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Front Steer Axle Technical Training. Meritor Front Non-Drive Steer Axle The front non-drive axle is a solid axle system designed to support the weight

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Text of Front Steer Axle Technical Training. Meritor Front Non-Drive Steer Axle The front non-drive axle is...

  • Front Steer Axle Technical Training

  • Meritor Front Non-Drive Steer AxleThe front non-drive axle is a solid axle system designed to support the weight of the front of the vehicle, provide a center point for the tire and wheel assemblies, and provide steering capability to the vehicle. Current Meritor front non-drive steer axles do not include suspension springs. The suspension springs are provided by the vehicle manufacturer.

  • Easy Steer Front AxleThe term Easy Steer relates to the low friction composite knuckle pin bushings, made of acetate resin polymer. These bushings reduce steering effort and provide longer life.*

    *Bushing inspection and service is covered later in this program.

  • Model IdentificationEarly Meritor steer axlesAxle build information is indicated on the axle identification tag. The tag is fastened to the center front surface of the axle beam. There are four numbers listed: Model number Customer number Serial number Build dateAn example of a model number is; FF961 LX122.

  • IdentificationThe axle model number identification plate is located on the axle center.

  • Model Identification, continued;Later Meritor steer axlesAxle build information on the later Meritor axle is located on a similar tag as the early axle. The tag contains similar information except for the model number difference.An example of a model number is; MFS122015NX122This information is needed when ordering replacement parts

  • FF 961 Description The Meritor FF 961 axle is standard with bottle spindles for conventional wheel ends. Meritor supplies most axles to the OEMs less brakes and wheel end equipment.

  • FF 961 Components

  • Typical axle components

  • FF 961 InspectionRefer to MM02, Lubrication and Maintenance Section.Use Table C to determine vehicle vocation Use Table D for lubrication, inspection and maintenance schedule.

  • FF 961 Inspection, Table C

  • FF 961 Inspection, Table D; Tie Rod Ends

  • FF 961 Inspection, Table D; Tie Rod Assembly

  • FF 961 Inspection, Table D; Miscellaneous Components

  • FF 961 Inspection, Table D; Knuckle Vertical End Play

  • FF 961 Inspection, Table D; King Pins, Draw Keys and Torque Requirements

  • Wheel Bearing End Play InspectionMeasure end play by pushing/pulling on each side of the hub or drum while looking at the dial indicator.If end play is not within 0.001-0.005 inch, adjust the wheel bearings.

  • Tie Rod InspectionThe tie rod has right-hand threads on one end and left hand threads on other end.

  • Tie Rod InspectionTie rod threads must visible the entire length of the cross tube slot.

    Check tie rod movement by hand.

  • Tie Rod InspectionIf movement is more than 0.060-inch, tie rod end replacement is required.

  • Tie Rod InspectionCheck for missing cotter pin.

    Check for damaged or torn boot.

  • Draw Key InspectionMake sure draw key is installed completely and the locknut is tightened to the specified torque. If the draw key is not installed correctly, the king pin and the axle center will be damaged.Tighten the draw key nuts from 30-45 lb-ft at the following intervals.After the first 6,000 miles of new vehicle operation.Every 36,000 miles of operation.

  • Knuckle Vertical End PlayNew or rebuilt axles, .001- .025 inch.In-service axles, .001-.065 inch.

  • King Pin Bushing WearMeasure both upper and lower bushing for wear.Replace both bushings if wear is greater than 0.010-inch.See MM2 for bushing replacement procedures. NOTE: When Easy Steer Bushings are replaced they must be reamed for proper fit.

  • Wheel Speed Sensor AdjustmentThe sensor must be reset each time the wheel end is removed to obtain he proper sensor-to-tone wheel gap.For sensor adjustment, push sensor in until it contacts the tone wheel. The wheel run-out will push the sensor back away from tone wheel for proper adjustment. See MM02 for sensor replacement.

    NOTE: If driver reports indicate the ABS light has been coming ON, and ABS diagnostics indicate the sensor gap is out-of-adjustment, check for possible wheel-end looseness as the cause.

  • Vehicle Pre-Alignment InspectionSee MM2 for pre-alignment inspection.Wheel and tire conditionFront suspension condition (as shown previously in this program)Rear axle and rear suspension condition

  • Alignment Check, ToeToe-in is when wheels are closer together in back than in front.Toe-out is when the wheels are closer together in back than in front.

  • Alignment Check, ToeSteer axle toe is adjustable to reduce wear to the leading edge of the tire and also to avoid road wander.Excessive toe-in wears the outside edge of tires.Excessive toe-out wears the inside edge of the tires.

