Florida State University Libraries - 183924/datastream/PDF/...آ  Florida State University Libraries

Embed Size (px)

Text of Florida State University Libraries - 183924/datastream/PDF/...آ  Florida State University...

  • Florida State University Libraries

    Electronic Theses, Treatises and Dissertations The Graduate School

    2013

    Imagery Use in Unskilled and Skilled Golfers: General and Specific Measures Examining Extent, Direction, and Function Daniel George Vosgerichian

    Follow this and additional works at the FSU Digital Library. For more information, please contact lib-ir@fsu.edu

    http://fsu.digital.flvc.org/ mailto:lib-ir@fsu.edu

  •  

    THE FLORIDA STATE UNIVERSITY

    COLLEGE OF EDUCATION

    IMAGERY USE IN UNSKILLED AND SKILLED GOLFERS:

    GENERAL AND SPECIFIC MEASURES

    EXAMINING EXTENT, DIRECTION, AND FUNCTION

    By

    DANIEL GEORGE VOSGERICHIAN

    A Dissertation submitted to the

    Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems Submitted in partial fulfillment of the

    requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy

    Degree Awarded: Spring Semester 2013

  •  

    ii 

    Daniel George Vosgerichian defended this dissertation on March 25, 2013.

    The members of the supervisory committee were:

    David W. Eccles

    Professor Directing Dissertation

    Gershon Tenenbaum

    Professor Co-Directing Dissertation

    James Whyte IV

    University Representative

    Robert C. Eklund

    Committee Member

    Jeannine Turner

    Committee Member

     

     

     

     

     

    The Graduate School has verified and approved the above-named committee members, and

    certifies that the dissertation has been approved in accordance with university requirements.

  •  

    iii 

    I dedicate this to my unbelievable family. Thank you mom and dad for all the support; I could

    not have done it without you. Thank you Stephanie and Andrea for all the love you have given

    me, I am grateful to have two of the best sisters on the face of this earth.

  •  

    iv 

    ACKNOWLEGDEMENTS

    I would like to acknowledge my committee. Thank you for all your support. I could not have

    done it without you. Special thanks to Dr. David Eccles who pushed me more than I ever knew I

    could be pushed and teaching me the finer points of scientific inquiry.

    I appreciate all the wonderful professors I have had before coming to Florida State University

    who shaped my view of applied sport and performance psychology: Robin Vealey, Robert

    Weinberg, Britt Brewer, Judy Van Raalte, Ann Moriarty, and Rick Paar.

    A special thanks to Bill Hughes for believing in me and showing me the true definition of

    graciousness and generosity. I appreciate the FSU PGA PGM Program, Don Farr, and Coach

    Lanford for making me feel like a member of their family during my stay at FSU.

    I would like to give a special thanks to my coaches and mentors inside and outside of golf for

    deeply shaping my view of positive psychology and self improvement: Richard Bandler, John

    Grinder, Wayne Dyer, Deepak Chopra, Napoleon Hill, His Holiness, Anthony J. Mahavorick,

    Paul Ross, Eben Pagan, Robert Winters and Robert J. Rotella.

  •  

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    List of Tables .............................................................................................................................vi List of Figures ...........................................................................................................................vii Abstract ....................................................................................................................................viii 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................1 2. LITERATURE REVIEW .....................................................................................................3 3. METHOD ..........................................................................................................................14 4. RESULTS ...........................................................................................................................25 5. DISCUSSION.....................................................................................................................38

    APPENDICES ..........................................................................................................................49

    A. RECRUITMENT.........................................................................................................49

    B. INFORMED CONSENTS ..........................................................................................50

    C. DEMOGRAPHICS FORM .........................................................................................56

    D. SELF-REPORT MEASURES ....................................................................................57

    E. DIRECTED PROBES MEASURES...........................................................................60

    F. IMMEDIATE RETROSPECTIVE REPORT MEASURES.......................................65

    G. RETROSPECTIVE REPORT STATEMENTS..........................................................68

    H. PARTICIPANT OUTLINE AND ORDER ...............................................................70

    I. HUMAN SUBJECTS APPROVAL............................................................................75

    REFERENCES ...................................................................................................................77 BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH ..............................................................................................83

  •  

    vi 

    LIST OF TABLES

    1. Means and Standard Deviations of Putts Holed by Putt Length and Skill Level ...............26

    2. Means and Standard Deviations for Task Self-Efficacy by Putt Length and Skill Level...27

    3. Means and Standard Deviations for Imagery Extent Measures..........................................28

    4. Correlation Matrix for Imagery Extent Measures...............................................................29

    5. Means and Standard Deviations of Imagery Function as Measured by the Sport Imagery Questionnaire – golf and Directed Probe Measures .............................................30

    6. Correlations between Measurements of Imagery Function Obtained by the SIQ – golf and Directed Probe Measures .............................................................................................31

    7. Means and Standard Deviations of Facilitative Imagery Function Elicited via Directed Probe By Group ..................................................................................................................33

    8. Means and Standard Deviations of Debilitative Imagery Functions Elicited via Directed Probe By Group....................................................................................................34

    9. Means and Standard Deviations for Imagery Extent by Putt Length Assessed via Directed Probe and Retrospective Report By Group..........................................................35

    10. Means and Standard Deviations for Facilitative and Debilitative Imagery Direction By Putt Length Assessed via Directed Probe ...........................................................................36

  •  

    vii 

    LIST OF FIGURES

    1. Average Putts Holed by Putt Length and Skill Level ...................................................26

    2. Average Task Efficacy by Putt Length and Skill Level ...............................................27

  •  

    viii 

    ABSTRACT

    Researchers and practitioners have been particularly interested in athlete’s use of imagery

    during practice and competition over the last 25 years (Hall, Rodgers, & Barr, 1990; MacIntyre

    & Moran, 2007a). A key limitation of imagery use research has been an over-reliance on

    measures involving questionnaires and interviews (Eccles, 2012). Imagery researchers have

    recommended verbal report methods in relation to a specific sport task alongside the use of

    traditional questionnaires, in order to gain a better understanding of imagery use (Morris, Spittle,

    & Watt, 2005). The current study involved general imagery use measures (i.e., Imagery Use

    Questionnaire items and the Sport Imagery Questionnaire-golf) and verbal report methods (i.e.,

    directed probe and retrospective report measures) in relation to a golf putting task. The first

    research question was concerned with the degree to which traditional questionnaires predict

    reported use of imagery from verbal report methods. The second research question was

    concerned with three areas of imagery use by differently skilled golfers: (a) imagery extent, (b)

    imagery direction, and (c) imagery function. The third research question examined how imagery

    use (i.e., extent and direction) is related to task difficulty.

    In the present study, unskilled golfers (n = 25) and skilled golfers (n = 25) completed

    three phases, where the aim was to measure imagery use in each phase using a different method:

    (a) a general imagery use phase, (b) a directed imagery use probe phase, and (c) an immediate

    retrospective report of recalled thoughts phase. All parti