For Radio Communications
The ARRL Handbook
Published by:ARRLthe national association for Amateur RadioNewington, CT 06111 USA
EditorsH. Ward Silver, NAXMark J. Wilson, K1RO
Contributing EditorSteven R. Ford, WB8IMY
Editorial AssistantMaty Weinberg, KB1EIB
Technical ConsultantsMichael E. Gruber, W1MGEdward F. Hare, Jr, W1RFIZachary H.J. Lau, W1VT
Cover DesignSue Fagan, KB1OKWBob Inderbitzen, NQ1R
ProductionMichelle Bloom, WB1ENTNancy G. Hallas, W1NCYElaine LengylCarol Michaud, KB1QAWJodi Morin, KA1JPADavid F. Pingree, N1NASEd Vibert
Additional Contributors to the 2010 EditionChuck Adams, K7QOBob Allison, WB1GCMAlan Applegate, KBGAlan Bloom, N1ALDale Botkin, NXASKent Britain, WA5VJBJim Brown, K9YCWayne Burdick, N6KRRick Campbell, KK7BBentley ChanKok Chen, W7AYGeorge Cutsogeorge, W2VJNPaul Danzer, N1IIJerry DeHaven, WAACFJames Duffey, KK6MCTim Duffy, K3LRRichard Frey, K4XUDave Gordon-Smith, G3UURDoug Grant, K1DGJoel R. Hallas, W1ZRPaul Harden NA5NWes Hayward, W7ZOIScott Honaker, N7SSRon Hranac, NIVNDave Jones, KB4YZHal Kennedy, N4GG
Cover Info: Software, hardware, projects, theory, antennas, construction techniques The ARRL Handbook presents a wide variety of technical information for todays radio amateur.
Cover Photography: Clockwise from lower right corner: Antennas at W2RE by Ray Higgins, W2RE; ARRL Laboratory repair bench by Dave Pingree, N1NAS; Windows software screen capture by Grant Connell, WD6CNF; electromyogram unit for station control by Grant Connell, WD6CNF.
Kirk Kleinschmidt, NTZBob Larkin, W7PUACarl Leutzelschwab, K9LARick Lindquist, WW3DESteve London, N2ICPete Loveall, AE5PLJim Lux, W6RMKJim McClellan, N5MIJSteve Morris, K7LXCAnthony Monteiro, AA2TXChuck Mullett, KR6RDavid Newkirk, W9VESTom OHara, W6ORGDave Pascoe, KM3TGary Pearce, KN4AQUlrich Rohde, N1ULPhil Salas, AD5XRudy Severns, N6LFJohn Stanley, K4ERODavid Stockton GM4ZNXRich Strand, KL7RADan Tayloe, N7VEJoe Taylor, K1JTFrederick J. Telewski WA7TZYRandy Thompson, K5ZDJim Tonne, W4ENE
Copyright 2009 by The American Radio Relay League, Inc.
Copyright secured under the Pan-American Convention
International Copyright secured
All rights reserved. No part of this work may be reproduced in any form except by written permission of the publisher. All rights of translation are reserved.
Printed in the USA
Quedan reservados todos los derechos
ISBN10: 0-87259-139-5 SoftcoverISBN13: 978-0-87259-1448
ISBN10: 0-87259-140-9 HardcoverISBN13: 978-0-87259-1462
Introduction1 What is Amateur (Ham) Radio?
Fundamental Theory2 Electrical Fundamentals3 Analog Basics4 Digital Basics
Practical Design and Principles5 RF Design Techniques6 Computer-Aided Circuit Design7 Power Supplies8 Modulation9 Oscillators and Synthesizers10 Mixers, Modulators and Demodulators11 RF and AF Filters12 Receivers13 Transmitters14 Transceivers15 DSP and Software Radio Design16 Digital Modes 17 RF Power Amplifiers18 Repeaters
Antenna Systems and Radio Propagation19 Propagation of Radio Signals20 Transmission Lines21 Antennas
A detailed Table of Contents is included at the beginning of each chapter.