    Toe is adjusted in a static, unloaded condition so that the tires will run in a straight line under a dynamic, loaded condition.

  • Alignment Check, Toe SpecificationsVehicle unloaded: 1/16 toe in.Most tire wear is caused by incorrect toe settings.See MM02 for procedures to measure and adjust toe.Toe adjustment is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer.

  • Alignment Check, Camber AngleCamber is the angle of the tire in relation to the ground.Positive camber occurs when the distance between the top of wheels is greater than the distance between the bottom of the wheels at ground level.A small amount of positive camber is built into the axle beam and knuckle because camber changes with load. This results in a zero or neutral camber angle when the vehicle is operated at the normal load.

  • Alignment Check, Camber Angle; 1993 and later axlesAxle installed in vehicle.Left side (roadside) and right side (curbside):+3/16 degree to 11/16 degree final reading.TMC recommends; less than degree either side.The camber angle is not adjustable. It is machined into both the axle beam and the knuckle.

  • Alignment Check, Caster AngleCaster is the tilt of the king pin center line when viewed from the side of the vehicle.The caster angle is the angle from the vertical position to the center line of the king pin. If the top of the king pin axis is toward the rear of the vehicle, the caster is positive.

  • Alignment Check, Caster AngleA slight positive caster creates a self-aligning action that helps to stabilize the vehicle after turning and it for driving straight ahead.Too much caster will increase steering effort or may amplify a shimmy condition.

  • Alignment Check, Caster AngleAdjust caster according to vehicle manufacturers procedure. Refer to vehicle manufacturers specification for caster angle.Generally vehicles with power steering are +2 to +4 degree caster. TMC recommends; Left +3 and Right +4 degree.Caster is the responsibility of the vehicle manufacturer.

  • Alignment Check, Ackerman AngleWhen turning, the inner wheel must turn at a greater angle than the outer wheel.This angle is the turning radius angle (often called the Ackerman angle).The angle is built into the design of the tie rod arms, the tie rod ends and the cross tube assembly to give the best possible road contact and to minimize tire wear during turns.

  • Alignment Check, Ackerman AngleIf angle is not within specifications, premature tire wear will occur.Ackerman angle is not adjustable. Hard parts must be replaced to set the proper angle for a particular OEM and wheelbase.

  • LubricationRefer to MM02, Lubrication and Maintenance Section.Use Table E for lubrication specifications. Use Table F for axle greasing intervals and specifications.Use Table G for wheel end oil change intervals and specifications.

  • Lubrication

  • Lubrication

  • Lubrication

  • Lubrication King PinsMake sure the tires touch the ground. Do not raise the vehicle.Clean off all grease fittings prior to lubrication.Lubricate the pins through the grease fittings on the top and bottom of the knuckle.Apply lubricant until new lubricant comes from the thrust bearing seal and the upper shim pack.

  • Lubrication ProcedureTie rodsMake sure the tires touch the ground.Apply the lubricant through grease fittings on assembly.Apply the lubricant unit new lubricant comes from the boot.

  • Grease Lubricated Wheel BearingsRemove the old lubricant from all parts.Discard seals.Replace worn or damaged bearings.Force the specified lubricant from the large end of the cones into the cavities between the rollers and cage.Pack the hub between the bearing cups with lubricant to the level of the smallest diameter of the cups.

  • Oil Lubricated Wheel BearingsCheck the level on the cap. If the oil level is not at the specified level on the cap, remove the fill plug. Add the specified oil until the oil is a the correct level.

  • Diagnostics, General Items

  • Diagnostics, General Items

  • Diagnostics, Tire Wear Consult the TMC Radial Tire Conditions Analysis Guide for tread wear and tire conditions information.

  • Diagnostics, Tire Wear TMC Radial Tire Conditions Analysis Guide content example. To receive a manual call 800 ATA-LINE and ask for item number T0121.

  • SummaryThis program has provided technical information on ArvinMeritor front non-drive steer axle, FF961Front axle product overview, inspection, lubrication, and diagnostic information was presentedWhat additional information do you require that was not covered in the presentation?Questions or comments?

  • Where to Get More InformationOther training sessionsArrange with your DSMMaintenance ManualsTechnical BulletinsTechnology White PapersProduct VideosTechnical Library CDARM Web SiteCustomer Service 800 535 5560TMC Recommended Practices ManualVehicle manufacturer

  • www.arvinmeritor.comArvinMeritor publications can be found on ArvinMeritors website at www.arvinmeritor.com.At the home page, in the lower right hand corner, listed under products & services, click on Tech Library.At this web page listed in the left hand column under TECH LIBRARY are reference material for your use. Click on the specific topic, then click on the specific sub topic.A list of publications referencing that sub topic will be displayed in the center of the web page.Select the item by clicking on it and the publication will launch onto your computer screen.

