratic regression.
To recall this type of value: Perform this key operation:
x3 A U r r 1x2y A U r r 2x4 A U r r 3
Regression coefficient C A X r r 3m1 A X r r r 1m2 A X r r r 2n A X r r r 3
30
The values in the above tables can be used inside ofexpressions the same way you use variables.
uLinear Regression The regression formula for linear regression is:
y = A + Bx.
Example: Atmospheric Pressure vs. Temperature
Perform linear regression to de-termine the regression formulaterms and correlation coefficientfor the data nearby. Next, use theregression formula to estimateatmospheric pressure at 18Cand temperature at 1000 hPa. Fi-nally, calculate the coefficient ofdetermination (r2) and sample
covariance .
Temperature AtmosphericPressure
10C 1003 hPa15C 1005 hPa20C 1010 hPa25C 1011 hPa30C 1014 hPa
In the REG Mode:
1(Lin)A B 1 (Scl) = (Stat clear)
10 P1003 S 1.n=
REG
Each time you press S to register your input,the number of data input up to that point is
indicated on the display (n value).
15 P 1005 S
20 P1010 S 25 P 1011 S30 P 1014 S
Regression Coefficient A = 997.4 A X r r 1 =Regression Coefficient B = 0.56 A X r r 2 =Correlation Coefficient r = 0.982607368
A X r r 3 =Atmospheric Pressure at 18C = 1007.48
18 A X r r r 2 =
31
Temperature at 1000 hPa = 4.642857143
1000 A X r r r 1 =Coefficient of Determination = 0.965517241
A X r r 3 K =Sample Covariance = 35 E A U r 3 ,
A U 3 - A X 1 -A X r 1 F \
E A U 3 , 1 F =
uLogarithmic, Exponential, Power, and InverseRegression
Use the same key operations as linear regression to re-call results for these types of regression.
The following shows the regression formulas for eachtype of regression.
Logarithmic Regression y A B In xExponential Regression y A eBx (In y In A + Bx)Power Regression y A xB (In y In A + BIn x)Inverse Regression y A B 1/x
uQuadratic Regression The regression formula for quadratic regression is:
y = A + Bx + Cx2.
In the REG Mode:
r 3(Quad)A B 1 (Scl) = (Stat clear)
29 P 1.6 S 50 P 23.5 S74 P 38.0 S 103 P 46.4 S
118 P 48.0 S
Example:
Perform quadratic regression to de-termine the regression formula termsfor the data nearby. Next, use theregression formula to estimate thevalues for n (estimated value of y) forxi = 16 and m (estimated value of x)for yi = 20.
xi yi29 1.650 23.574 38.0
103 46.4118 48.0
32
Regression Coefficient A = 35.59856934 A X r r 1 =Regression Coefficient B = 1.495939413 A X r r 2 =Regression Coefficient C = 6.71629667 10 3
A X r r 3 =n when xi is 16 = 13.38291067 16 A X r r r 3 =m1 when yi is 20 = 47.14556728 20 A X r r r 1 =m2 when yi is 20 = 175.5872105 20 A X r r r 2 =
Data Input Precautions S S inputs the same data twice. You can also input multiple entries of the same data us-
ing A G. To input the data 20 and 30 five times, forexample, press 20 P 30 A G 5 S.
The above results can be obtained in any order, and notnecessarily that shown above.
Precautions when editing data input for standard devia-tion also apply for regression calculations.
Technical Information
kWhen you have a problem......If calculation results are not what you expect or if an erroroccurs, perform the following steps.
1. Press A B 2(Mode) = to initialize all modes andsettings.
2. Check the formula you are working with to confirm it iscorrect.
3. Enter the correct mode and try performing the calcula-tion again.
If the above steps do not correct the problem, press the5 key. The calculator performs a self-check operation anddeletes all data stored in memory if any abnormality isdetected. Make sure you always keep written copies of allimportant data.
kError MessagesThe calculator is locked up while an error message is on
33
the display. Press t to clear the error, or press e or rto display the calculation and correct the problem. SeeError Locator for details.