Equipment Construction and Maintenance22 Component Data and References23 Circuit Construction 24 Station Accessories 25 Test Equipment and Measurements26 Troubleshooting and Repair27 Electromagnetic Compatibility and Direction-Finding
Station Assembly and Management28 Safety29 Assembling a Station30 Space Communications31 Digital Communications32 Image Communications
ForewordTechnical resources used by radio amateurs have varied widely over the past century magazine articles, textbooks, ap-
plication notes, CD-ROMs, and Web pages have all provided training and tutoring. Yet one reference has been a constant companion to the Amateur Radio service since 1926 The ARRL Handbook, known as simply, the Handbook to hams and radio professionals alike. From its position on a workbench, in a technical library, or at the operating desk, there is nothing like the Handbooks immediacy and accessibility, providing instant consultation and guidance.
Mirroring the processes by which technology is applied to and integrated into Amateur Radio, each chapter takes one of two approaches to its subject: encyclopedic chapters present a broad view of technology, and practical chapters contain more specific techniques, designs, and projects. While the Handbook contains and preserves a wealth of time-tested mate-rial, it must be continually renewed and updated. This is especially necessary today due to the accelerating evolution of technology and the expanding scope of Amateur Radio.
Responding to the needs of todays amateurs, there is much that is new in this edition. Following the Introduction, the chapters have been organized into five major sections: Fundamental Theory, Practical Design and Principles, Antenna Systems and Radio Propagation, Equipment Construction and Maintenance, and Station Assembly and Management. Within each section, there is plenty of new and updated material. There are too many new items to list separately, but here are several examples representative of the changes throughout this edition:
A full suite of new or revised chapters address the burgeoning digital modes: Modulation (by Alan Bloom, N1AL); DSP and Software Radio Design (also by N1AL), Digital Modes (by Scott Honaker, N7SS, and Kok Chen, W7AY), and Digital Communications (by Steve Ford, WB8IMY). Theres also a new section on D-STAR digital repeaters by Pete Loveall, AE5PL and Jim McClellan, N5MIJ.
The ever-popular chapter on RF Power Amplifiers has gotten a thorough refreshing by experts John Stanley, K4ERO (vacuum tube technology) and Dick Frey, K4XU (solid-state amplifiers). Youll find new software, expanded design examples, and a new 250-W solid state amplifier project to get you started toward that bigger signal.
Power Supplies, a chapter that every ham turns to occasionally, received the attention of world-class authority Rudy Severns, N6LF. As a result, there is a detailed introduction to switch-mode power conversion arguably the most common power supply technology in the world and whose coverage was long overdue in the Handbook.
If youre learning electronics from the Handbook, as many do, the Fundamental Theory section sports reworked and expanded chapters on basic electronics and analog design (both by NAX), and digital design (by Dale Botkin, NXAS), including analog-digital conversion and microprocessor interfacing.
New resources for experimenters include a chapter on Computer-Aided Circuit design by Dave Newkirk, W9VES. The Component Data and References chapter received needed updates to the information on component characteristics and surface mount devices by Paul Harden, NA5N.
In recognition of the growing range of operating modes and activities, weve updated and expanded chapters on Space Communications (satellites by Steve Ford, WB8IMY and EME by Joe Taylor, K1JT) and Image Communications (ATV by Tom OHara, W6ORG and SSTV by Dave Jones, KB4YZ).
Nearly every chapter has been rewritten or reworked, with many projects making their first appearance in the Handbook. The books accompanying CD-ROM inside the back cover once again includes a searchable PDF version of the entire
book, including graphics. Construction information and PC board templates for all projects are included as are the original QST articles, if that was the projects source. Once again, Jim Tonne, W4ENE, has generously provided his powerful filter design and analysis software, Elsie, as well as other useful applications. Recognizing that the printed Handbook and CD-ROM support a dynamic activity, a Web page (www.arrl.org/tis/handbook) has been created to provide links and supplemental information that may change with time.
