Forest and Mineral ResourcesWorld Geography 3200Chapter 10
Locations & Features of Forests (p.162)The type of forest growing in any one region of the world reflects the unique environmental conditions of that region.For example, coniferous trees are adapted to our cold, moist boreal ecosytemPure Stands: a single species of tree that dominates an area.These develop because different tree species have different needs with elevation, slope, drainage, rainfall,
Locations and Features of ForestsDo questions 1 & 2, page 163
Deforestation (p.163)= the conversion of forested land to other uses.Examples include agriculture, human settlement, mining operations, hydroelectric power developments,Do #6 & 7, page 163
Tree Harvesting (p.165)Clearcutting: the Harvesting of all timber in an area at the same time.
Tree HarvestingStrip-Cutting: strips of forest 20-100m wide are clearcut, leaving undisturbed forest strips between
Tree HarvestingSelective Cutting: selected trees are harvested from a forest site.
Mineral ResourcesMinerals are the inorganic chemical elements or compounds found in Earths crust.There are over 2000 minerals, categorized into 4 main categories:MetallicNon-MetallicFossil FuelStructural
Metallic MineralsFound near earths crustCarry electric charges and heatAre usually lustrous (shiny)Examples are gold, aluminum, iron ore,
Non-Metallic MineralsFound deep in the groundPoor conductors of electricity and heatLack lustre (not shiny)Examples are potash, salt, peat,
Fossil FuelsFound deep under the Earths surfaceFormed from decomposed organic materialsStore huge amounts of solar energy, from which the original carbon was formed through photosynthesisExamples are crude oil, coal, natural gas, uranium,
Structural MineralsFound on or near the earths surfaceComposed of mineral grains cemented togetherUseful for building materials like gyprocExamples are gypsum, limestone, clay,
Finding MineralsFinding minerals like gold might involve the following steps:Prospectors analyse topography to find probable gold depositsRemote detection techniques are used, such as magnetic surveys, seismic measurements and radiation testsCore samples are drilled from the ground and checked for metal anomaliesIf these are found to be positive, a claim is registered with the government
Extracting MineralsOpen-Pit MiningUsed for minerals near the earths surfaceSurface material is removed and rock is extracted in layersOnce finished, huge holes and piles of waste rock are left
Extracting MineralsUnderground MiningUsed to extract minerals deep beneath the surfaceLittle waste rock is left over, but this is very expensive and dangerous