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NAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS CNATRA P-1204 (Rev. 08-08) FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT 2008

FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION INSTRUMENT T-45TS - Cnatra

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INSTRUMENTNAVAL AIR TRAINING COMMAND NAS CORPUS CHRISTI, TEXAS CNATRA P-1204 (Rev. 08-08)
FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION
2008
DEPAR MENT OF E NAVY CI-IIEF QF AVAL AI~ TRAINING
CNATRA 250 LEXlN ON BLVD SUITE 102 CNATRA P-1204 CORPUS CHRISTI TX 784 9'-5041
N715
Subj: FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION, INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
1. CNATRA P-1204 (Rev. 08-08) PAT, "Fl'ght Training Instruction, Instrument T-45TS, TAT HOOK, and IUT" is issued for information, standardization of instruction, and guidance for all flight instructors and student aviators within the Naval Air Training Command.
2. This publication shall be used as an explanatory aid to the T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and lUT Curricula. It will be the authority for the execution of all flight procedures and maneuvers herein contained.
3. Recommendations for changes shall be sub itted via CNATRA TCR form 1550/19 in accordance with CNATRAlNST 1550.6E.
4. CNATRA P-1204 (04-01) PAT is hereby cancelled and superseded.
/:;::;;A /7 ~ 7't:X~~~4"-~£
A. MCLAUGHLI direction
Distribution: CNATRA N7 (5) Plus Original COMTRAWING ONE (200 ) COMTRAWING TWO (200)
FLIGHT TRAINING INSTRUCTION
UNDERGRADUATE PILOT TRAINING
P-1204
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HOW TO USE THE FTI This Flight Training Instruction (FTI) is the textbook used for all the instrument flight training conducted for the UJPT, Advanced, and IUT stages. It is the source document for all procedures related to those stages. In addition, it includes suggested techniques for performing each maneuver and making corrections. Use your FTI to prepare for lessons and hands-on events and afterward to review. Reading requirements for BI, RI, AN, and IR flight procedures are contained in Appendix C, "Lesson Preparation" along with the course learning objectives. The end of stage exam will be based on these objectives. Complete the required reading prior to each lesson. This information will help you effectively prepare for lessons: know all the procedures in the assigned section(s), review the glossary, and be prepared to ask your instructor about anything that remains unclear. Then you can devote your attention to flying the T-45C. After a flight, review the FTI materials to reinforce your understanding and to clarify any difficult maneuvers or procedures. Note that this FTI also contains information on emergencies related to this stage. This section of the FTI amplifies but does not supplant the emergency procedures information contained in the T-45C NATOPS manual.
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INTRODUCTION
The ultimate goal of instrument training is to enable you to fly your aircraft in an operational environment under all weather conditions. Basic Instruments (BI) places primary emphasis on aircraft control. Here you will learn the fundamental procedures and patterns that enable you to progress to radio instrument navigation. In Radio Instruments (RI), you will acquire the complex skills to navigate by reference to radio instruments. In this stage, you will learn the procedures for planning local instrument navigation flights and for identifying your aircraft's position in relation to radio navigational aids on the ground. In Airways Navigation (AN), you will put all of your instrument training into the real world context of cross-country flight in instrument conditions. During the AN phase, you will refine the techniques acquired in RI to properly plan and complete extended training flights, complying with all enroute and terminal procedures. As you have probably realized by now, AN will be one of the most demanding stages of your training, and it will require much studying and planning. Here, a thorough working knowledge of procedures is essential to your success on cross-country flights. As important as the navigation procedures you will learn in RI and AN are, you must always recall your priorities while in flight. Remember the rule: "Aviate, Navigate, Communicate." Perform these functions in that order. Maintaining desired flight parameters and monitoring aircraft systems should be your first priority. Don't become preoccupied with navigation at the expense of basic air-work. Remember, fly the aircraft first.
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BACKGROUND
While some of the ideas presented in this FTI will be new to you, most will be familiar from your previous training. You will be performing the same procedures in a much faster aircraft; consequently, events will happen more quickly than you have experienced, so your margins for error will be reduced. In addition, the digital attitude and navigation displays provide additional information that was not available in the previous aircraft. You will need to manage these additional resources effectively to become a proficient instrument pilot. The importance of having the aircraft properly trimmed at all times is paramount. During any maneuver, your trim should be such that the stick has a very light feel. The idea is for you to fly the aircraft, not for the aircraft to fly you. TRANSFER OF AIRCRAFT CONTROL There will always be a two-way communication when transferring control of the aircraft. Since you will be in the rear cockpit and usually under the hood, simply release the controls when the instructor says, "I have the controls." You will then reply, "You have the controls." In the event of a suspected ICS failure, the instructor may remove his mask and say, "I have the controls," and will shake the stick to take control. Stow the hood so that you can maintain visual communication with the instructor. The instructor may also pump the stick to pass control back to the student. SENSATIONS OF INSTRUMENT FLIGHT During flight, you use the sense of sight to determine the aircraft's attitude in relation to the earth's surface. In visual flight conditions, you determine attitude by reference to the horizon and flight instruments. During instrument flight conditions, when the horizon is not visible, you can determine attitude only by reference to aircraft instruments. Under instrument flight conditions, the sense of sight may disagree and conflict with the supporting senses, and equilibrium may be lost. When this happens, you may become susceptible to spatial disorientation (false perception of position, attitude, or motion) and vertigo. The degree to which this occurs will vary with the individual, his or her proficiency, and the conditions which induced it. To recognize and overcome the effects of false sensation that may lead to spatial disorientation, you must understand the senses affecting your ability to remain oriented. The ability to maintain equilibrium and orientation depends on sensations, or signals, from three sources: motion-sensing organs of the inner ear; postural senses of touch, pressure, and tension; and sense of sight. If one of these sensory sources is lost or impaired, you reduce your ability to maintain equilibrium and orientation.