For more than eight decades, hams, hobbyists, engineers, and scientists have used the Handbook for both practical solu-tions and as a teacher to open doors of understanding. The many authors, editors, reviewers, and the production team have all worked together in hopes of making this edition your favorite.
David Sumner, K1ZZChief Executive OfficerNewington, ConnecticutSeptember 2009
The Amateurs CodeThe Radio Amateur is:
CONSIDERATEnever knowingly operates in such a way as to lessen the pleasure of others.
LOYALoffers loyalty, encouragement and support to other amateurs, local clubs, and the American Radio Relay League, through which Amateur Radio in the United States is represented nationally and internationally.
PROGRESSIVEwith knowledge abreast of science, a well-built and efficient station and operation above reproach.
FRIENDLYslow and patient operating when requested; friendly advice and counsel to the beginner; kindly assistance, cooperation and consideration for the interests of others. These are the hallmarks of the amateur spirit.
BALANCEDradio is an avocation, never interfering with duties owed to family, job, school or community.
PATRIOTICstation and skill always ready for service to country and community.
The original Amateurs Code was written by Paul M. Segal, W9EEA, in 1928.
Guide to ARRL Member Services
News CenterARRLWeb: www.arrl.org ARRL Letter and Audio News: www.arrl.org/arrlletter
Public Relations/AdvocacyGovernment Relations and Spectrum Protection: www.arrl.org/govrelations e-mail: email@example.comPublic and Media Relations: www.arrl.org/pio
Membership BenefitsMembership Benefits (all): www.arrl.org/benefitsARRL All Risk Ham Radio Equipment-Insurance: www.arrl.org/insurance ARRL Visa Credit Card: www.arrl.org/visa ARRL.NET E-mail Forwarding: www.arrl.org/arrlnet Awards: www.arrl.org/awardsContests: www.arrl.org/contests FCC License Renewal / Modification: www.arrl.org/arrlvec Hamfests/Conventions: www.arrl.org/hamfestsQSL Service: www.arrl.org/qsl Regulatory Information www.arrl.org/regulations
Technical Information Service www.arrl.org/tis e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org tel. 860-594-0214
Contributions, Grants and ScholarshipsARRL Development Office: www.arrl.org/development e-mail: email@example.com tel. 860-594-0397 ARRL Diamond Club Spectrum Defense Fund Education & Technology Fund Planned Giving/Legacy Circle Maxim Society
ARRL Foundation Grants and Scholarships: www.arrl.org/arrlf
Public ServicePublic Service Programs: www.arrl.org/publicserviceAmateur Radio Emergency Service (ARES): www.arrl.org/aresARRL Field Organization: www.arrl.org/volunteer
Clubs, Recruitment, Instructors and TeachersFind an Affiliated Club: www.arrl.org/clubsearchMentor Program: www.arrl.org/mentorFind a Licensing Class: www.arrl.org/coursesearchSupport to Instructors: www.arrl.org/instructorFind an Exam Session: www.arrl.org/examsearchVolunteer Examiner Coordinator (VEC): www.arrl.org/arrlvec
Publications & EducationQST Official Journal of ARRL: www.arrl.org/QST e-mail: QST@arrl.org QEX Forum for Communications Experimenters: www.arrl.org/qex e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org NCJ National Contest Journal: www.arrl.org/ncj e-mail: email@example.com Books, Software and Operating Resources: tel. 1-888-277-5289 (toll-free in the US); www.arrl.org/shop Advertising: www.arrl.org/ads e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.orgCertification and Continuing Education / Online Courses: www.arrl.org/cce
ARRL, 225 Main Street Newington, Connecticut 06111-1494, USA
tel. 860-594-0200, Mon-Fri 8 AM to 5 PM ET (except holidays)
FAX: 860-594-0303 e-mail: email@example.com ARRLWeb: www.arrl.org
Interested in Becoming a Ham? www.arrl.org/hamradio e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
tel. 1-800-326-3942 (toll-free in the US)
JOIN or RENEW or ORDER Publications
Toll Free 1-888-277-5289 (US)International callers
tel. +1 (860) 594-0355
The seed for Amateur Radio was planted in the 1890s, when Guglielmo Marconi began his experiments in wireless telegraphy. Soon he was joined by dozens, then hundreds, of others who were enthusiastic about sending and receiving messages through the airsome with a commercial interest, but others solely out of a love for this new communications medium. The United States government began licensing Amateur Radio operators in 1912.
