Text of Fur Traders Missionaries Santa Fe Trail Texas Spanish California Relocated Tribes of Southeast and...
Fur Traders Missionaries Santa Fe Trail Texas Spanish California Relocated Tribes of Southeast and Old Northwest
The belief that Americans have the right and responsibility to spread their superior culture and institutions across the continent and throughout the world.
Stephen Austin/Settlers invited by Mexico to move into their nation if settlers agreed to accept Mexican citizenship and Catholicism. White settlers flooded in; many brought slaves; a small group rebelled against Mexico; Austin helped put down the brief uprising. Mexican anxiety; slavery banned and forbade further immigration from the U.S. Little changed. Rebellion Against Mexico War between white settlers and Mexican military. The Alamo, Goliad, San Jacinto Under threat of lynching, Santa Anna signed a treaty setting the Texas boundary at the Rio Grande river. Mexican Congress repudiated an agreement carried out under the threat of death, insisted that Texas was still a part of Mexico. Lone Star Republic Texas was an independent nation until 1845. The Texas Question many northerners opposed to taking in another slave state, there were currently 13 slave and 13 free states. Texas Annexed by the United States 9 Years Later, 1845
The Texas Question rose again in election of 1844. President John Tyler pushed through Congress a joint resolution, annexed Texas. Polk and Americans failed to realize that Mexico interpreted/feared the events from the 1820s on as part of an American plot to steal Texas. Wondered if Americans would want more Mexican territory. Polk demanded Texas, border at Rio Grande. Mexico said Texan border was at Nueces, 150 miles North. Polk positioned troops along Rio Grande, this an act of war. Polks Claims/Declaration of War. California and New Mexico.
Polk claimed that Mexico had passed the boundary of the United States... Invaded our territory and shed American blood upon American soil. War exists, he claimed, adding untruthfully, notwithstanding all our efforts to avoid it, exists by act of Mexico.
Ended Mexican-American War. Absorbed 75,000 Spanish-speaking inhabitants. US increased its territory by 529,017 square miles. Paid Mexico $15 million. Guaranteed property rights of former Mexican citizens. 13,000 American lives lost, mostly to disease.
Great Britain, Spain, the United States and Russia all had claims to the Oregon country. Russians renounced claim in 1823, Spain exchanged its claim to Oregon in return for the American renunciation of claims to Texas in the 1819 Adams-Onis Treaty. The U.S. and Great Britain agreed to joint occupation. In his campaign, Polk claimed that Oregon clearly belonged to the U.S. and the boundary was the 54 th parallel. Britain did not agree. Polk angered the British with his flamboyant claims, but eventually reached a compromise. In 1846, British ceded the Oregon country to the U.S.; they agreed to the 49 th parallel, but British maintained Vancouver Island.
The Emigrants Migrants Motives Opportunity and Fortune. Government wanted land settled so instituted generous land policies such as the Homestead Act. Emigrants Guide to Oregon and California, Lansford Hastings (1845) Farming Mining California Gold Rush Silver mining in Colorado and Nevada Poor treatment of Blacks, South Americans, Chinese and Californios. Cities in the West Ecological Transformation Mormons Confronting the Plains Tribes The Fort Laramie Treaty, 1851
Movies and novels have had a large role in forming images of the 19 th century West. United States gained valuable resources and geopolitically significant territory. White Americans thankful for special opportunities the West seemed to offer, though few emigrants realized their dreams. Violent racial conflict with Mexicans, Native Americans, and Chinese in the drive to fulfill manifest destiny. Acquisition of new territories fueled the controversy over slavery.