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Future Directions in Neuromorphic Computing ... Neuromorphic Computing Available now Continued R& D into new architectures coupled with 3D technologies and new mater ials, Deep Learning

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  • Future Directions in Neuromorphic

    Computing

    Steve Furber ICL Professor of Computer

    Engineering

    The University of Manchester

    1

  • 200 years ago…

    • Ada Lovelace, b. 10 Dec. 1815

    "I have my hopes, and very distinct ones too, of one day getting cerebral phenomena such that I can put them into mathematical equations--in short, a law or laws for the mutual actions of the molecules of brain. …. I hope to bequeath to the generations a calculus of the nervous system.”

    2

  • 65 years ago…

    3

  • ConvNets - structure

    • Dense convolution kernels • Abstract neurons • Only feed-forward connections • Trained through backpropagation

    4

  • The cortex - structure

    • Spiking neurons • Two-dimensional structure • Sparse connectivity

    Feed-forward input

    Feedback input

    Feed-forward output

    Feedback output

    5

  • ConvNets - GPUs

    • Dense matrix multiplications • 3.2kW • Low precision

    6

  • Cortical models - Supercomputers

    • Sparse matrix operations • Efficient communication of spikes • 2.3MW

    7

  • Cortical models - Neuromorphic hardware

    • Memory local to computation • Low-power • Real time • 62mW

    8

  • http://www.technologyreview.com/featuredstory/526506/neuromorphic-chips/

    9

  • 10 https://agenda.weforum.org/2015/03/top-10-emerging-technologies-of-2015-2/

  • REPORT TO THE PRESIDENT

    Ensuring Long-Term U.S.

    Leadership in Semiconductors

    Executive Office of the President

    President’s Council of Advisors on

    Science and Technology

    January 2017

    11

    Ensuring Long-Term U.S. Leadership in Semiconductors

    28

    Table A1. Selected component technology vectors that have a high probability of deployment in ten years

    (* denotes more speculative deployment within this timeframe)

    Component technology vector

    Time-frame to first commercial products

    Approach to achieving and retaining competitive advantage

    Neuromorphic Computing

    Available now Continued R&D into new architectures coupled with 3D technologies and new materials, Deep Learning accelerators (for mobile and data center applications), and applications for true brain-inspired computing

    Photonics Available now Foundries for tools and materials R&D; integrate photonics with CMOS and other materials

    Sensors Available now Foundries for tools and materials R&D; integrate new types/classes of sensors with CMOS and other materials

    CMOS (sub 7nm node size or new 3D structures)*

    Advances in thermal management available with new process nodes

    Deep understanding of transistor physics and chipset architecture and related design know-how; foundries and labs for transistor and materials R&D

    Magnetics 1-2 years (MRAM as eFlash), 3 years (as DRAM), 5-7 years (as SRAM)

    Foundries for tools and materials R&D; integrate magnetics with CMOS and other materials

    3D 2-3 years (wafer-to-wafer stacking), 4-5 years (die-to- wafer stacking), 5-7 (Monolithic 3D)

    Deep understanding of applications space and benefits associated use of 3D technologies and design know-how; foundries for tools and materials R&D; design automation tool R&D

    Data-flow based architectures

    3-4 years Continued architecture R&D, coupled with materials, integration, and manufacturing; build an ecosystem for solutions using data- flow based architectures

    Ultra-high performance wireless systems

    3 years (5G), 10-12 years (6G)

    Continued R&D in new materials and processes, antenna design advances, chipset manufacturing, and integration

    Advanced non- volatile memory as SRAM

    5+ years Deep understanding of applications space and chipset architectures

    Carbon nanotubes and phase change materials*

    5-7 years Foundries/labs for materials R&D for hardware architectures; chipset designs to leverage these technologies

    Biotech/human health

    5-10 years R&D towards low power, highly integrated, high performance processing, high-data rate communications, wireless charging; couple R&D with clinical research to create, build, and evaluate on new materials and interfaces

    Quantum Computing

    < 10 years Pre-competitive R&D labs for new materials; foundries for new materials and hardware architectures; tools for quantum algorithms and software programming with various architectural paradigms

    Point-of-Use Nanoscale 3D printing

    Available now Desktop fab capabilities for rapid prototyping, additive manufacturing, moving beyond silicon and interfacing with soft matter, and small batch production

    DNA for compute and storage*

    10+ years Multi-disciplinary basic research in efficiently and reliably reading and writing and retrieving DNA strands

    11

  • Start-ups and industry interest

  • SpiNNaker project

    • A million mobile phone processors in one computer

    • Able to model about 1% of the human brain…

    • …or 10 mice!