Math ERROR Causes
Calculation result is outside the allowable calculationrange.
An attempt to perform a function calculation using avalue that exceeds the allowable input range.
An attempt to perform an illogical operation (divisionby zero, etc.)
Action Check your input values and make sure they are all
within the allowable ranges. Pay special attention tovalues in any memory areas you are using.
Stack ERROR Cause
The capacity of the numeric stack or operator stack isexceeded.
Action Simplify the calculation. The numeric stack has 10 lev-
els and the operator stack has 24 levels. Divide your calculation into two or more separate parts.
Syntax ERROR Cause
An attempt to perform an illegal mathematical opera-tion.
Action Press e or r to display the calculation with the cur-
sor located at the location of the error and make re-quired corrections.
Arg ERROR Cause
Improper use of an argument
34
Action Press e or r to display the location of the cause of
the error and make required corrections.
kOrder of OperationsCalculations are performed in the following order of prec-edence.
1 Coordinate transformation: Pol (x, y), Rec (r, )Differentials: d/dx*Integrations: dx*Normal distribution: P(*, Q(*, R(*
2 Type A functions:With these functions, the value is entered and then thefunction key is pressed.x3, x2, x1, x!, Engineering symbols*Normal distribution: t*m, m1, m2, nAngle unit conversions (DRG')Metric conversions**
3 Powers and roots: ^ (xy), x4 ab/c5 Abbreviated multiplication format in front of , e (natu-
ral logarithm base), memory name, or variable name:2, 3e, 5A, A, etc.
6 Type B functions:With these functions, the function key is pressed andthen the value is entered.
, 3 , log, In, ex, 10x, sin, cos, tan, sin1, cos1,tan1, sinh, cosh, tanh, sinh1, cosh1, tanh1, ()d*, h*, b*, o*, Neg*, Not*, Det**, Trn**, arg*, Abs*, Conjg*
7 Abbreviated multiplication format in front of Type B func-tions: 2 3, Alog2, etc.
8 Permutation and combination: nPr, nCr*
9 Dot ()**0, !, @ and*# xnor*, xor*, or*
35
* fx-100MS/fx-115MS/fx-570MS/fx-991MS only.** fx-570MS/fx-991MS only. Operations of the same precedence are performed from
right to left. exIn 120 ex{In( 120)} Other operations are performed from left to right. Operations enclosed in parentheses are performed first. When a calculation contains an argument that is
a negative number, the negative number must beenclosed within parentheses. The negative sign () istreated as a Type B function, so particular care isrequired when the calculation includes a high-priorityType A function, or power or root operations.
Example: ( 2)4 = 16
24 = 16
kStacksThis calculator uses memory areas, called stacks, to tem-porarily store values (numeric stack) and commands (com-mand stack) according to their precedence during calcu-lations. The numeric stack has 10 levels and the commandstack has 24 levels. A stack error (Stack ERROR) occurswhenever you try to perform a calculation that is so com-plex that the capacity of a stack is exceeded. Matrix calculations use up to two levels of the matrix stack.
Squaring a matrix, cubing a matrix, or inverting a matrixuses one stack level. (fx-570MS, fx-991MS only)
Example:
1 2 3 4 5
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Numeric Stack Command Stack1
2
3
4
5
2
3
4
5
4
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
36
Calculations are performed in sequence according toOrder of Operations. Commands and values are de-leted from the stack as the calculation is performed.
k Input Ranges
Internal digits: 12Accuracy*: As a rule, accuracy is 1 at the 10th digit.
Functions Input Range
sinx DEG 0 x 4.4999999991010
RAD 0 x 785398163.3
GRA 0 x 4.9999999991010
cosx DEG 0 x 4.5000000081010
RAD 0 x 785398164.9
GRA 0 x 5.0000000091010
tanx DEG Same as sinx, except when x= (2n-1)90.
