Cybernetics began as the science of communication and control in the animal, machine, and society; i.e. special types of systems. It operates on two levels: study of an observed system & study of the people studying a system. Originated from R & D process in the development of the atomic bomb- applied scientific theory & principles in real-world setting.*
Cybernetics is the interdisciplinary study of the structure of regulatory systems.
Cybernetics is closely related to control theory and systems theory
The term cybernetics stems from the Greek (kybernts, steersman, governor, pilot, or rudder the same root as government).*
Cybernetics is preeminent when the system under scrutiny is a closed loop system.
Cybernetics as the theory of control mechanisms in technology and nature is founded on the concepts of information and feedback, but as part of a general theory of systems.*
Cybernetics does not ask "what is this thing?" but "what does it do?" and "what can it do?"
There was also a return from the machine to the living organism, which accelerated progress in neurology, perception, the mechanisms of vision In the sixties MIT saw the extension of cybernetics and system theory to industry, society, and ecology.
Theoretical-sciences of complexity--including AI, neural networks, dynamical systems, chaos, and complex adaptive systems. Practical-Many of the concepts used by system scientists come from the closely related approach of cybernetics: information, control, feedback, communication.
*STEERING LOOP AS A FEEDBACKfeedbackDetection of errorComparing heading with goals of reaching portAdjust rudder to correct heading
Correction of ErrorShips Heading
*AUTOMATION OF FEEDBACKThermostatHeaterTemperature of Room Air
*THE FEEDBACK LOOPCybernetics introduces for the first time and not only by saying it, but methodologically the notion of circularity, circular causal systems. Heinz von Foerster
Three men can be regarded as the pioneers of great breakthroughs (in cybernetics): the mathematician NORBRT WEINER, who died in 1964, the neurophysiologist WARREN McCULLOCH, who died in 1969; and JAY FORRESTER, professor at the Sloan School of Management at MIT.*
*FOUNDER OF CYBERNETICS
*CYBERNETIC EARLY USES
Cybernetics saves the souls, bodies, and material possessions from the gravest dangers. Socrates according to Plato
The future science of government should be called la cybernetique. Andr-Marie Ampere, 1843
Until recently, there was no existing word for this complex of ideas, andI felt constrained to invent one.... Norbert Wiener
If a true cybernetic approach to problem solving is adopted The planner must first define his goals and criteria for their achievement as clearly and with little ambiguity Modern Cybernetics has attempted to understand how systems describe themselves, control themselves, and organize themselves.*
An example of a cybernetic system is the home furnace that responds via thermostatic control to changes in temperature for the purpose of maintaining a reasonably constant temperature in the home.In Automobiles the Automatic Cruise Control can also be considered as example of Cybernetics.
*A live example ASIMO the robot made by HONDA Corp which uses Principles of Cybernetics.
Dick & Carey shows evidence of an underlying system and approach to instruction. This model highlights the principle that is applicable to solve any kind of problem. The approach can be broken apart and each part examined and it has a linear structure.*
If we would uncover those general laws, we would be able to analyze and solve problems in any domain, pertaining to any type of system by following all D & C steps
Explanation of communication = psychologyModeling of learning = cognitive scienceLimits of knowing = epistemologyHearer makes the meaning = post-modernismReality as social construction = constructivismReliable methodologies of describing = science*
Measuring understanding & agreement= science of subjectivity= second-order cybernetics
communication and control in animal and machine Norbert Wiener the science of observing systems Heinz von Foerster the art of defensible metaphors Gordon Pask the study of the immaterial aspects of systems W. Ross Ashby only practiced in Russia and other under-developed countries--- Marvin Minsky
1.pespmc1.vub.ac.be/CYBSYSTH.html2. link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00423. cyvision.if.sc.usp.br4. www.evolutionaryethics.com5. www.xmission.com/~cyberman6. Wikipedia.org7. http://www.gwu.edu/~asc/asc-foundation.html
*In this slide we first understand what is cybernetics and then we can move ahead to Definition of Cybernetics*Today I m gonna speak on foundation of cybernetics. What I will discuss about is what is cybernetics and its applications. So we start with definition of cybernetics and what actually is cybernetics. In this slide explain control theory and system theory.What is system theory and control theory.*Its works on Feedback in systems. Positive Feedback and Negative Feedback.Positive feedback:amplifies change in the environment.Negative Feedback : Counteracts the change in environment.**Nobert Weiner was the first president of American society of Cybernetics.Warren McCulloch was second president of american society of Cybernetics*