    13

  • SpiNNaker system

    14

  • SpiNNaker chip

    Multi-chip packaging by

    UNISEM Europe

    15

  • Chip resources

    16

  • SpiNNaker machines

    17

    SpiNNaker chip

    (18 ARM cores)

    SpiNNaker board

    (864 ARM cores)

    SpiNNaker racks

    (1M ARM cores)

    • HBP platform

    – 1M cores

    – 11 cabinets (including server)

    • Launch 30 March 2016 – then 500k cores

    – 82 remote users

    – 4,939 SpiNNaker jobs run

  • SpiNNaker machines

    18

    • 100 SpiNNaker

    systems in use

    – global coverage

    • 4-node boards

    – training & small-

    scale robotics

    • 48-node boards

    – insect-scale

    networks

    • multi-board systems

    • 1M-core HBP

    platform

    sales (40 48-node boards)

    loans

  • 19

    Cortical microcolumn 1st full-scale simulation of 1mm2 cortex on neuromorphic & HPC systems

    • 77,169 neurons, 285M synapses, 2,901 cores

    S.J. van Albada, A.G. Rowley, A. Stokes, J. Senk, M. Hopkins, M. Schmidt, D.R. Lester, M. Diesmann, S.B. Furber, “Performance comparison of the digital neuromorphic hardware SpiNNaker and the Neural network simulation software NEST for a full-scale cortical microcircuit model”, Frontiers 2018.

  • 20

    Constraint satisfaction problems

    work by: Gabriel Fonseca Guerra

    (PhD student)

    G. A. Fonseca Guerra and S. B. Furber,

    “Using Stochastic Spiking Neural

    Networks on SpiNNaker to Solve

    Constraint Satisfaction Problems”,

    Frontiers 2018.

    S. Habenschuss, Z. Jonke, and

    W. Maass, “Stochastic computations in

    cortical microcircuit models”, PLOS

    Computational Biology,

    9(11):e1003311, 2013.

    Stochastic spiking neural

    network:

    • Solves CSPs, e.g. Sudoku

    • 37k neurons

    • 86M synapses

    • also

    • map colouring

    • Ising spin systems

  • Deep Rewiring

    • Synaptic sampling as dynamic rewiring for rate-based neurons (deep networks)

    • Ultra-low memory footprint even during learning

    • Uses PRNG/TRNG, FPU, exp •  speed-up 1.5

    • Example: LeNet 300-100 • 1080 KB  36 KB • training on local SRAM possible • ≈ 100x energy reduction for training

    on SpiNNaker2 prototype (28nm) compared to X86 CPU

    •  96.2% MNIST accuracy for 0.6% connectivity

    Le N

    et 3

    0 0

    -1 0

    0 In MNIST 784

    Hidden FC 300

    Hidden FC 100

    Out Softmax 10

     G. Bellec et al., “Deep rewiring: Training very sparse deep networks”, arXiv, 2018  Chen Liu et al., “Memory-efficient Deep Learning on a SpiNNaker 2 prototype”, submitted 21

  • SpiNNaker2 Chip Overview

    22

    • 160 ARM-based processing elements (PEs) • 8 GByte LPDDR4 DRAM • 7 energy efficient chip-to-chip links

  • New Hardware Feature Innovations

    23

    Feature Output/Benefit Patents Publications

    Dynamic Neuromorphic Power Management

    Reduce power consumption by up to x5 Examples: • Reward-based learning • Synfire chain • Event based vision sensor processing

    DE102017128711.6 [Höppner2017]

    Exponential Function Accelerator Enhance performance by x2 Examples: • Reward-based learning • STDP • BCPNN

    [Partzsch2017] [Bauer2017] [Mikaitis2018]

    Pseudo and true random number generation

    Enhance performance by >x2 for pseudo random numbers Enable true randomness Examples: • Synaptic sampling • Deep-rewiring

    EP3147775A1 US20170083289

    [Neumärker2017]

    exp exp

    ARM exp

    unitFIFO AHB

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