Food Nutrion - Food Pyramid

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    FOOD,NUTRITIONANDCOOKINGFOOD

    Foodisanysubstanceconsumedtoprovidenutritionalsupportforthebody.Itisusuallyof

    plantor

    animal

    origin,

    and

    contains

    essential

    nutrients,

    such

    as

    carbohydrates,

    fats,

    proteins,

    vitamins,orminerals.Thesubstanceisingestedbyanorganismandassimilatedbytheorganism's

    cellsinanefforttoproduceenergy,maintainlife,orstimulategrowth.

    NUTRITIONNutrition(alsocallednourishmentoraliment) istheprovision,tocellsandorganisms,of

    thematerialsnecessary(intheformoffood)tosupportlife.Manycommonhealthproblemscan

    bepreventedoralleviatedwithahealthydiet.

    Therearesixmajorclassesofnutrients:carbohydrates, fats,minerals,protein,vitamins,

    andwater.

    MacronutrientsandMicronutrients:Thesenutrient classescanbe categorizedaseithermacronutrients (needed in relatively

    large amounts) or micronutrients (needed in smaller quantities). The macronutrients include

    carbohydrates (including fiber), fats, protein, and water. The micronutrients are minerals and

    vitamins.

    Themacronutrients (excluding fiberandwater)provide structuralmaterial (amino acids

    fromwhichproteinsarebuilt,andlipidsfromwhichcellmembranesandsomesignalingmolecules

    arebuilt)andenergy.Vitamins,minerals,fiber,andwaterdonotprovideenergy,butarerequired

    for other reasons. A third class of dietarymaterial, fiber (i.e., nondigestiblematerial such as

    cellulose), is also required, for both mechanical and biochemical reasons, although the exact

    reasonsremainunclear.

    CarbohydratesCarbohydrates may be classified as monosaccharides, disaccharides, or polysaccharides

    dependingonthenumberofmonomer(sugar)unitstheycontain.Theyconstitutealargepartof

    foods such as rice, noodles, bread, and other grainbased products. Monosaccharides,

    disaccharides,andpolysaccharidescontainone,two,andthreeormoresugarunits,respectively.

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    Polysaccharidesareoften referredtoascomplexcarbohydratesbecause theyaretypically long,

    multiplebranchedchainsofsugarunits.

    FiberDietary

    fiber

    is

    acarbohydrate

    (or

    apolysaccharide)

    that

    is

    incompletely

    absorbed

    in

    humansand insomeanimals.Likeallcarbohydrates,when it ismetabolized itcanproduce four

    Calories (kilocalories)of energyper gram.However, inmost circumstances it accounts for less

    than that because of its limited absorption and digestibility. Dietary fiber consists mainly of

    cellulose, a large carbohydrate polymer that is indigestible because humans do not have the

    requiredenzymestodisassembleit.

    FatA

    molecule

    of

    dietary

    fat

    typically

    consists

    of

    several

    fatty

    acids

    (containing

    long

    chains

    of

    carbonandhydrogenatoms),bondedtoaglycerol.Theyaretypicallyfoundastriglycerides(three

    fattyacidsattachedtooneglycerolbackbone).Fatsmaybeclassifiedassaturatedorunsaturated

    dependingon thedetailed structure of the fatty acids involved. Saturated fats have all of the

    carbonatomsintheirfattyacidchainsbondedtohydrogenatoms,whereasunsaturatedfatshave

    someof thesecarbonatomsdoublebonded,so theirmoleculeshave relatively fewerhydrogen

    atomsthanasaturatedfattyacidofthesamelength.Unsaturatedfatsmaybefurtherclassifiedas

    monounsaturated (onedoublebond)orpolyunsaturated (manydoublebonds).Trans fatsarea

    type of unsaturated fat with transisomer bonds; these are rare in nature and in foods from

    naturalsources;

    they

    are

    typically

    created

    in

    an

    industrial

    process

    called

    (partial)

    hydrogenation.

    Thereareninekilocaloriesineachgramoffat.Fattyacidssuchasconjugatedlinoleicacid,catalpic

    acid,eleostearicacidandpunicicacid,inadditiontoprovidingenergy,representpotentimmune

    modulatorymolecules.

