FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LEADS TO DIVERSITY Has 3 topographical zones:Has 3 topographical zones:  Northern mountains (Himalayas)  River

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Text of FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LEADS TO DIVERSITY Has 3 topographical zones:Has 3...

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LEADS TO DIVERSITYHas 3 topographical zones:

    Northern mountains (Himalayas)

    River Basins (Indus and Ganges)

    The Peninsula and its coastal areas (Southern India)

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY LEADS TO DIVERSITYClimates lead to early differences:

    Tropical and lush (Peninsular India and Ganges Basin) produce rice

    Dry and limited rain (Indus basin) rely on irrigation, produce wheat, millet, and barley

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA CASTE SYSTEM OF VEDIC AGE (1500 500 BCEBrahminsPriests and scholarsOnly ones who could control the technology of sacrificesOnly ones who knew the rituals and prayersDid not want them written downknowledge is power

    KshatriyasWarriors and kings

    VaishyasLandowners

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA CASTE SYSTEM OF VEDIC AGE (1500 500 BCEShudrasServants and slaves

    UntouchablesPeople outside system because of the demeaning work they performed

    Divided within each group according to heredity known as a Jati group

    Great care taken to prevent intermixing of groups

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA BUDDHISM REFORMS VEDIC BELIEF SYSTEMStory of Siddhartha Gautama (a.k.a. the Buddha)

    Upper class prince who rejects social status and all that go with it.

    Concerned that desire for material goods would lead to unhappiness

    Believed in middle path, moderation

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA BUDDHISM REFORMS VEDIC BELIEF SYSTEMPhilosophy centered on the individuals path to enlightenment

    Denied the usefulness of gods

    Life through moderation meant less desire and less suffering

    All people are composites (khandhas):In direct contradiction to Vedic belief of an external soul (atman)

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA BUDDHISM REFORMS VEDIC BELIEF SYSTEMChallenge to the power structure and class system in India (Brahmin priests)

    Anyone could become enlightened, regardless of class

    If the aim of life is to become enlightened, and the need for material things is futile, what importance does the aristocracy have to ordinary person

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA HINDUISM AND THE INDIAN SOCIETYEvolution of the Vedic belief system

    Featured emphasis on intense personal devotion to a deity and the prominence of goddesses

    Usually took the form of: Vishnu (preserver), Shiva (destroyer), or Brahma (creator)

    All gods were a manifestation of a single divine force

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA HINDUISM AND THE INDIAN SOCIETYWorship focuses on temple and included performing service to the deity

    Got rid of the sacrificial nature of original Vedic system

    Ganges River becomes an important location for pilgrimages

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA HINDUISM AND THE INDIAN SOCIETYKarma becomes an important part of belief structure:

    Status in life is based on what you did in previous lives

    Better conduct leads to social advancement(s)

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA HINDUISM AND THE INDIAN SOCIETYDharma

    Religious duties were tied into social standing, gender, and age

  • FOUNDATIONS OF INDIA HINDUISM AND THE INDIAN SOCIETYHinduism appealed to peoples need to believe in gods and love of rituals

    Buddhism focus on individuality was too much for ordinary citizens