From participation to contribution: Learning, teaching and researching in a collaborative classroomJudith MacCallum and Veronica MorcomMurdoch UniversityEARLI Conference Limassol 25-29 August 2015
OverviewContext of the study year 3 classroomSociocultural perspective Classroom participation research Brief methodology and data sourcesParticipation and communication patterns over a school yearChanging participatory rolesDiscussion
Research context - Year 3 classroomDemocratic classroom with students participating in decisions for action, with direction offered by cultural and social valuesTeachers practice not privileged in the schoolSchool is situated in middle class urban area Social practices includedclass agreementsdaily social circleY charts looks like, sounds like, feels likeweekly class meetingsTribes with child selected leaders and vice leaders
Daily social circle
Sociocultural perspectiveThe learner is constituted by cultural and historical processes, embedded within cultural activities in communities which provide the tools for making sense of the worldIt is usually understood that these tools are appropriated in social interactions, providing the means to maintain and transform those communities (Rogoff, 2003)Teacher channels a students activities in certain ways so that development is organised in a particular directioncanalization (Valsiner, 1997)
Aim of this studyTo examine student participatory roles in class meetings over a school yearTo examine ways in which students change their participatory roles, what supports and constraints these roles
Participation in communitiesLegitimate peripheral participation to mature participation individuals (Lave & Wenger, 1991; Rogoff, 2003) Social construction of participatory roles in primary school classroom (Kovalainen & Kumpulainen, 2007) identified different and relatively stable modes of student participation with differing teacher participationVocal participantsResponsive participantsBilateral participantsSilent participants
Different participatory rolesBased onAmount of participation number of coded interaction piecesDiscourse moves initiating responding, follow-up, respondingInteraction sequences SIM, SIM/T, TIM, TIBCommunicative functions EVI, INFO, VIEW, EVA, CON, ORC, DEF, NEUNature of teacher participation providing structural support, analytic support, social support, encouraging
Communication and interaction patterns (Kovalainen & Kumpulainen, 2007)Interaction sequences (8) e.g. teacher TI or student initiated SI, bilateral TIB/SIB or multilateral TIM/SIM, with (SIM/T) or without teacher participationCommunicative functions (10) e.g. asking for and providing evidence, reasons (EVI); asking for and sharing experiences, feelings (EXP); orchestrating the discussion (ORC); elaborations (DEF); views, opinions, perspectives (VIEW); confirm, acknowledge (CON); non-verbal (N-VERB); evaluate, correct (EVA)
Method and data sourcesYear long ethnographic study in Year 3 classroom with teacher/researcher and 24/25 students aged 9 Researcher spent about 1 day per week in the classroomMultiple data sources, including observation, videoing class meetings and other activities, reflection logs (teacher/researcher, researcher, students), sociometric surveys, interviews with students and parents (with photo stimulated recall)
Range of participatory opportunitiesOur research focus - more about social practices than academic subject conceptsSocial circle student solo initiation SIClass meeting TIM, TIB, SIM/T, SIB/T, SIM, SIBTribes leader and Vice leader SIM, SIBTribes members SIM, SIBPhilosophy lesson TIM, TIB, SIM/T, SIB/T, SIM, SIBThink Pair Share SIB, SIB/T
Data for this analysisVideo of class meetings over the school year (23) approximately 30 minutes each. Students could put up an item they wished class to discussMore detailed analysis of four class meetings beginning term 1, early term 3, term 4 and end term 4Teacher reflections log, student reflections, and researcher field notes
AnalysisClass meeting student items over the year number of individual and pair itemsNumber, and which students initiate itemsInteraction sequences and communicative functions Patterns of interaction sequences and participatory roles of studentsSupport roles by teacher and studentsChanges in patterns and roles over the year
Number of student items over year
Number of students with item
First class meeting