    Saturated fats (typically fromanimalsources)havebeenastaple inmanyworldcultures

    formillennia.Unsaturatedfats(e.g.,vegetableoil)areconsideredhealthier,whiletransfatsare

    tobe avoided. Saturated and some trans fatsare typically solid at room temperature (suchas

    butterorlard),whileunsaturatedfatsaretypicallyliquids(suchasoliveoilorflaxseedoil).Trans

    fatsare

    very

    rare

    in

    nature,

    and

    have

    been

    shown

    to

    be

    highly

    detrimental

    to

    human

    health,

    but

    havepropertiesusefulinthefoodprocessingindustry,suchasrancidityresistance.

    EssentialfattyacidsMost fatty acids are nonessential, meaning the body can produce them as needed,

    generallyfromotherfattyacidsandalwaysbyexpendingenergytodoso.However,inhumans,at

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    culturaltraditions.Cooksthemselvesalsovarywidelyinskillandtraining.Cookingcanalsooccur

    throughchemicalreactionswithoutthepresenceofheat,mostnotablyasinCeviche,atraditional

    SouthAmericandishwherefishiscookedwiththeacidsinlemonorlimejuice.Sushialsoutilizesa

    similarchemicalreactionbetweenfishandtheacidiccontentofriceglazedwithvinegar.

    Preparingfoodwithheatorfireisanactivityuniquetohumans,andsomescientistsbelievetheadventofcookingplayedanimportantroleinhumanevolution.Mostanthropologistsbelievethat

    cooking fires first developed around 250,000 years ago. The development of agriculture,

    commerceandtransportationbetweencivilizations indifferentregionsofferedcooksmanynew

    ingredients. New inventions and technologies, such as pottery for holding and boiling water,

    expandedcookingtechniques.Somemoderncooksapplyadvancedscientifictechniquestofood

    preparation.

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    FOODPYRAMID

    Afoodguidepyramidisapyramidshapedguideofhealthyfoodsdividedintosectionstoshowtherecommendedintakeforeachfoodgroup.

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    PHILIPPINEFOODPYRAMID

    TheFoodandNutritionResearchInstitute(undertheDOST)FoodPyramid: DailyEatingGuideforFilipinos

    Usingasimple

    graphic

    presentation,

    it

    makes

    itself

    understood

    and

    therefore

    easily

    followed

    by

    practicallyeverybody.Atthesametime,itlendsitselftoadaptationtosuitindividualneeds.ThustheFNRI

    has developed a food pyramid guide for the general Filipino population, building upon the various

    nutritionalguides thatwehavealreadydesigned.Westartedwith theBasic6, followedby theGuide to

    GoodNutritionwiththreemajorfoodgroupsof"Go,GlowandGrow"foods,theNutritionalGuidelinesfor

    Filipinos including five simple rules to follow, then followed by various guides for the prevention of

    diseases.

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    FOODGROUPS(GeneralFoodGroups)

    Foodgroupingbasedonnutrients:vitaminsandminerals,proteins,fatsandcarbohydrates

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    FOODGROUPS(GO,GROWANDGLOW)

    GoFoods

    Go Foods: Energy givers - give us energy

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    GrowFoods

    Grow Foods: Body builders - help to build our bodies and make them strong

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    GlowFoods

    Glow Foods: Protection of body - Protect us from getting sick

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    RECOMMENDEDENERGYANDNUTRIENTSINTAKE(RENI)FORFILIPINOS

    (Previously:RecommendedDietaryAllowances(RDA))

    By: Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI) of the DOST

    The revised edition of the dietary standards is changed from "Recommended Dietary Allowances(RDA)" to Recommended Energy and Nutrient Intakes (RENI) to emphasize that the standards are interms of nutrients, and not foods or diets. RENIs are defined as levels of intakes of energy and nutrientswhich, on the basis of current scientific knowledge, are considered adequate for the maintenance of healthand well being of nearly all healthy persons in the population. For most nutrients, they are equal to theaverage physiologic requirement (AR), corrected for incomplete utilization or dietary nutrient bioavailability,plus two standard deviations (SD), or twice an assumed coefficient of variation (CV), to cover the needs ofalmost all individuals in the population. In the case of nutrient for which data on AR are insufficient, the RNIis an "adequate intake" (AI) which is based on the experimentally observed average intake of healthyindividuals. For energy, the recommended intake level is set at the estimated average requirement ofindividuals in a group (no SD), since intakes consistently above the individuals r4equirement lead tooverweight or obesity.

    POPULATION GROUPINGS.

    The population groups essentially follow the (FAO/WHO, 2002) groupings. These are similar tothose of the 1989 Philippine RDA, except for the cut-off for children, which is now 18 years rather than 19years, consistent with the International Reference Standards (IRS) for growth.

    REFERENCE WEIGHTS.

