Food Ingredients and Functions

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Food Ingredients and FunctionsERT 426 FOOD ENGINEERING

FOOD INGREDIENTS: DEFINITION Food is any nutritious substance that people or animals eat or drink, or that plants absorb, in order to maintain life and growth. An ingredient is a component of a mixture or compound. Food ingredients are any of the components that are combined to make a particular dish (food). Eg.: To prepare meatball: Food: Meatball Food ingredients: minced meat, egg, salt, flour, etc.

FOOD INGREDIENTS: SOURCESAnimals (Milk, Eggs, Meat, Seafood)


(Fruits, Vegetables, Spices, Flour)(Flavours, Colours, Additives)

Fermented (Bacteria, Enzymes)


PLANT - Flour Thickening agent SYNTHETIC Additives Sweeteners FERMENTED Bacteria Ripening agent

Eggs: BinderMeatball Egg is used as a binding agent when mixing several ingredients together to form such items as meatloaf. The egg binder helps to hold the ingredient mixture in the prescribed shape.

Eggs: EmulsifierMayonnaise mix and stabilize ingredients such as oil and water (in the egg yolk), in order to keep them from separating

Eggs: GlazeCookies - An egg yolk glaze will create a shiny, golden crust. Egg white glazes make a shiny, crisp crust.

Flour: Thickening AgentSoup Flour is used as the thickening agent to increase the viscosity of the soup mixture without substantially modifying its other properties

Additives: Artificial sweetenersAspartame, a low-calorie artificial sweetener, has been permitted for use as a food additive in Canada since 1981. It is used in a number of foods including soft drinks, desserts, breakfast cereals and chewing gum. It is also available as a table-top sweetener.

Bacteria: Ripening agentCheese - Ripening is the process of acidification of milk in cheese by using bacteria. During this phase the bacteria consumes the lactose in milk, the bacteria produce lactic acid which in turn causes the milk protein to develop into curd. The byproducts of this ripening stage provide flavor compounds which enhance the character of the finished cheese.

Adding starter culture to the milk.

The whey is drained from the curds.

Then the curds are placed into molds to shape the cheese.

Cheeses aging in a cellar.

Types of Food Ingredients and What They Do


2. Sweeteners 3. Colour Additives

10. pH Control Agents and acidulants 11. Leavening Agents 12. Anti-caking agents

4. Flavours and Spices5. Flavour Enhancers 6. Fat Replacers (and components of formulations used to replace fats) 7. Nutrients 8. Emulsifiers 9. Stabilizers and Thickeners, Binders, Texturizers

13. Humectants 14. Yeast Nutrients 15. Dough Strengtheners and Conditioners 16. Enzyme Preparations 17. Gases 18. Curing agents

1. PreservativesNames on labels Ascorbic acid, citric acid, sodium benzoate, calcium propionate, sodium erythorbate, sodium nitrite, calcium sorbate, potassium sorbate, BHA, BHT, EDTA, tocopherols (Vitamin E) What they do? Prevent food spoilage from bacteria[Salmonella producing food poisoning], molds, fungi [Aspergillus aflatoxin], or yeast (antimicrobials); slow or prevent changes in colour, flavour, or texture and delay rancidity (antioxidants); maintain freshness Examples of uses Fruit sauces and jellies, beverages, baked goods, cured meats, oils and margarines, cereals, dressings, snack foods, fruits and vegetables Examples: Sodium benzoate used in margarine, soft drinks Sulphur dioxide used in fruit juice, dried fruits Calcium propionate mould and rope inhibitors in bread

2. Sweeteners Names Found on Product Labels Sucrose (sugar), glucose, fructose, sorbitol, mannitol, corn syrup, high fructose corn syrup, saccharin, aspartame, sucralose, acesulfame potassium (acesulfame-K), neotame

What they do? Add sweetness with or without the extra calories Examples of uses Beverages, baked goods, confections, table-top sugar, substitutes, many processed foods

2i. Sweeteners Include many sugars and hydrolyzed starches and also a number of chemical compounds found to have sweetening properties Nutritive sweeteners defined as products that have > 2% of the caloric value of sucrose per equivalent unit of sweetening capacity, e.g. high fructose corn syrup (HFCS) which is used as a replacement for sucrose in carbonated beverages

2ii. Sweeteners Nonnutritive sweeteners Naturally occurring or synthetic compounds that have elevated sweetening power compared to sucrose, e.g. saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame, stevioside Used in low- or reduced- calorie foods

