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  • VSAT NETWORKS

    VSAT NetworksG.Maral

    Copyright 1995 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBNs: 0-471-95302-4 (Hardback); 0-470-84188-5 (Electronic)

  • WILEY SERIES IN COMMUNICATION A N D DISTRIBUTED SYSTEMS

    Editorial Advisory Board

    Professor B. Evans University of Surrey

    Professor A. Danthine Universitk de LiGge

    Professor G. Pujolle Universitk Pierre et Marie Curie

    Professor 0. Spaniol Technical University of Aachen

    Integrated Digital Communications Networks (Volumes 1 and 2) G . Pujolle, D. Seret, D. Dromard and E. Horlait

    Security for Computer Networks, Second Edition D. W. Davies and W. L. Price

    Elements of Digital Communication

    Satellite Communications Systems, Second Edition (Systems, Techniques and Technology)

    J. C. Bic, D. Dupontiel and J. C. Imbeaux

    G . Maral and M. Bousquet Using Formal Description Techniques (An Introduction to ESTELLE, LOTOS and SDL)

    Edited by Kenneth J. Turner

    S . Muftic, A. Patel, P. Sanders, R. Colon, J. Heijnsdijk and U. Pulkkinen

    R. J. Horrocks and R. W. A. Scarr

    Security Architecture for Open Distributed Systems

    Future Trends in Telecommunications

    Mobile Communications A. Jagoda and M. de Villepin

    Information Technology on the Move (Technical and Behavioural Evaluations of Mobile Telecommunications)

    Digital Speech for Low Bit Rate Communication Systems

    High Speed Networks

    G . Underwood, F. Sommerville, J. D. M. Underwood and W. Hengeveld

    A. Kondoz

    M. Boisseau, M. Demange, J.-M. Munier

    VSAT Networks G . Maral

    VSAT NetworksG.Maral

    Copyright 1995 John Wiley & Sons Ltd ISBNs: 0-471-95302-4 (Hardback); 0-470-84188-5 (Electronic)

  • VSAT NETWORKS

    G. Maral Ecole Nationale Supheure des Til6communications (Telecom Paris)

    site of Toulouse, France

    JOHN WILEY & SONS Chichester . New York . Brisbane Toronto . Singapore

  • Copyright 0 1995 by John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Baffins Lane, Chichester, West Sussex PO19 IUD, England Telephone: National Chichester (0243) 779777

    International (+ 44) 243 779777

    Reprinted with corrections January 1996 Reprinted March 1998, August 1999

    All rights reserved.

    No part of this book may be reproduced by any means, or transmitted, or translated into a machine language without the written permission of the publisher.

    Other Wiley Editorial Ofices

    John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 605 Third Avenue, New York, NY 10158-0012, USA

    Jacaranda Wiley Ltd, G.P.O. Box 859, Brisbane, Queensland 4001, Australia

    John Wiley & Sons (Canada) Ltd, 22 Worcester Road, Rexdale, Ontario M9W 1L1, Canada

    John Wiley & Sons (SEA) Pte Ltd, 37 Jalan Pemimpin #05-04, Block B, Union Industrial Building, Singapore 29809

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-PublicationData

    Maral, GQard. VSAT networks / G. Maral.

    p. cm.-(Wiley series in communication and distributed systems)

    Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0 471 953024 : $39.95 (US.) 1. VSATs (Telecommunication) I. Title. II. Series.

    TK5104.2.V74M37 1995 94-37789 384.51-dc20 CIP

    British Library Cataloguingin Publication Data

    A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library

    ISBN 0 471 95302 4

    Typeset in 10; /12fpt Palatino by Thomson Press (India) Ltd., New Delhi Printed and bound in Great Britain by Bookcraft (Bath) Ltd

  • CONTENTS

    PREFACE

    ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS NOTATION

    1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 VSAT network definition 1.2 VSAT network configurations 1.3 VSAT network applications and types of traffic

    1.3.1 Civilian VSAT networks 1.3.2 Military VSAT networks

    1.4 VSAT networks: involved parties 1.5 VSAT network options

    1.5.1 Star or mesh? 1.5.2 Data/voice/video 1.5.3 Fixed/demand assignment 1.5.4 C-band or Ku-band? 1.5.5 Hub options

    1.6 VSAT network earth stations 1.6.1 VSAT station 1.6.2 Hub station

    1.7 Historical background 1.7.1 Origin of VSAT networks 1.7.2 VSAT development in the USA 1.7.3 Users categories in the USA 1.7.4 VSAT development in Europe 1.7.5 VSAT development in other countries 1.7.6 Regional VSAT market share

    1.8 Economic aspects 1.9 Regulatory aspects

    1.9.1 Standardisation 1.9.2 Licensing of operation 1.9.3 Access to the space segment 1.9.4 Local regulations

    1.10.1 Advantages 1.102 Drawbacks

    1.10 Conclusions

    ix

    xiii

    xvii

    1 1 4 9 9

    13 13 15 15 19 20 22 26 27 27 31 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 37 40 41 44 44 45 45 45 46

  • vi Contents

    2 USE OF SATELLITES FOR VSAT NETWORKS 2.1 Introduction

    2.1.1 The relay function 2.1.2 Transparent and regenerative payload 2.1.3 Coverage 2.1.4 Impact of coverage on satellite relay performance 2.1.5 Frequency reuse