By 1914, there were thousands of Amateur Radio operatorshamsin the United States. Hiram Percy Maxim, a leading Hartford, Connecticut inventor and industrialist, saw the need for an organization to band together this fledgling group of radio experimenters. In May 1914 he founded the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) to meet that need.
Today ARRL, with approximately 155,000 members, is the largest organization of radio amateurs in the United States. The ARRL is a not-for-profit organization that: promotes interest in Amateur Radio communications and experimentation represents US radio amateurs in legislative matters, and maintains fraternalism and a high standard of conduct among Amateur Radio operators.
At ARRL headquarters in the Hartford suburb of Newington, the staff helps serve the needs of members. ARRL is also International Secretariat for the International Amateur Radio Union, which is made up of simi-lar societies in 150 countries around the world.
ARRL publishes the monthly journal QST, as well as newsletters and many publications covering all aspects of Amateur Radio. Its headquarters station, W1AW, transmits bulletins of interest to radio amateurs and Morse code practice sessions. The ARRL also coordinates an extensive field organization, which includes volunteers who provide technical information and other support services for radio amateurs as well as communications for public-service activities. In addition, ARRL represents US amateurs with the Federal Communications Commission and other government agencies in the US and abroad.
Membership in ARRL means much more than receiving QST each month. In addition to the services already described, ARRL offers membership services on a personal level, such as the Technical Information Servicewhere members can get answers by phone, email or the ARRL website, to all their technical and operating questions.
Full ARRL membership (available only to licensed radio amateurs) gives you a voice in how the affairs of the organization are governed. ARRL policy is set by a Board of Directors (one from each of 15 Divisions). Each year, one-third of the ARRL Board of Directors stands for election by the full members they represent. The day-to-day operation of ARRL HQ is managed by an Executive Vice President and his staff.
No matter what aspect of Amateur Radio attracts you, ARRL membership is relevant and important. There would be no Amateur Radio as we know it today were it not for the ARRL. We would be happy to welcome you as a member! (An Amateur Radio license is not required for Associate Membership.) For more informa-tion about ARRL and answers to any questions you may have about Amateur Radio, write or call:ARRLThe national association for Amateur Radio225 Main StreetNewington CT 06111-1494Voice: 860-594-0200
Fax: 860-594-0259E-mail: email@example.comInternet: www.arrl.org/
Prospective new amateurs call (toll-free):800-32-NEW HAM (800-326-3942)You can also contact us via e-mail at firstname.lastname@example.org check out ARRLWeb at www.arrl.org/
About the ARRL
The ARRL HandbookIntroduction to the CD-Rom EditionUsing this CD-ROMFull-Text Searching
Front MatterCover ICover IITable of ContentsForewordThe Amateurs CodeSchematic SymbolsGuide to ARRL Member ServicesAbout the ARRL