Communication patternsClass meeting, first week of term 1, 2/02/2007Three teacher items addressed first, with teacher encouraging participation from class and individuals - TIM, TIB sequencesThree student items in order of placement on the whiteboard. These three students participated as vocal participants SIB/T, SIM/TOther students participated in mainly bilateral interactions initiated by the three students or the teacherTeacher provides structural, analytic, social supportParticipatory roles similar to (Kovalainen & Kumpulainen, 2007)
Teacher ItemTIM Teacher Initiated sequence at beginning to all Ss TI First of all I want to talk about instructions INFO[Talks about something that EXPhappened at end of previous day] INFOTF What do you think that means for your desk? VIEWSR [Hands go up] N-VERB
SIB/T Student Initiated sequence with TS1I [Hand up ready to provide explanation]N-VERBTR What do you think S1?VIEWS1R [explains ]INFOTF MmCON
First student itemTF: Wheres S2? ORCS2: [moves to front of class] N-VERBTIB TI: S2 you put down a really important item EVAS2, I want you to explain to the class what this means to youEVITIM TI: I want you to listen very carefullyACTbecause you might have some really good ideas tooEVI
SIM/T S2: [explains to class] INFO EVI S2: [looks to teacher]N-VERBTR: [nods]N-VERBS2: [continues speaking] EXP INFOTR: That sounds like a really good idea, S2 EVATF: Does anyone have any questions that they would like to ask S2? VIEWS2: [points to S3] ORC S3: [asks more about S2s experience] EXPTF: What kind of activities are they S2? DEF
Class meeting 17
Class meeting 17, 10/08/2007Three teacher items. Four student items (2 individual, 2 pairs)Students voted as to which items would be discussed firstTeacher wrote down discussion points on another board SIM, SIB and SIM/T sequencesStudents communicative functions recounts of experience and feelings (EXP), observations (INFO), views and opinions (VIEW), reasons for view (EVI), clarification (DEF) Teachers communication functions predominately orchestrating (ORC) and acknowledging (CON), later asked are these stories or solutions? (EVA), asked for solutions (ACT) - structuring, social support and reflective
Class meeting 22, 2/11/2007No teacher items. 4 student items (2 individual, 3 pairs, 1 trio)Students voted as to which items would be discussed firstTeacher wrote down discussion points on another board SIM, SIB mainly, and few SIM/T sequencesStudents communicative functions recounts of experience and feelings (EXP), observations (INFO), views and opinions (VIEW), reasons for view (EVI), recounts of action, requests for solutions (ACT), evaluation (EVA), some orchestration (ORC)Teachers communicative functions predominately orchestrating (ORC) and acknowledging (CON)Some students taking supportive role of teacher
Last class meeting
Class meeting 23 6/12/2007No teacher items and five student items (3 individual, 2 pairs)Teacher asks if anyone wants to take teacher role almost all hands go up, and negotiation with class as to how to decide. Several students without an item on board took turns as Teacher. None were initially Vocal participantsTeacher takes a position at the blackboard out of mat area, but intervenes to remind students to be respectful then, Lets try again (ORC) mainly social support to group rather than individualsSIM and SIB sequences Student T support participation (ORC) and provide ideas (INFO), rather than to ask for ideas (INFO) opinions (VIEW)
Changing participatory rolesA was Vocal participant, put up 6 individual items and 6 pair items over year, was Leader (Tr 2) Vice Leader (Tr 4 & 5), observed as an encourager and supportive of other students participation over the year (social mainly)E was initially a Silent participant, waited to be asked to participate, put up individual item in term 2 when Leader (Tr 2), pair item in term 3 with A, SIM sequences in Tr, more like Responsive/Bilateral participant in class meetingsC was initially a Bilateral participant, initiated bilateral communication, put up 1 individual item in term 1, 2 pair items term 2 & 3, Vice Leader with A (Tr 2), Leader (Tr 4), acted as Student T in last class meeting, beginning to initiate and support multilateral communications
Reflective activity 3/12/2007 Roles people play in groupsA (vice leader at the time) Vocal participant Im an encourager and give ideas. I am a kind person and an organiser person. I am willing to try out to be a helper.E Silent to Bilateral ? Im an encourager and I help people that are lost on what to do. I am willing to try out to be an ideas person for my group.C Bilateral to ? I am the idea and peacekeeper. I would like to play an encourager or an organiser. I am willing to try a new role if I dont get in trouble from it.
