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Formulation and calculation of isoparametric finite element matrixes: - Truss elements - Continuum elements - triangular elements Today‘ lesson: Short: properties of truss and triangular elements Coordinate systems Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix Form functions and their properties Jacobian operator Triangular elements Illustration of use

# Formulation and calculation of isoparametric finite …webarchiv.ethz.ch/ibk/emeritus/fa/education/Seminare/...Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix: Matrix Where

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• Formulation and calculationof isoparametric finite element matrixes: - Truss elements- Continuum elements - triangular elements

Today‘ lesson:

•Short: properties of truss and triangular elements•Coordinate systems•Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix•Form functions and their properties•Jacobian operator•Triangular elements•Illustration of use

• Some termsTruss element- displacement only in longitudinal axis; no moments, nodes are flexible- widely used in structural engineering for ex. bridgesTriangular elements in plane strain elements- two-dimensional stress in a xy plane with the stresses = 0

Coordinate systemsGlobal coordinate system = Cartesian coordinates: xyzLocal element coordinate sytem (natural coordinate system): rst

• Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix: Transformation

Shape (or interpolation) functionsAt free nodal points = value 1

At other nodal points = value 0

Transformation: how to express CSnatural in CSglobal

Bar global displacement, expressed in same way as global coordinates = Basis of isoparametric finite

element formulation

• Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix: Matrix1. Element strains

• Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix: Matrix

Where A = bar area and E = Modulus of elasticity are taken as constant;

J = Jacobian Operator

3. Obtain K with volume integral (not necessary in this case, but for demo)

2. Strain displacement transformation matrix

J is the Jacobian Operator relating an element length in CSglobal to an elementlength in CSnatural

Here: dX = J dr we know it already: J = L / 2

• Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix: Excursion on Jacobian operator

J = Jacobian Operator relating element length in CSglobal to element length in CSnatural

For stiffness matrix, strain-displacement transformation matrix has to be calculatedElement strains are obtained by derivates of element displacements, with respect

to local coordinates

It is: And:

We need: chain rule

• Isoparametric derivation of bar element stiffness matrix: Matrix

4. In generalized coordinates

• Formulation of continuum elements: Straight truss and cableelements

Unknown in is the interpolation function hiRemember: node i = 1, other nodes = 0

• Formulation of continuum elements: Straight truss and cableelements

• Formulation of continuum elements: Triangular elements bycollapsing quadrilateral elementsCollapsing any one side of a four-node element will always result in a constantstrain triangle (Dreieck konstanter Verzerrung)

• Formulation of continuum elements: Triangular elements bycollapsing quadrilateral elements

-use interpolation function

-collapse the 2 nodes: x2=x3 and y2=x3- express x and y with r and s:

-calculate J and J-1 for r and s

-use the same interpolation functions for u and v

-(isoparametric concept)

-evaluate derivates fo the displacements u and v to r and s

• Formulation of continuum elements: Triangular elements by area coordinates

expressing area in terms of x and y:

• Formulation of continuum elements: Triangular elements by area coordinates

Following procedure is the same: with

The finite element matrixes can be evaluated

For natural CS we use Jacobian operator

Integrations are made over natural coordinates

• Illustration of use: exampleLoad-strain relationships obtained from the displacements ofthe measurement net.

• Illustration of use: example

• Illustration of use: example

• Thanks!

Literature:Bathe, K.-J. (1990): Finite-Elemente-Methoden. Springer VerlagFröhlicher, P. (2005): FEM Anwendungspraxis. Deutsch-englische Ausgabe. ViewegVerlagNebojsa Mojsilovic (1994): Versuche an kombiniert beanspruchtenMauerwerkswänden. IBK, ETH ZürichZahlten, W.: Lineare Finite-Elemente-Methoden. Skript RWTH Aachen ##### “Formulation and calculation of isoparametric finite …webarchiv.ethz.ch/ibk/emeritus/fa/education/Seminare/...“Formulation and calculation of isoparametric finite element matrixes”-Formulation
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