of 1 /1
55 and phosphuret to which most of us still adhere, and are much more likely to be confounded with sulphite and phosphite. No chemist can be, and no physician should be, without a know- ledge of qualitative analysis, and the work before us, in its present state, may be regarded as a very complete epitome of the whole subject. An Essay to Prove the Contagious Character of Malignant Clwlera, with Brief Instruction for its Prevention and Cure. By BERNARD M. BYRNE, MD., Surgeon, U. S. Army. Second Edition. Philadelphia, 1855. pp. 160. WITHOUT giving our assent to all the detailed opinions of the author relative to the contagiousness of cholera maligna, we accord in the general proposition that the disease may be, and not unfrequently is, communicated to a previously healthy individual through the medium of emanations given off from the bodies of those already sick of the disease. That this is the general or usual way in which the pestilence spreads, how- ever, we are not satisfied, in spite of what is here said relative to the subject, and the assertion " that myriads of human lives have been sacrificed by not acting in accordance" with the views of such ultra-contagionism. The doctrine ive would teach, however, receives but little support from Dr. Byrne, (p. 113,) whose treatise we can nevertheless recommend to all interested in this difficult and much-litigated question. Heller’s Pathological Chemistry of the Urine, with short and easy Directions for its Examination. To which is appended a brief Account of some of the other Exc2,etions, and of the Blood and Milk. By LUDWIG DAHL. Translated from the Norwegian, by W. D. MOORE, A.B., M.B., &c. Pamphlet, pp. 100. Dublin. 1855. WE need not recommend this production to the attention of our readers, since it contains nothing with which they are not already familiar. The classical work of the late Dr. Golding Bird, with its European reputation, must still remain the text- book for those who would thoroughly study the pathology and chemistry of Urinary Deposits; while the busy practitioner, with too little leisure for the perusal of monographs, may learn much from the brief, but well-condensed summary of the sub- ject in Dr. Tanner’s "Manual of Clinical Medicine," which we recently noticed. It cannot but be regretted, therefore, that any gentleman should waste his time in translating from the Norwegian a pamphlet which only serves to encumber our book-shelves, though, doubtless, admirably adapted to instruct those for whom it was originally written. On the Influence of Education and Training in Preventing Diseases of the Nervous System. By ROBERT BRUDENELL CARTER, M.R.C.S.E. pp. 438. London: Churchill. 1855. MR. CARTER, in his preface, puts forward a plea for critical mercy, on the score of Lis work having been hastily completed, previous to his hurried departure for the Crimea. If we are to allow this allegation to have any weight-as we are inclined to do-we must say but little of the present production; for since we cannot award praise where merit has not been shown, so also we are unwilling to say aught that can hurt the feelings of a gentleman, who, we are convinced, must be much better employed in alleviating the sufferings of our soldiers before Sebastopol, than in compiling heavy treatises on the Surrey side of our cloaca magna. Foreign Department. A NEW METHOD OF USING THE CATHETER, AND INSTANTANEOUS CURE OF STRICTURES. M. MAISONNEUVE communicated on the 14th of May, 1855, to the Academy of Sciences of Paris, a memoir, in which he describes his method of catheterism, which may briefly be sketched as follows :-The author, being struck by the advan- tages of passing a tube over a conductor in the treatment of stricture, (as practised by Mr. T. Wakley in this country,) pro- poses, when the stricture is very narrow, to introduce a filiform bougie into the bladder, to screw a metallic instrument to the free end of it, and to push on that instrument along the canal, making the bougie recede into the bladder, in the cavity of which it is expected to bend upon itself. The instrument used may be either of those which have been proposed to dilate strictures or to cut through them. The author thinks, how- ever, that bad coarctations should be divided from before backwards, and he operates in the following manner :- When the bougie has reached the bladder, a grooved urethro- tome is pushed onwards through as many strictures as the canal may present, the bougie bending upon itself in the bladder. Along the groove, a rod, furnished with a sharp blade at its extremity, is pushed on, and made to cut the urethral obstacles. When this is done, the grooved urethro- tome is withdrawn, and a second introduced, to the extremity of which a hidden blade is attached. As soon as the instru- ment is fairly in the canal, the blade is protruded by means of a spring; and on withdrawing this urethrotome cache, the strictures are again fully divided. The peculiarity of the method is that the author considers that the freedom of the canal after these incisions would be prevented by leaving an instrument on the raw surfaces; he thinks that the part should be allowed to heal without any catheter, and maintains that the cure is instantaneous, as the patient is immediately able to pass urine in a good stream. The Academy of Sciences have appointed a committee to report upon this method, M. Civiale being one of the members. TREATMENT OF OLD UNUNITED FRACTURE BY THE SUTURE 01 THE FRAGMENTS AFTER OBLIQUE RESECTION. M. LAUGIER has submitted to the Academy of Sciences o: Paris a case of ununited fracture of two years’ standing, ir which he performed the above operation. Before detailing th( case, the author stated that Mr. Kearny Rodgers, in 1825, had succeeded in obtaining union by resecting the fragments of th( humerus, and keeping them together by a silver wire; the patient was fifteen years old, and consolidation was obtained after sixty-nine days. Valentine Mott had a similar favourable case in 1831. M. Flaubert, of Rouen, has also operated upon the humerus; he brought the fragments together after resection by means of four waxed threads, and kept the bones in accu rate contact, but union did not take place. It is to be noticed that the fragments were always sawn perpendicularly to the axis of the shaft. It was M. Flaubert who first remarked thai the chances of union would perhaps be greater if the bones were resected obliquely, so as to bring them in contact over a larger surface. M. Laugier observes, with much truth, thai by sawing obliquely we do not shorten the bone, and rendeI the operation easier, less protracted, and less dangerous. It will be recollected that the wire has been used by Mr. Stanley in a case of ununited fracture of the femur; the case was reported in the "Mirror" of this journal, and necessitated eventual amputation, (THE LANCET, vol. ii. 1854, p. 81.) M. Laugier’s patient is a man of forty-one; the fracture had occurred just below the insertion of the deltoid, and the frag- ments had remained separated for almost two inches, the limb being quite useless. The seton had failed twice, the scraping of the ends of the fragments having been superadded at the second operation. At last M. Laugier resected both fragments obliquely, taking off so much bone as to re-establish the con. tinuity of the cylinder. A perforation was then made through each fragment, and a ligature, composed of several waxed threads, was then passed through the orifices, and the bones kept in close approximation. The ligature, which had been allowed to hang out of the wound, fell at the end of three weeks, and, the loop having been found entire, it was concluded that the thread must have worked its way through the bones. The arm was then put in a gutta percha apparatus, with a movable valve, to allow the limb to be examined; the suppuration never was profuse, and the sympathetic fever trifling. It may be remarked that the oblique section does not of course require the complete and circular denudation of the bones, which takes place in the horizontal section. On the forty-second day after the operation consolidation seemed in a fair way of formation, and M. Laugier thinks that in about one month the union will be complete. It is to be reo gretted that the author did not wait for the completion of the case before mentioning it at the Academy. We hope, however, that he will give the ultimate results to the professional world.