    The reference weights for adults are the average weights derived from the 1998 National NutritionSurvey (NNS). These weights are higher by 3 kg in the male and 2 kg in the female than the referenceweights used in the 1989 Philippine RDA edition. The reference weights for children are set higher than theaverage weights following the International Reference Standards except in late adolescence.

    RECOMMENDED ENERGY AND NUTRIENT INTAKES.

    For most nutrients, recommended nutrient intakes (RNIs) for infants, from birth to

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    ENERGY

    The recommended energy requirement of an individual is the level of energy intake from food thatwill balance energy expenditure when the individual has a body size and composition, and level of physicalactivity, consistent with long-term good health as well as allow for the maintenance of economicallynecessary and socially desirable physical activity (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). The recommendation for infants

    is based on new estimates derived from total energy expenditure (TEE) by the doubly labeled water (DLW)method, and on energy deposition based on rates of protein and fat gains. The recommendations forchildren are based on an extensive review on energy expenditure, growth and activity patterns of free-living,healthy children and adolescents. Estimation of TEE also considered studies using DLW and heart ratemethods. Time-motion observations and activity diaries are used in these studies to gather information onthe activity patterns and habitual physical activities. For adults, the Oxford equation (Henry, 2001), which isbased on BMR data that included populations from the tropical areas, is used rather than the Schofieldequation (Schofield, Schofield, and J ames, 1985) used in earlier estimations. For older adults, the TEE isreduced in accordance with FAO recommendation (FAO/WHO, 1973). The recommended energy intakes atvarying level of physical activity are presented in

    Table 1.

    Population

    Group

    Body

    Weight

    (kg)

    ENERGY

    kcal/day (kcal/kg/day)

    Light Moderate Heavy

    Male, y

    19-29 59 2350 (40) 2490 (42) 2800 (47)

    30-49 59 2290 (39) 2420 (41) 2730 (46)

    50-64 59 2050 (35) 2170 (37) 2440 (41)

    65+ 59 1780 (30) 1890 (32) 2120 (36)

    Female, y

    19-29 51 1740 (34) 1860 (36) 2100 (41)

    30-49 51 1700 (33) 1810 (35) 2050 (40)

    50-64 51 1520 (30) 1620 (32) 1830 (36)

    65+ 51 1320 (26) 1410 (28) 1590 (31)

    PROTEIN

    A safe protein intake level for adults is defined as the lowest level of dietary protein intake that willbalance the losses of nitrogen from the body in persons maintaining energy balance at modest levels ofphysical activity (FAO/WHO/UNU, 1985). The recommended intake levels for children are based on the safelevel of protein intakes estimated by the FAO/WHO/UNU (1985) for a reference protein (egg or milk)adjusted for the protein quality of Filipino rice-based diets of 70% protein digestibility corrected amino acidscore (PDCAAS). These values are very close to estimates obtained from direct studies on Filipinos

    consuming usual rice-based diets.

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    VITAMIN A

    The recommended intake levels for vitamin A correspond to the safe levels of intake based on theaverage amounts of vitamin A required to maintain a given body-pool size in well-nourished individuals. Foradults, the RNI is equivalent to the estimated average requirement plus 2SDs. When recommendation for

    children are estimated by extrapolation from adult recommendations, the resulting values are lower than thereported intakes of children, 0 to 6 y in populations where evidence of vitamin A deficiency (VAD) is rare.The Committee therefore adopts the higher recommendation given by the FAO/WHO (2002).

    VITAMIN C

    The 1989 RDA which was based on the amount that would maintain acceptable serumvitamin C levels in Filipino men and women, is retained. These values are higher than the FAO/WHO RNIwhich is based on intake associated with adequate liver stores and associated with antioxidant protection.The recommendations for children, 1-9 y, are based on the 2002 FAO/WHO RNIs, while those for olderchildren are extrapolated from adult values.

    THIAMIN (VITAMIN B1)

    The Institute of Medicine, Food and Nutrition Board (IOM-FNB) (1998) and FAO/WHO (2002)recommendations, which are both based on the average requirement for normal erythrocyte transketolase(ETK) activity and urinary thiamin excretion and twice an assumed CV of 10% to cover the needs of 97.5%of individuals in the group, are adopted. The IOM-FNB and FAO/WHO-derived estimates, adjusted forPhilippine reference body weighs, are similar to the 1989 RDAs which were then based on a local studydone in the '60s on 10 adult Filipinos. The recommended intake level for infants from birth to six months isbased on the reported mean thiamin content of breast milk obtained from mothers without beriberi. It may benecessary to give supplements as a protective measure against infantile beriberi.