    2.2.1 Newtons universal law of attraction 2.2.2 Orbital parameters

    2.3 The geostationary satellite 2.3.1 Orbit parameters 2.3.2 Launching the satellite 2.3.3 Distance to the satellite 2.3.4 Propagation delay 2.3.5 Azimuth and elevation angles 2.3.6 Conjunction of the sun and the satellite 2.3.7 Orbit perturbations 2.3.8 Apparent satellite movement 2.3.9 Orbit corrections 2.3.10 Doppler effect

    2.2 Orbit

    2.4 Satellites for VSAT services

    3 REGULATORY AND OPERATIONAL ASPECTS 3.1 Regulatory aspects

    3.1.1 Licensing of operation 3.1.2 Licensing of equipment 3.1.3 Access to the space segment 3.1.4 Permission for installation

    3.2 Installation 3.2.1 Hub 3.22 VSAT 3.2.3 Antenna pointing

    3.3 The customers concerns 3.3.1 Interfaces to end equipment 3.3.2 Independence from vendor 3.3.3 Set-up time 3.3.4 Access to the service 3.3.5 Flexibility 3.3.6 Failure and disaster recovery 3.3.7 Blocking probability 3.3.8 Response time

    3.3.10 Availability 3.3.11 Maintenance 3.3.12 Hazards 3.3.13 Cost

    3.3.9 Link quality

    3.4 VSAT and HUB equipments 3.5 Network management system (W)

    3.5.1 Operational functions 3.5.2 Adminishative functions

    49 49 49 52 53 58 60 61 61 62 65 65 66 69 70 70 72 73 74 77 79 79

    81 81 81 82 83 83 83 83 84 84 86 86 86 87 87 87 88 89 90 91 91 95 96 96 97 97 98

    100

  • Contents vii

    4 NETWOFXING ASPECTS 4.1 Network functions 4.2 Some definitions

    4.2.1 Link and connection 4.2.2 Bit rate 4.2.3 Protocol 4.2.4 Delay 4.2.5 Throughput 4.2.6 Channel efficiency 4.2.7 Channel utilisation

    4.3 Traffic characterisation 4.3.1 Traffic forecasts 4.3.2 Traffic measurements 4.3.3 Traffic source modelling

    4.4 The OS1 reference model for data communications 4.4.1 The physical layer 4.4.2 The data link layer 4.4.3 The network layer 4.4.4 The transport layer 4.4.5 The upper layers (5 to 7)

    4.5 Application to VSAT networks 4.5.1 Physical and protocol configurations of a VSAT network 4.5.2 Protocol conversion (emulation) 4.5.3 Reasons for protocol conversion

    4.6 Multiple access 4.6.1 Basic multiple access protocols 4.6.2 Meshed networks 4.6.3 Star shaped networks 4.6.4 Fixed assignment versus demand assignment 4.6.5 Random time division multiple access 4.6.6 Delay analysis 4.6.7 Conclusion

    4.7 Network design 4.7.1 Principles 4.7.2 Guidelines for preliminary dimensioning 4.7.3 Example

    4.8 Conclusion

    5 RADIO FREQUENCY LINK ANALYSIS 5.1 Principles

    5.1.1 Thermal noise 5.1.2 Interference noise 5.1.3 Intermodulation noise 5.1.4 Carrier power to noise power spectral density ratio 5.1.5 Total noise

    5.2 Uplink analysis 5.2.1 Power flux density at satellite distance 5.2.2 Equivalent isotropic radiated power of the earth station 5.2.3 Uplink path loss 5.2.4 Figure of merit of satellite receiving equipment

    5.3 Downlink analysis 5.3.1 Equivalent isotropic radiated power of the satellite 5.3.2 Flux density at earth surface

    101 101 102 102 106 104 105 105 106 106 106 106 106 107 111 113 113 114 115 115 116 116 117 118 125 126 129 131 137 144 150 156 157 157 158 162 162

    165 166 167 167 168 169 170 1 72 173 174 181 186 187 188 189

  • viii Contents

    5.3.3 Downlink path loss 5.3.4 Figure of merit of earth station receiving equipment

    5.4 Intermodulation analysis 5.5 Interference analysis

    5.5.1 Expressions for camer-to-interference ratio 5.5.2 Types of interference 5.5.3 Self-interference 5.5.4 External interference 5.5.5 Conclusion

    5.6 Overall link performance 5.7 Bit error rate determination 5.8 Power versus bandwidth exchange 5.9 Example

    6 FUTURE DEVELOPMENTS 6.1 Cost reduction of VSATs 6.2 New services

    6.2.1 LAN interconnection 6.2.2 Multimedia 6.2.3 Mobile seMces

    6.3 VSATs and onboard processing satellites 6.4 Use of non-geostationary satellite 6.5 Network management 6.6 Conclusion

    APPENDIX 1

    APPENDIX 2

    APPENDIX 3

    APPENDIX 4

    APPENDIX 5

    APPENDIX 6

    APPENDIX 7

    APPENDIX 8

    REFERENCES

    INDEX

    Traffic source models

    Automatic repeat request (ARQ) products

    Interface protocols

    Antenna parameters

    Emitted and received power

    Camer amplification

    VSAT products

    Satellite news gathering

    189 190 197 198 198 200 200 209 215 215 215 220 221

    227 227 228 228 230 231 232 232 233 233

    235

    238

    241

    245

    249

    252

    255

    269

    273

    277

  • PREFACE

    Satellites for communication services have evolved quite signific