FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world?
FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world?. Do Now- Review Vocabulary Words Define the following words (Dont look at your notes) Cold War Containment Truman Doctrine Marshall Plan. The Cold War in China. Communists vs. Nationalists. World War II in China - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
<ul><li><p>FQ: How did the Cold War affect nations around the world?Do Now- Review Vocabulary WordsDefine the following words (Dont look at your notes)Cold WarContainmentTruman DoctrineMarshall Plan</p></li><li><p>The Cold War in China</p></li><li><p>Communists vs. NationalistsWorld War II in ChinaMao Zedongleads Chinese Communists against Japanese invadersJiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)leads of Chinese Nationalists in World War IINationalist and Communist Chinese resume civil war after WWII ends</p></li><li><p>Communists vs. NationalistsMao ZedongJiang Jieshi (a.k.a. Chiang Kai-shek)</p></li><li><p>The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarThe Superpowers ReactU.S. supports Nationalist state in Taiwan, called Republic of ChinaSoviets and China agree to help each other in event of attackU.S. tries to stop Soviet expansion and spread of communism in China</p></li><li><p>The Two Chinas Affect the Cold WarChina Expands under the CommunistsChina takes control of Tibet and southern MongoliaIndia welcomes Tibetan refugees fleeing revolt against ChineseChina and India clash over border; fighting stops but tensions remain</p></li><li><p>The Communists Transform ChinaCommunists Claim a New Mandate of HeavenChinese Communists organize national government and Communist PartyMaos Brand of Marxist SocialismMao takes property from landowners and divides it among peasantsGovernment seizes private companies and plans production increase</p></li><li><p>The Communists Transform ChinaThe Great Leap ForwardCommuneslarge collective farms often supporting over 25,000 peopleProgram is ended after inefficiency leads to crop failures and famines</p></li><li><p>The Communists Transform ChinaThe Cultural RevolutionCultural Revolutionmovement to build society of peasants and workersRed Guardsgroups of violent and radical youthclose schools and execute or imprison many intellectualsIn 1968, Chinese army imprisons, executes, or exiles most Red Guards who have been labeled by the government Counter Revolutionary.However, the Cultural Revolution continues until Maos death in 1976.</p></li><li><p>The Cold War in Korea</p></li><li><p>Korea- Peninsular- surrounded by 3 sides of water</p><p>Japan- archipelago- chain/group/cluster of islands</p></li><li><p>War in KoreaA Divided Land38th parallelline dividing Korea into North Korea and South Korea</p></li><li><p>War in KoreaStandoff at the 38th ParallelIn 1950, North Koreans invade South Korea with Soviet supportSouth Korea requests UN assistance; 15 nations send troopsDouglas MacArthurleads UN forces against North KoreansNorth Koreans controls most of the peninsula when MacArthur attacksHalf of North Koreas army surrenders, the rest retreat</p></li><li><p>War in KoreaThe Fighting ContinuesUN troops push North Koreans almost to Chinese borderChinese send 300,000 troops against UN forces and capture SeoulMacArthur calls for nuclear attack and is removed from commandIn 1953, cease fire signed and border established at 38th parallel</p></li><li><p>War in KoreaAftermath of the WarNorth Korea builds collective farms, heavy industry, nuclear weaponsSouth Korea establishes democracy, growing economy with U.S. aid</p></li><li><p>The Cold War in Vietnam</p></li><li><p>War Breaks Out in VietnamThe Road to WarHo Chi MinhVietnamese nationalist, later Communist leaderThe Fighting BeginsIn 1954, French surrender to Vietnamese after major defeatDomino theoryU.S. theory of Communist expansion in Southeast Asia. If one country falls to communism then the rest will fall as well.Ho Chi Minh</p></li><li><p>The War in Vietnam, 1957-1973</p><p>Note the Ho Chi Minh Trail through Laos and Cambodia</p></li><li><p>War Breaks Out in VietnamVietnamA Divided CountryInternational peace conference agrees on a divided VietnamNgo Dinh Diemleads anti-Communist government in South VietnamVietcongSouth Vietnamese Communist guerillas fighting against DiemNgo Dinh Diem</p></li><li><p>The United States Gets InvolvedU.S. Troops Enter the FightIn 1964, U.S. sends troops to fight Viet Cong and North VietnameseU.S. fights guerilla war defending increasingly unpopular governmentVietcong gains support from Ho Chi Minh, China, and Soviet Union</p></li><li><p>The United States Gets InvolvedThe United States WithdrawsWar grows unpopular in the U.S.; in 1969, Nixon starts