Chapter 1--What is Amateur (Ham) Radio?Contents1.1 Do-It-Yourself Wireless1.2 Joining the Ham Radio Community1.3 Assembling Your Station1.4 Hello World!--Getting on the Air1.5 Your Ham Radio "Lifestyle"1.6 Public Service1.7 Ham Radio in the Classroom1.8 Resources
Chapter 2--Electrical Fundamentals Contents2.1 Introduction to Electricity2.2 Resistance and Conductance2.3 Basic Circuit Principles2.4 Power and Energy2.5 Circuit Control 2.6 AC Theory and Waveforms2.7 Capacitance and Capacitors2.8 Inductance and Inductors2.9 Working With Reactance2.10 Impedance2.11 Quality Factor (Q) of Components2.12 Practical Inductors2.13 Resonant Circuits2.14 Transformers2.15 Heat Management2.16 Radio Mathematics
Chapter 3--Analog BasicsContents3.1 Analog Signal Processing3.2 Analog Devices3.3 Practical Semiconductors3.4 Analog Systems3.5 Amplifiers3.6 Operational Amplifiers3.7 Analog-Digital Conversion3.8 Miscellaneous Analog ICs3.9 Analog Glossary3.10 References and Further Reading
Chapter 4--Digital BasicsContents4.1 Digital vs Analog4.2 Number Systems4.3 Physical Representation of Binary States4.4 Combinational Logic4.5 Sequential Logic4.6 Digital Integrated Circuits4.7 Microcontrollers4.8 Personal Computer Interfacing4.9 Glossary of Digital Electronics Terms4.10 Further Reading
Chapter 5--RF Design TechniquesContents5.1 Introduction5.2 Lumped-Element versus Distributed Characteristics5.3 Effects of Parasitic Characteristics5.4 Ferrite Materials5.5 Semiconductor Circuits at RF5.6 Impedance Matching Networks5.7 RF Transformers5.8 Noise5.9 Two-Port Networks5.10 RF Design Techniques Glossary5.11 References and Further Reading
Chapter 6--Computer-Aided Circuit DesignContents6.1 Circuit Simulation Overview6.2 Computer-Aided Design Examples6.3 From CAD to CAM: Using Circuit CAD Tools for Circuit Board Production6.4 References and Further Reading
Chapter 7--Power SuppliesContents7.1 The Need for Power Processing7.2 AC-AC Power Conversion7.3 Power Transformers7.4 AC-DC Power Conversion7.5 Voltage Multipliers7.6 Current Multipliers7.7 Rectifier Types7.8 Power Filtering7.9 Power Supply Regulation7.10 Crowbar Protective Circuits7.11 DC-DC Switchmode Power Conversion7.12 High-Voltage Techniques7.13 Batteries7.14 Glossary of Power Supply Terms7.15 References and Further Reading7.16 Power-Supply Projects
Chapter 8--ModulationContents8.1 Introduction8.2 Analog Modulation8.3 Digital Modulation8.4 Image Modulation8.5 Modulation Impairments8.6 Modulation Glossary8.7 References and Further Reading
Chapter 9--Oscillators and SynthesizersContents9.1 How Oscillators Work9.2 Phase Noise9.3 Oscillator Circuits and Construction9.4 Designing an Oscillator9.5 Quartz Crystals in Oscillators9.6 Oscillators at VHF and Above9.7 Frequency Synthesizers9.8 Present and Future Trends in Oscillator Application9.9 Oscillators and Synthesizers Glossary9.10 Bibliography and References
Chapter 10--Mixers, Modulators and DemodulatorsContents10.1 The Mechanism of Mixers and Mixing10.2 Mixers and Amplitude Modulation10.3 Mixers and Angle Modulation10.4 Putting Mixers, Modulators and Demodulators to Work10.5 A Survey of Common Mixer Types10.6 References
Chapter 11--RF and AF FiltersContents11.1 Introduction11.2 Filter Basics11.3 Lumped-Element Filters11.4 Filter Design Examples11.5 Active Audio Filters11.6 Quartz Crystal Filters11.7 SAW Filters11.8 Transmission Line Filters11.9 Helical Resonators11.10 Use of Filters at VHF and UHF11.11 Filter Projects11.12 Filter Glossary11.13 References and Further Reading