    RIBOFLAVIN (VITAMIN B2)

    The RNI is derived from the requirement estimate of the IOM-FNB (1998) which is based on theamount of riboflavin intake to maintain riboflavin status of satisfactory erythrocyte glutathione reductaseactivity (EG-AC) level, as criterion of adequacy. These intake levels, which conform with the FAO/ WHO(2002) recommendations, are close to the 1989 recommendations which were based on requirementestimates obtained from Filipino adults consuming rice-based diets.

    NIACIN

    The FAO/WHO (2002) and IOM-FNB (1998) estimates, which are based on the amount of niacinintake corresponding to an excretion of N'methyl-nicotinamide that is above the minimal excretion at whichdeficiency symptoms occur, are also adopted for Filipinos. These values are lower than the 1989 RDAbecause no correction is made for bioavailability. The bioavailability of niacin is not considered in setting theRDA because of "lack of data on which to base the correction value" (IOM-FNB), 1998.FOLATE.The FAO/WHO (2002) and IOM-FNB (1998) recommendations are also adopted for Filipinos. Therequirement estimates of these two bodies are derived from the amount of folate that will maintain adequatefolate stores based on erythrocyte folate and plasma homocysteine levels. To meet the new higher

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    recommendations, higher intakes of vegetables and fruits, which are among the best sources of folate, arerecommended.

    CALCIUM

    The RNIs for Filipinos are allowances based on theoretical calcium requirement estimates which

    considered low animal protein intake levels. The FAO/WHO (2002) provided these estimates for possibleapplication to countries where the animal protein intake per capita is around 20-40 g only compared with 60-80 g in developed countries. These allowances take into account the need to protect children in whomskeletal needs are much more important determinants of calcium requirement than are urinary losses and inwhom calcium supplementation has been found to have a beneficial effect in children accustomed to lowcalcium intakes.

    IRON

    The recommended intake for iron is based on the amount of dietary iron needed to meet absorbediron requirements. This would correspond to the amount needed to cover basal losses plus growth for

    children and menstrual losses for women of reproductive age, adjusted for bioavailability of iron in typicalcomplete meals consumed by Filipinos. The Philippine RNI for iron is based on FAO/WHO (2002) estimatesfor basal losses, local data on menstrual losses and on bioavailability, iron absorption rates in the averageFilipino diets, food consumption surveys, and in-vitro studies on non-heme iron availability from rice-baseddiets. For infants, it is assumed that the iron provided by breast milk is adequate to meet the iron needs ofinfants exclusively fed human milk from birth to 6 mo. The consumption of iron-rich foods and iron-fortifiedfoods is recommended for women from adolescence onwards. Iron supplementation is recommended tomeet the needs of pregnant and lactating women. The estimated iron requirement during the first trimester ofpregnancy and the first six months of lactation are actually lower than the requirement for menstruating non-pregnant, non-lactating women. However, the recommended intake for non-pregnant and non-lactating

    women are adopted to allow for build-up of iron stores during these periods.

    IODINE

    The FAO/WHO (2002) recommendations which concur with those of the IOM-FNB are adopted forall population groups, except pregnant and lactating women. The recommended intake level foradultscorresponds to the intake necessary to maintain plasma iodide level above the critical limit likely to beassociated with the onset of goiter. It corresponds to the daily iodine urinary excretion of 100 g/L.The recommended energy and nutrient intakes levels of the above nutrients are summarized in Table 2.

    Table 2: DESIRABLE CONTRIBUTION OF CARBOHYDRATES, FATS AND PROTEIN

    Carbohydrates 55-70%Fats and fatty acids 30-40% for infants

    20-30% for all others

    Protein 10-15%

    CARBOHYDRATES

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    Carbohydrates may contribute 55-70% of TDE, 70% of which should come from complexcarbohydrates and not more than 10% should come from simple sugars. Following IOM-FNB (2002) andFAO/WHO (2002) recommendations, a daily intake of 20-25 g dietary fiber for adults is also suggested.

    FATS AND FATTY ACIDS

    The recommended intake for Filipinos is 20-30% of TDE for all age groups, except for infants whichis 30-40% following the FAO/WHO recommendation. The lower limit for adults is slightly higher than theminimum of 15% set by the FAO/WHO (2002) to promote absorption of vitamin A which has been found tobe generally low in the average Filipino diet. The upper limit is the maximum intake level recommended bymost dietary guidelines as a preventive measure against the risk of cardiovascular and other degenerativediseases.