SummaryOver the year the classroom practices provided opportunities for students to engage in a range of communicative sequences Class meetings provided the teacher with the opportunity to model a range of communicative functions (asking for, and sharing), nature of support changed over year, included social, analytic and reflective Students mainly orchestrated discussion (ORC), shared ideas (INFO), opinions (VIEW), feelings and experiences (EXP), offered evidence (EVI) or clarification (DEF) and evaluated feedback (EVA). Later in the year students offered solutions or solutions they had tried. A smaller number of students asked for other students opinions, experiences or solutions, whether in bilateral or multilateral sequences Needed ACT for request action or offer solution, also a reflective level of thinking introduced
Changing participatory rolesSome students changed participatory roles Class meetings provided opportunity for students to initiate multilateral sequencesItems with student pairs offered opportunity for a different range of participatory rolesTribes provided further opportunity for students to initiate multilateral sequences and support each otherAnother kind of participant role emerged Responsive/Bilateral - transitioning to Vocal?
ConclusionStetsenko (2008) argues that learning is contributing to collaborative practices not just participationIf students are to change participatory roles over a year they need opportunities to contribute rather than participate
ReferencesKovalainen, M., & Kumpulainen, K. (2007). The social construction of participation in an elementary classroom community. International Journal of Educational Research, 46, 141-158.Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. New York: Cambridge University Press.Rogoff, B. (2003). The cultural nature of human development. New York: Oxford University Press.Stetsenko, A. (2008). From relational ontology to transformative activist stance on development and learning: Expanding Vygotskys (CHAT) project. Cultural Studies in Science Education, 3, 471-491.Valsiner, J. (1997). Culture and the development of childrens actions: A theory of human development (2nd ed.). New York: John Wiley & Sons.
Thank youComments? Questionsemail@example.comVeronica.firstname.lastname@example.org
**Teachers aims for class was participation in decision making about the classroom leadership, friendship**Safe classroom to practice the five agreements. We usually say name and how we feel- today we will state name and what you hope to learn These are appropriated in social interactions, providing the means to maintain and transform those communities. These processes are dynamic and contested. Research taking a sociocultural perspective is thus usually longitudinal and focuses on cultural tools, activities and social processes, rather than on the cognitions and contexts of individuals per se.
*Kovalainen and Kumpulainens work is in a year 3 classroom. They video taped discussion of science and mathematics whole class discussion and philosophy lessons mostly conducted with students sitting away form their desk in a circle format. The participation structures are socially constructed but they found the participatory roles to be relatively stable and maintained over the year.*Vocal students high participation; initiating responding, follow-up; SIM, SIM/T, TIM, TIB; asking for or sharing EVI, DEF, EXP, VIEW, INFO, NEU, CON, EVA; structural support of teacher (particularly concluding sequences) NEU, CON, ORC, EVI, DEFResponsive students variable amounts of participation; responding; TIM, TIB, SIM/T, SIB/T; sharing EVI, DEF; analytic support of teacher (initiating sequences) EVI, DEFBilateral participants medium to low amounts of participation; initiating responding; SIB/T, SIB, TIB; asking for or sharing EVI, N-VERB, EXP, INFO; social support of teacher by ORCSilent participants low amount of participation; responding; TIB; sharing VIEW, INFO; encouraging by teacher by asking VIEW, INFO*Coding used by K & K to examine participatory roles. Roles emerged by grouping combinations of these patterns.*Sequence of TIM with all student responses and TIB/SIB ? with individual student response (repeated), then TIM and request to all students for action.Teacher models different communicative functions, including personal experience and feelings (EXP) and asking for opinions (VIEW) and solutions (INFO). She also requests action (ACT) new function added.
Next sequence to include student item with teacher scaffolding what student to do, - students often look to teacher, rather than class members, mostly S initiates other student response, then another student responds to original idea. Teacher close by.
*The item goes on with S2 asking a student to respond (ORC), other student asked about experience (EXP)Teacher participated by asking S2 to elaborate (DEF) and then asks S2 what action to write on the board for the item (ACT)Teacher asks class if they have similar experiences (EXP) then who would like to share with class (EXP)*Some multilateral sequences between students using agree and disagree phrases from philosophy lessons, e.g. I do agree about ., but I dont agree because Some students were taking on the teacher role of social and analytic support
*Most students wanted to be teacher. Student orchestrates, students responding and speaking directly to each other. Teacher at a distance, but interrupts a few times to remind students to be respectful etc. *One student was nominated as vice leader for one tribe in term 3. There was considerable discussion about this. Although some students were supportive of him having a go,...