withdrawing troopsVietnamizationNixons plan to withdraw U.S. from war graduallyLast U.S. troops leave in 1973; South Vietnam overrun in 1975</p></li><li><p>The Vietnam War EndsVietnam after the WarSaigon renamed Ho Chi Minh City; Vietnam united as Communist nationAbout 1.5 million people flee Vietnam, some settling in the U.S. and CanadaIn 1995, United States normalizes relations with Vietnam</p></li><li><p>CambodiaCambodia in TurmoilKhmer RougeCommunist rebels who take control of Cambodia in 1975They slaughter 2 million people; overthrown by Vietnamese invadersIn 1993, Cambodia adopts democracy, holds elections with UN helpPol Pot, leader of the Khmer Rouge (Cambodian Communist Party, literally Red Khmers) in 1977 at the height of his power </p></li><li><p>Postwar Southeast AsiaThe Killing Fields were a number of sites in Cambodia where large numbers of people were killed and buried by the Khmer Rouge regime, during its rule of the country from 1975 to 1979, immediately after the end of the Vietnam War.</p></li><li><p>Postwar Southeast AsiaAt least 200,000 people were executed by the Khmer Rouge (while estimates of the total number of deaths resulting from Khmer Rouge policies, including disease and starvation, range from 1.4 to 2.2 million out of a population of around 7 million).A commemorative stupa filled with the skulls of the victims. </p></li><li><p>Choung Ek Killing Field: The bones of young children who were killed by Khmer Rouge soldiers. </p></li><li><p>Mass grave in Choeung Ek. </p></li><li><p>The Cold War in Latin America and the Middle East</p></li><li><p>Fighting for the Third WorldMore Than One WorldThird Worlddeveloping nations; often newly independent, nonalignedCold War StrategiesU.S., Soviet Union, and China compete for influence over the Third WorldThey back revolutions and give economic , military and technical aid</p></li><li><p>Fighting for the Third WorldAssociation of Nonaligned NationsMany countries, like India, want to avoid involvement in the Cold WarIn 1955, Indonesia hosts Asian and African leaders who want neutralityNonaligned nationsindependent countries not involved in the Cold War</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in Latin AmericaFidel Castro and the Cuban RevolutionFidel Castroleads revolt in Cuba against dictator supported by the U.S.By 1959, Castro in power, nationalizes economy, takes U.S. propertyIn 1961, Castro defeats U.S. trained Cuban exiles at the Bay of Pigs</p></li><li><p>Fidel Castro</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in Latin AmericaNuclear Face-off: the Cuban Missile CrisisIn 1962, U.S. demands removal of Soviet missiles in CubaSoviets withdraw missiles; U.S. promises not to invade CubaCuban economy is left dependent on Soviet support</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in Latin AmericaCivil War in NicaraguaAnastasio Somoza DebayleNicaraguan dictator supported by the U.S.Daniel Ortegaleads Sandinista rebels who take power in NicaraguaU.S. and Soviet Union both initially support SandinistasSandinistas aid Communist rebels in El SalvadorU.S. helps anti-Communist Contras in Nicaragua to assist El SalvadorIn 1990, Nicaragua holds first free elections, Sandinistas lose</p></li><li><p>Daniel Ortega on Time magazine, March 31, 1986Anastasio Somoza Debayle (U.S. supported president of Nicaragua from 1967-1980)</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in the Middle EastReligious and Secular Values Clash in IranShah Reza Pahlavi embraces Western governments and oil companiesIranian nationalists overthrow shah, seize British oil companyU.S. restores shah to power, fearing Soviet encroachmentShah Reza Pahlavi</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in the Middle EastThe United States Supports Secular RuleShah Reza Pahlavi westernizes Iran with U.S. supportAyatollah Ruholla KhomeiniIranian Muslim leader; lives in exileIn 1978, Khomeini sparks riots in Iran, Shah flees</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in the Middle EastKhomeinis Anti-U.S. PoliciesIslamic revolutionaries hold American hostages in Tehran (1979-1981) for 444 daysMuslim radicals take control in Iran, increasing tensions with IraqSaddam Hussein, fearing the spread of the Iranian Revolution into Iraq, attacks Iran.Iran and Iraq fight an 8-year war; U.S. aids both sides, Soviets help Iraq</p></li><li><p>Blindfolded American hostages in Iran in 1979.</p></li><li><p>Confrontations in the Middle EastThe Superpowers Face Off in AfghanistanSoviets invade Afghanistan to help Communist government against rebelsMuslim rebels fight guerilla war against Soviets with U.S. weaponsU.S. stops grain shipments to Soviet UnionSoviets eventually withdraw in 1989</p></li></ul>