Chapter 12--ReceiversContents12.1 Introduction12.2 Basics of Heterodyne Receivers12.3 The Superheterodyne Receiver 12.4 Superhet Receiver Design Details12.5 Control and Processing Outside the Primary Signal Path12.6 Pulse Noise Reduction12.7 VHF and UHF Receivers12.8 UHF Techniques12.9 Notes
Chapter 13--TransmittersContents13.1 Introduction13.2 Early Transmitter Architectures13.3 Modulation Types and Methods Applied toTransmitter Design13.4 Modern Baseband Processing13.5 Increasing Transmitter Power13.6 Transmitter Performance and Measurement13.7 References
Chapter 14--TransceiversContents14.1 The Transceiver Appears14.2 Early SSB Transceiver Architectures14.3 Modern Transceiver Architecture andCapabilities14.4 Selecting an HF Transceiver14.5 Transceivers With VHF/UHF Coverage14.6 Transceiver Control andInterconnection14.7 Transceiver Projects14.8 References
Chapter 15--DSP and Software Radio DesignContents15.1 Introduction15.2 Typical DSP System Block Diagram15.3 Digital Signals15.4 Digital Filters15.5 Miscellaneous DSP Algorithms15.6 Analytic Signals and Modulation15.7 Software-Defined Radios (SDR)15.8 Notes and Bibliography15.9 Glossary
Chapter 16--Digital ModesContents16.1 Digital Modes16.2 Unstructured Digital Modes16.3 Fuzzy Modes16.4 Structured Digital Modes16.5 Networking Modes16.6 Glossary
Chapter 17--RF Power AmplifiersContents17.1 High Power, Who Needs It?17.2 Types of Power Amplifiers17.3 Vacuum Tube Basics17.4 Tank Circuits17.5 Transmitting Device Ratings17.6 Sources of Operating Voltages17.7 Tube Amplifier Cooling17.8 Amplifier Stabilization17.9 Design Example: A High Power Vacuum TubeHF Amplifier17.10 Solid-State Amplifiers17.11 A New 250-W Broadband Linear Amplifier17.12 Tube Amplifier Projects17.13 References and Further Reading
Chapter 18--RepeatersContents18.1 A Brief History18.2 Repeater Overview18.3 FM Voice Repeaters18.4 Glossary of FM and RepeaterTerminology18.5 D-STAR Repeater Systems18.6 References and Further Reading
Chapter 19--Propagation of Radio SignalsContents19.1 Fundamentals of Radio Waves19.2 Sky-Wave Propagation and the Sun19.3 MUF Predictions19.4 Propagation in the Troposphere19.5 VHF/UHF Mobile Propagation19.6 Propagation for Space Communications19.7 Noise and Propagation19.8 Glossary of Radio Propagation Terms19.9 Further Reading
Chapter 20--Transmission LinesContents20.1 Transmission Line Basics20.2 Choosing a Transmission Line20.3 The Transmission Line as ImpedanceTransformer20.4 Matching Impedances in the Antenna System20.5 Loads and Balancing Devices20.6 Using Transmission Lines in Digital Circuits20.7 Waveguides20.8 Glossary of Transmission Line Terms20.9 Further Reading
Chapter 21--AntennasContents21.1 Antenna Basics21.2 Dipoles and the Half-Wave Antenna21.3 Vertical (Ground-Plane) Antennas21.4 T and Inverted-L Antennas21.5 Slopers and Vertical Dipoles21.6 Yagi Antennas21.7 Quad and Loop Antennas21.8 HF Mobile Antennas21.9 VHF/UHF Mobile Antennas21.10 VHF/UHF Antennas21.11 VHF/UHF Yagis21.12 Glossary21.13 References and Further Reading
Chapter 22--Component Data and ReferencesContents22.1 Component Data22.2 Resistors22.3 Capacitors22.4 Inductors22.5 Transformers22.6 Semiconductors22.7 Tubes, Wire, Materials, Attenuators,Miscellaneous22.8 Computer Connectors22.9 RF Connectors and Transmission Lines22.10 Reference Tables