3. Colour Additives Names Found on Product Labels SYNTHETIC: Certified colours are synthetically produced (or human made) and used widely because they impart an intense, uniform colour, are less expensive, and blend more easily to create a variety of hues. Certified food colours generally do not add undesirable flavours to foods. Examples: FD&C Blue Nos. 1 and 2, FD&C Green No. 3, FD&C Red Nos. 3 and 40, FD&C Yellow Nos. 5 and 6, Orange B, Citrus Red No. 2 NATURAL: Colours that are exempt from certification include pigments derived from natural sources such as vegetables, minerals or animals. Nature derived colour additives are typically more expensive than certified colours and may add unintended flavours to foods. Examples of exempt colours include annatto extract (yellow), dehydrated beets (bluish-red to brown), caramel (yellow to tan), beta-carotene (yellow to orange) and grape skin extract (red, green), saffron (orange), fruit / vegetable juices.

3i. Colour Additives What they do? Offset colour loss due to exposure to light, air, temperature extremes, moisture and storage conditions; correct natural variations in colour; enhance colours that occur naturally; provide colour to colourless and "fun" foods Examples of uses Many processed foods, (candies, snack foods margarine, cheese, soft drinks, jams/jellies, gelatins, pudding and pie fillings)

ARTIFICIAL COLORINGS: Most artificial colorings are synthetic chemicals that do not occur in nature. Because colorings are used almost solely in foods of low nutritional value (candy, soda pop, gelatin desserts, etc.), you should simply avoid all artificially colored foods. In addition to problems mentioned below, colorings cause hyperactivity in some sensitive children. The use of coloring usually indicates that fruit or other natural ingredient has not been used.

4. Flavours and Spices Names Found on Product Labels Natural flavouring, artificial flavour, and spices What they do? Add specific flavours (natural and synthetic) Examples of uses Pudding and pie fillings, gelatin dessert mixes, cake mixes, salad dressings, candies, soft drinks, ice cream, BBQ sauce

5. Flavour Enhancers Names Found on Product Labels Monosodium glutamate (MSG), hydrolyzed soy protein, autolyzed yeast extract, disodium guanylate or inosinate What they do? Enhance flavours already present in foods (without providing their own separate flavour) Examples of uses Many processed foods

6. Fat Replacers (and components of formulations used to replace fats) Names Found on Product Labels Olestra, cellulose gel, carrageenan, polydextrose, modified food starch, microparticulated egg white protein, guar gum, xanthan gum, whey protein concentrate What they do? Provide expected texture and a creamy "mouth-feel" in reducedfat foods Examples of uses Baked goods, dressings, frozen desserts, confections, cake and dessert mixes, dairy products

7. Nutrients Names Found on Product Labels Thiamine hydrochloride, riboflavin (Vitamin B2), niacin, niacinamide, folate or folic acid, beta carotene, potassium iodide, iron or ferrous sulfate, alpha tocopherols, ascorbic acid, Vitamin D, amino acids (L-tryptophan, L-lysine, L-leucine, L-methionine) What they do? Replace vitamins and minerals lost in processing (enrichment), add nutrients that may be lacking in the diet (fortification) Examples of uses Flour, breads, cereals, rice, macaroni, margarine, salt, milk, fruit beverages, energy bars, instant breakfast drinks

8. Emulsifiers Names Found on Product Labels Gelatin, pectin, guar gum, carrageenan, xanthan gum, whey What they do? i. Allow smooth mixing of ingredients, prevent separation ii. Keep emulsified products stable, reduce stickiness, control crystallization, keep ingredients dispersed, and to help products dissolve more easily Examples of uses Frozen desserts, dairy products, cakes, pudding and gelatin mixes, dressings, jams and jellies, sauces

9. pH Control Agents and acidulants Names Found on Product Labels Lactic acid, citric acid, ammonium hydroxide, sodium carbonate What they do? Control acidity and alkalinity, prevent spoilage Examples of uses Beverages, frozen desserts, chocolate, low acid canned foods, baking powder

10. Leavening Agents Names Found on Product Labels Baking soda, monocalcium phosphate, calcium carbonate What they do? Promote rising of baked goods Examples of uses Breads and other baked goods

11. Anti-caking agents Names Found on Product Labels Calcium silicate, iron ammonium citrate, silicon dioxide What they do? Keep powdered foods free-flowing, prevent moisture absorption Examples of uses Salt, baking powder, confectioner's sugar

12. Humectants Names Found on Product Labels Glycerin, sorbitol What they do? Retain moisture Examples of uses Shredded coconut, marshmallows, soft candies, confections

13. Yeast Nutrients Names Found on Product Labels Calcium sulfate, ammonium phosphate What they do? Promote growth of yeast Examples of uses Breads and other baked goods

14. Dough Strengtheners and Conditioners Names Found on Product Labels