    Welcome screen. Introduce your self and ArvinMeritor.

    Describe basic purpose of the axle.

    Self explanatory.Discuss the importance of the model number for ordering parts. The model number also identifies if Meritor installed the brakes, wheel ends, etc.

    Example of and location of tag.All new Meritor designed axles will be identified by the new MFS model number system. All existing Rockwell designed axles will keep the F model number system previously discussed.Discuss the difference between bottle and barrel spindle. Bottle has a large inner bearing and small outer bearing. Barrel has the same bearing size for both outer and inner.Discuss general components; IE: beam, cross tube, tie rods, tie rod ends, steering arm (right hand drive axle), brake chambers, ASAs.Front axle components maintenance inspection, lubrication procedures, and fastener torque checks vary dependant upon the vehicle vocation. Table C in the next slide identifies the vocation and table D identifies the time or mileage for the service procedure.Determine the vocation group number from table C. Use the group number for table D.Inspect and lubricate tie rod ends per the service intervals listed. Note the reference to power washing.Inspect the tie rods for looseness per the service intervals listed.

    Inspect and lubricate the listed components as noted.Inspect the steering knuckle vertical end play per the schedule above.Inspect the upper and lower king pin bushing wear per the schedule above. Also, re-torque the draw key nuts per the new vehicle and in-service vehicle schedule above.Fleet recommended interval for checking wheel bearing end play is 1 year or 100,000 miles.General tie rod installation information.Self explanatory.If movement is noted, check actual reading with a dial indicator. Use hand movement to check this reading.Self explanatory.Self explanatory.Self explanatory.King pin bushings must be checked individually; upper and lower, with a dial indicator. When replacing the Easy Steer bushings stress that they must be properly reamed with the correct size reamer after installation in the spindle. Follow the procedure in MM 02. Reamer tool is available through Kent-Moore. Self explanatory.Axle alignment should be a part of routine vehicle maintenance for maximum tire life. Component condition must be inspected prior to checking alignment.Describe toe.Describe toe purpose and results of excessive toe.With the vehicle unloaded both Meritor and TMC recommend 1/16 toe in. This is a target value.Camber is listed as the least contributing factor to tire wear in a heavy vehicle. Toe and tandem alignment are the top two contributors to tire wear.Camber angle changes normally involve bending the axle beam, which will void the axle manufacturers warranty. If the measurement exceeds this value consult the vehicle, axle and/or alignment equipment manufacturer. Camber angle is the only alignment measurement that Meritor is responsible for.Self explanatory.Caster does not normally contribute to tire wear.Self explanatory.A fleet would not normally check ackerman angle geometry. This is placed in the program for information purposes only. However, reinforce the fact that if the fleet changes wheel base or replaces tie rods on an axle they could affect ackerman angle and induce a tire wear issue. If the wheel base is changed the fleet should consult the OEM for recommendations on ackerman angle. If tie rods are changed replace like for like to maintain the original ackerman angle.A fleet would not normally check ackerman angle geometry. This is placed in the program for information purposes only. However, reinforce the fact that if the fleet changes wheel base or replaces tie rods on an axle they could affect ackerman angle and induce a tire wear issue. If the wheel base is changed the fleet should consult the OEM for recommendations on ackerman angle. If tie rods are changed replace like for like to maintain the original ackerman angle.

    Self explanatory.Self explanatorySelf explanatorySelf explanatoryLube the king pin bushings with the axle loaded. This assures that grease enters the lower thrust bearing.Axle loaded.In order to determine the condition of the grease in a grease lubricated wheel bearing, the hub cap and outer bearing must be removed. This procedure covers complete re-greasing of the hub and bearings.Also, check the condition of the lubricant.Most front axle issues are first noted as tire wear. However, other vehicle systems can contribute to tire wear. This will be discussed further in the next few slides.Continued from previous slide.Most front axle issues are first noted as tire wear. However, other vehicle systems can contribute to tire wear. The TMC Radial Tire Conditions Guide is a very useful tool for diagnosing tire wear issues.Each page in the manual covers; appearance, probable cause, example photo and figure, and corrective action. It must be purchased and is under $100.00.Re-state the objectives for the program. In the beginning of the class you asked the participants what they wanted out of the program. If items were written down discuss those items now. Ask for any other questions or issues the customer may have regarding the FF 961 non-drive steer axle.

    Self explanatory.

    Self explanatory.