Foreign Department

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and phosphuret to which most of us still adhere, and are muchmore likely to be confounded with sulphite and phosphite. Nochemist can be, and no physician should be, without a know-ledge of qualitative analysis, and the work before us, in its

present state, may be regarded as a very complete epitome ofthe whole subject.

An Essay to Prove the Contagious Character of MalignantClwlera, with Brief Instruction for its Prevention and Cure.By BERNARD M. BYRNE, MD., Surgeon, U. S. Army.Second Edition. Philadelphia, 1855. pp. 160.

WITHOUT giving our assent to all the detailed opinions ofthe author relative to the contagiousness of cholera maligna,we accord in the general proposition that the disease may be,and not unfrequently is, communicated to a previously healthyindividual through the medium of emanations given off fromthe bodies of those already sick of the disease. That this isthe general or usual way in which the pestilence spreads, how-ever, we are not satisfied, in spite of what is here said relativeto the subject, and the assertion " that myriads of humanlives have been sacrificed by not acting in accordance" withthe views of such ultra-contagionism. The doctrine ive would

teach, however, receives but little support from Dr. Byrne,(p. 113,) whose treatise we can nevertheless recommend to allinterested in this difficult and much-litigated question.

Heller’s Pathological Chemistry of the Urine, with short andeasy Directions for its Examination. To which is appendeda brief Account of some of the other Exc2,etions, and of theBlood and Milk. By LUDWIG DAHL. Translated fromthe Norwegian, by W. D. MOORE, A.B., M.B., &c.

Pamphlet, pp. 100. Dublin. 1855.

WE need not recommend this production to the attention ofour readers, since it contains nothing with which they are notalready familiar. The classical work of the late Dr. GoldingBird, with its European reputation, must still remain the text-book for those who would thoroughly study the pathology andchemistry of Urinary Deposits; while the busy practitioner,with too little leisure for the perusal of monographs, may learnmuch from the brief, but well-condensed summary of the sub-ject in Dr. Tanner’s "Manual of Clinical Medicine," which werecently noticed. It cannot but be regretted, therefore, thatany gentleman should waste his time in translating from theNorwegian a pamphlet which only serves to encumber ourbook-shelves, though, doubtless, admirably adapted to instructthose for whom it was originally written.

On the Influence of Education and Training in PreventingDiseases of the Nervous System. By ROBERT BRUDENELLCARTER, M.R.C.S.E. pp. 438. London: Churchill. 1855.