    OTHER NUTRIENT RECOMMENDATIONS

    RNIs for nutrients not included in previous editions of the RDAs ar erecognized as essential forhealth.

    Table 2. Recommended Energy Nutrient Intakes

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    Table 3. Recommended Nutrient Intakes for Other Vitamins and Minerals

    RNIs for these nutrients are now available as a result of the development of more precise methodsof determining human nutritional requirements. In the light of the aggressive marketing of dietarysupplements, health care professionals need guidance on reasonable intakes of these nutrients. The 2002RENI thus provide information on recommendations for vitamins D, E, K, B6, and B12, and minerals such asphosphorus, magnesium, fluoride, zinc, selenium, manganese, as well as water and electrolytes.Local data on food composition, deficiency problems, or roles in chronic degenerative diseases, directstudies on requirements, and nutrient-nutrient interrelationship are not available for some of these nutrients.Recommendations of IOM-FNB, 1997-2002 and the FAO/WHO, 2002 are presented as guidelines.

    The RNIs for other vitamins and minerals are summarized in Table 3.

    VITAMIN D

    The FAO/WHO and IOM-FNB recommendation of 5 g/day for adults is based on the amount ofvitamin D intake necessary to maintain vitamin D status as indicated by a satisfactory level of serum 25-hydroxy-vitamin D (25-OH-D). The recommended intake levels, according to the IOM-FNB, will cover theneeds of adults "regardless of exposure to sunlight".

    VITAMIN E

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    The safe level of intake for vitamin E for adults is 12 mg/day. The term "safe" rather then "recommended" isused since the value is derived from data for the US population whose mean PUFA intake can be presumedto be higher than that of Filipinos since the major source in the Filipino diet is the medium-chain saturatedfat-rich coconut oil. High intakes of PUFA are typically accompanied by increased vitamin E intakes.

    VITAMIN K

    The FAO/WHO (2002) Expert Panel's recommendation set a daily intake of g/kg as basis forsetting RNI. The panel also advised that all breastfed infants should receive vitamin K supplementation atbirth according to nationally established guidelines.

    PYRIDOXINE (VITAMIN B6)

    The RNI for adults of 1.3 mg/day adopted by the FAO/WHO (1998) is based on the amount requiredfor normalization of the tryptophan load test.

    COBALAMIN (VITAMIN B12)

    The IOM-FNB recommendation of 2.4 g/day is based on the amount needed to maintainadequate hematological status. ZINC.The requirement for adults is based on the intake that will meet thedaily absorbed zinc requirements of 0-072 and 0.059 mg/kg for adult males and females, respectively, andadjusted for bioavailability of 30% following the recommendation of FAO/WHO (2002).

    SELENIUM

    The FAO/WHO recommendation of 31 g/day corresponds to the level of intake that providesadequate reserves based on satisfactory levels of plasma selenium, and of glutathione peroxidase activity.

    PHOSPHORUS

    The RNIs are based on the intake required to maintain serum inorganic phosphate within the normalrange. MAGNESIUM.The FAO/WHO (2002) recommendation is based on a requirement of 4 mg/kg bodyweight/ day for adults to achieve a positive magnesium balance.

    MANGANESE

    The IOM-FNB (2002) recommendations is based on the median intake of Americans derived fromthe US Food and Drug Administration Total Diet Study from 1991-1997.

    FLUORIDE

    IOM-FNB recommendations are based on "adequate intakes" that have been found to preventdental caries.

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    WATER AND ELECTROLYTES

    The recommended water intake for adults under average conditions of energy expenditure andenvironmental exposure is 2500 mL based on a recommended intake of 1 mL per kcal of energy expenditure(NRC, 1989) (Table 4). It may be increased to 3735 mL (1.5 mL/kcal) to cover variations in activity level,sweating, and solute load. Thirst is normally a good indicator of the amount of extra water needed to meet

    the daily requirement, except for older persons whose thirst mechanism may be impaired. For infants, arecommended intake of 1.5 mL/kcal of energy expenditure, which corresponds to the water-to-energy ratio inhuman milk, has been established as a satisfactory level for the growing infant.

    The minimum requirements for electrolytes do not include allowance for large, prolonged losses fromthe skin through sweat (Table 5). There is no evidence that higher intakes confer any health benefit. Foradults (>18y), desirable intakes of potassium may considerably exceed the minimum recommendations(~3500 mg). For children (