Chapter 23--CIrcuit ConstructionContents23.1 Electronic Shop Safety23.2 Tools And Their Use23.3 Soldering Tools and Techniques23.4 Surface Mount Technology (SMT)23.5 Electronic Circuits23.6 Mechanical Fabrication
Chapter 24--Station Accessories Contents24.1 A 100-W Compact Z-Match Antenna Tuner24.2 Transmitting Chokes24.3 A 160- and 80-M Matching Network forYour 43-Foot Vertical24.4 Switching the Matching Network for Your 43-Foot Vertical24.5 An External Automatic Antenna Switch for Use With Yaesu or ICOM Radios24.6 A Low-Cost Remote Antenna Switch24.7 Audible Antenna Bridge24.8 A Trio of Transceiver/Computer Interfaces24.9 A Simple Serial Interface24.10 USB Interfaces For Your Ham Gear24.11 The Universal Keying Adapter24.12 The TiCK-4 A Tiny CMOS Keyer24.13 The ID-O-Matic24.14 An Audio Intelligibility Enhancer24.15 An Audio Interface Unit for Field Day andContesting
Chapter 25--Test Equipment and Measurements Contents25.1 Test and Measurement Basics25.2 DC Instruments and Circuits25.3 AC Instruments and Circuits25.4 Frequency Measurement25.5 Other Instruments and Measurements25.6 Receiver Performance Tests25.7 Spectrum Analyzers25.8 Transmitter Performance Tests25.9 Test Equipment and Measurements Glossary
Chapter 26--Troubleshooting and Repair Contents26.1 Test Equipment26.2 Where to Begin26.3 Testing Within a Stage26.4 Typical Symptoms and Faults26.5 Troubleshooting Hints26.6 Components26.7 After the Repairs26.8 Professional Repairs26.9 References
Chapter 27--Electromagnetic Compatibiilty and Direction FindingContents27.1 The Scope of Electromagnetic Compatibility27.2 Responsibility for EMI27.3 Prepare Yourself27.4 EMI Fundamentals27.5 Troubleshooting EMI27.6 Overview of Techniques27.7 Specific Cures27.8 EMC Projects27.9 EMC Glossary27.10 Radio Direction Finding27.11 RDF Bibliography and Further Reading
Chapter 28--SafetyContents28.1 Electrical Safety28.2 Antenna and Tower Safety28.3 RF Safety
Chapter 29--Assembling a StationContents29.1 Fixed Stations29.2 Mobile Installations29.3 Portable Installations
Chapter 30--Space Communications Contents30.1 Amateur Satellite History30.2 Satellite Transponders30.3 Satellite Tracking30.4 Satellite Ground Station Antennas30.5 Satellite Ground Station Equipment30.6 Satellite Antenna Projects30.7 Satellite References30.8 Earth-Moon-Earth (EME) Communication30.9 EME Propagation30.10 Fundamental Limits30.11 Building an EME Station30.12 Getting Started30.13 EME Notes and References30.14 Glossary of Space CommunicationsTerminology
Chapter 31--Digital CommunicationsContents31.1 Sound Card Modes31.2 Packet Radio31.3 The Automatic Packet/Position ReportingSystem (APRS)31.4 PACTOR31.5 High Speed Multimedia (HSMM)31.6 Automatic Link Establishment (ALE)31.7 D-STAR31.8 APCO-2531.9 HF Digital Voice31.10 EchoLink, IRLP and WIRES-II31.11 Digital Communications Glossary31.12 Further Reading
Chapter 32--Image CommunicationsContents32.1 Fast-Scan Amateur Television Overview32.2 Amateur TV Systems32.3 ATV Applications32.4 Video Sources32.5 ATV Glossary32.6 Slow-Scan Television (SSTV) Overview32.7 SSTV Basics32.8 Analog SSTV32.9 Digital SSTV32.10 SSTV Glossary32.11 Further Reading
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