RAD Same as sinx, except when x= (2n-1)/2.GRA Same as sinx, except when x= (2n-1)100.
sin1x0 x 1
cos1x
tan1x 0 x 9.9999999991099
sinhx0 x 230.2585092
coshx
sinh1x 0 x 4.9999999991099
cosh1x 1 x 4.9999999991099
tanhx 0 x 9.9999999991099
tanh1x 0 x 9.999999999101
logx/lnx 0 x 9.9999999991099
10x 9.9999999991099 x 99.99999999
ex 9.9999999991099 x 230.2585092
37
Functions Input Range
x 0 x 1 10100
x2 x 1 1050
1/x x 1 10100 ; x G 03 x x 1 10100
x! 0 x 69 (x is an integer)
nPr0 n 11010, 0 r n (n, r are integers)1 {n!/(nr)!} 110100
nCr 0 n 11010, 0 r n (n, r are integers)
1 [n!/{r!(nr)!}] 110100
Pol(x, y) x, y 9.9999999991049
(x2+y2) 9.9999999991099
Rec(r, ) 0 r 9.9999999991099
: Same as sinx
a, b, c 110100
0 b, c
x110100
Decimal Sexagesimal Conversions000 x 99999959x0: 110100ylogx100
^(xy) x0: y0x0: yn, (n is an integer)However: 110100 ylogx100
y0: x G 01101001/x logy100
x y y0: x0y0: x2n1, (n G 0; n is an integer)However: 110100 1/x logy100
a b/c
x 11050
SD
y 11050
(REG)
n 110100
xn, yn, o, p : n G 0xn1, yn1, A, B, r : n G 0, 1
Total of integer, numerator, and denominatormust be 10 digits or less (including divisionmarks).
12n+1
1n
38
* For a single calculation, calculation error is 1 at the10th digit. (In the case of exponential display, calculationerror is 1 at the last significant digit.) Errors arecumulative in the case of consecutive calculations, whichcan also cause them to become large. (This is also trueof internal consecutive calculations that are performedin the case of ^(xy), x y , x!, 3 , nPr, nCr, etc.)In the vicinity of a functions singular point and point ofinflection, errors are cumulative and may become large.
Users of other models should refer to the Users Guide 2(Additional Functions).
This calculator is powered by a single AA-size battery.
Replacing the BatteryDim figures on the display of the calculator indicate thatbattery power is low. Continued use of the calculator whenthe battery is low can result in improper operation. Re-place the battery as soon as possible when display fig-ures become dim.
To replace the battery1Press A i to turn power off.2Remove the six screws that
hold the back cover in placeand then remove the backcover.
3Remove the old battery.4 Load a new battery into the
unit with its positive k andnegative l ends facing cor-rectly.
5Replace the back cover andsecure it in place with the sixscrews.
6Press 5 to turn power on.
Power Supply (fx-95MS only)
Screw Screw
39
uAuto Power OffCalculator power automatically turns off if you do not per-form any operation for about six minutes. When this hap-pens, press 5 to turn power back on.
Specifications (fx-95MS only)Users of other models should refer to the Users Guide 2(Additional Functions).
Power Supply: Single AA-size battery (R6P (SUM-3))
Battery Life: Approximately 17,000 hours continuousdisplay of flashing cursor.Approximately 2 years when left withpower turned off.
Dimensions: 19.5 (H) 78 (W) 155 (D) mm3/4 (H) 31/16 (W) 61/8 (D)
Weight: 130 g (4.6 oz) including battery
Power Consumption: 0.0002 W
Operating Temperature: 0C to 40C (32F to 104F)
Important notice for fx-912MS ownersThe names fx-912MS (Japan domestic model name)and fx-115MS (international model name) apply to thesame model. Owners of the fx-912MS should refer tothe description of fx-115MS.
SA0206-E Printed in China
CA 310067-1
CASIO COMPUTER CO., LTD.6-2, Hon-machi 1-chome
Shibuya-ku, Tokyo 151-8543, Japan
SA0206-D Printed in ChinaCA 310063-1