MR. CARTER, in his preface, puts forward a plea for criticalmercy, on the score of Lis work having been hastily completed,previous to his hurried departure for the Crimea. If we are to

allow this allegation to have any weight-as we are inclined todo-we must say but little of the present production; for sincewe cannot award praise where merit has not been shown, soalso we are unwilling to say aught that can hurt the feelings ofa gentleman, who, we are convinced, must be much betteremployed in alleviating the sufferings of our soldiers beforeSebastopol, than in compiling heavy treatises on the Surreyside of our cloaca magna.

Foreign Department.A NEW METHOD OF USING THE CATHETER, AND INSTANTANEOUS

CURE OF STRICTURES.

M. MAISONNEUVE communicated on the 14th of May, 1855,to the Academy of Sciences of Paris, a memoir, in which hedescribes his method of catheterism, which may briefly besketched as follows :-The author, being struck by the advan-

tages of passing a tube over a conductor in the treatment ofstricture, (as practised by Mr. T. Wakley in this country,) pro-poses, when the stricture is very narrow, to introduce a filiformbougie into the bladder, to screw a metallic instrument to thefree end of it, and to push on that instrument along the canal,making the bougie recede into the bladder, in the cavity ofwhich it is expected to bend upon itself. The instrument usedmay be either of those which have been proposed to dilatestrictures or to cut through them. The author thinks, how-ever, that bad coarctations should be divided from beforebackwards, and he operates in the following manner :-When the bougie has reached the bladder, a grooved urethro-

tome is pushed onwards through as many strictures as thecanal may present, the bougie bending upon itself in thebladder. Along the groove, a rod, furnished with a sharpblade at its extremity, is pushed on, and made to cut theurethral obstacles. When this is done, the grooved urethro-tome is withdrawn, and a second introduced, to the extremityof which a hidden blade is attached. As soon as the instru-ment is fairly in the canal, the blade is protruded by means ofa spring; and on withdrawing this urethrotome cache, thestrictures are again fully divided. The peculiarity of themethod is that the author considers that the freedom of thecanal after these incisions would be prevented by leaving aninstrument on the raw surfaces; he thinks that the part shouldbe allowed to heal without any catheter, and maintains thatthe cure is instantaneous, as the patient is immediately able topass urine in a good stream. The Academy of Sciences haveappointed a committee to report upon this method, M. Civialebeing one of the members.

TREATMENT OF OLD UNUNITED FRACTURE BY THE SUTURE 01

THE FRAGMENTS AFTER OBLIQUE RESECTION.

M. LAUGIER has submitted to the Academy of Sciences o:

Paris a case of ununited fracture of two years’ standing, irwhich he performed the above operation. Before detailing th(case, the author stated that Mr. Kearny Rodgers, in 1825, hadsucceeded in obtaining union by resecting the fragments of th(humerus, and keeping them together by a silver wire; thepatient was fifteen years old, and consolidation was obtainedafter sixty-nine days. Valentine Mott had a similar favourablecase in 1831. M. Flaubert, of Rouen, has also operated uponthe humerus; he brought the fragments together after resectionby means of four waxed threads, and kept the bones in accurate contact, but union did not take place. It is to be noticedthat the fragments were always sawn perpendicularly to theaxis of the shaft. It was M. Flaubert who first remarked thaithe chances of union would perhaps be greater if the boneswere resected obliquely, so as to bring them in contact over alarger surface. M. Laugier observes, with much truth, thaiby sawing obliquely we do not shorten the bone, and rendeIthe operation easier, less protracted, and less dangerous.

It will be recollected that the wire has been used by Mr.Stanley in a case of ununited fracture of the femur; the casewas reported in the "Mirror" of this journal, and necessitatedeventual amputation, (THE LANCET, vol. ii. 1854, p. 81.)M. Laugier’s patient is a man of forty-one; the fracture had

occurred just below the insertion of the deltoid, and the frag-ments had remained separated for almost two inches, the limbbeing quite useless. The seton had failed twice, the scrapingof the ends of the fragments having been superadded at thesecond operation. At last M. Laugier resected both fragmentsobliquely, taking off so much bone as to re-establish the con.tinuity of the cylinder. A perforation was then made througheach fragment, and a ligature, composed of several waxedthreads, was then passed through the orifices, and the boneskept in close approximation.The ligature, which had been allowed to hang out of the

wound, fell at the end of three weeks, and, the loop havingbeen found entire, it was concluded that the thread must haveworked its way through the bones. The arm was then put ina gutta percha apparatus, with a movable valve, to allow thelimb to be examined; the suppuration never was profuse, andthe sympathetic fever trifling. It may be remarked that theoblique section does not of course require the complete andcircular denudation of the bones, which takes place in thehorizontal section.On the forty-second day after the operation consolidation

seemed in a fair way of formation, and M. Laugier thinks thatin about one month the union will be complete. It is to be reogretted that the author did not wait for the completion of thecase before mentioning it at the Academy. We hope, however,that he will give the ultimate results to the professionalworld.