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MOTION The sense of motion originating in the inner ear is very important in a person's normal ground environment. The inner ear registers linear and rotational acceleration and deceleration, thus it is able to detect turns, slips, and skids during flight. Unfortunately, it is not capable of distinguishing between centrifugal force and gravity. Linear Acceleration Centrifugal force and gravity are often fused together in flight, and the resultant force can only be interpreted visually. For example, without a visual aid, a decrease in airspeed while turning may cause the inner ear to sense a reverse turn; therefore, you must not rely on these unreliable sensations as a primary cue. Rotational Acceleration The other function of the inner ear is to sense rotational acceleration. This is accomplished by the semicircular canals which sense head movement in any of the three dimensions. Normally the semicircular canals work quite well, but their weakness is that the whole system depends on the slight displacement of fluid within the canals. In the first place, the sensitivity of the canals is limited; a slow entry into a turn may not get over the threshold of stimulation, and may not give the sensation of entry into the turn at all. Secondly, when there are sensations, they may be misleading. False Sensations of Motion It is easy to see how illusions may arise if you compare the displacement of the fluid in the semicircular canals to the movement of water in a glass. If the glass is turned rapidly, the water will tend to remain in motion. The same type of thing happens in the semicircular canals, only on a smaller scale. The displacement of the fluid in the canals corresponds to the movements of the head only if the rotation is relatively slow and lasts for a short time. In a long turn or a sudden stop, the liquid behaves almost independently of the movement of the head; the inner ear transmits false messages to the brain. Consider how this can produce illusion in flight. Suppose, during instrument flight, you commence a turn to the right. If your turn is slow, the fluid in the canals catches up with the motion of the body. If the fluid ceases to move, you will sense that the turning has stopped. Acting on this information alone, and still wanting to go to the right, you will turn right again, and get into a much tighter turn which may start a dangerous spiral. If, on the other hand, a relatively sharp turn is stopped, the fluid in the canals, like the water in a glass, will continue to be displaced, even after rotation has ceased. This will give the impression of turning in the opposite direction. Again, depending and acting on the equilibrium senses alone may precipitate entry into a dangerous situation.
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WARNING
Extreme care should be taken to limit rapid head movements during descents and turns, particularly at low altitudes. Cockpit duties should be subordinated to maintaining aircraft control.
Another illusion is called "the leans." The aircraft is banked quickly in rough air and a correct sensation of the attitude results. Then, a slow recovery is performed which does not cross the threshold of angular motion perception; the senses retain the feeling that the aircraft is still in a bank. The impression may be so strong that you may lean to one side in an attempt to assume what you suppose to be the vertical. This sensation is one of the strongest and most frequently experienced in instrument flight. It gives false impressions of both bank and pitch, particularly after entering a cloud in a turn. POSTURAL SENSE The postural sense derives its sensations from the expansion and contraction of muscles and tendons, touch and pressure, and the shifting of abdominal muscles. Without a visual aid, this sense often interprets centrifugal force as a false climb or descent. The postural sense is also incapable of sensing airspeeds without acceleration or deceleration. Therefore, the postural senses, like those of the inner ear, are unreliable without a visual aid. Without visual reference to the horizon or to flight instruments, you could interpret a steep turn as a steep climb, or a shallow descending turn as level flight. You must learn to subordinate these sensations when they conflict with visual reference to the flight instruments. SIGHT When blindfolded, you will find that the loss of visual reference to surrounding objects makes it difficult to stand and nearly impossible to walk a straight line. The inner ear and postural senses are relatively reliable when standing still. However, their reliability is different on a moving platform, such as an aircraft in flight. Without the aid of sight, these senses are unable to distinguish gravity, centrifugal force, or small forces of acceleration and deceleration from one another. FALSE SENSATIONS The sense of sight, supported by the sense of motion and the postural sense, is present whether orientation is maintained by reference to the horizon, flight instruments, or both. For the proficient instrument pilot, orientation by reference to the flight instruments rarely produces false sensations of any consequence. In becoming such a pilot, you will learn to overcome any false sensations by relying on the sense of sight to the flight instruments. If these false supporting senses are relied upon during such a conflict, you can easily experience spatial disorientation.
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You can minimize spatial disorientation by learning to disregard the false information produced by the supporting senses. Visual reference to the flight instruments is your only reliable solution for coping with spatial disorientation. OPTICAL ILLUSIONS Optical illusions result from misleading visual references outside the aircraft. These illusions usually occur at night or during marginal weather conditions when the pilot attempts to remain oriented by outside references, rather than the flight instruments. Although the sense of sight is reliable, visual illusions may cause severe spatial disorientation. You can avoid these illusions only by relying visually on the flight instrument indications. Some examples of optical illusions are: 1. A sloping cloud bank can create the illusion of flying in a banked attitude even though the aircraft is straight and level. 2. Light reflected on the canopy or windshield may give the false impression of a steep bank or inverted flight. 3. Lights on the ground may be interpreted as stars during a turn at night. 4. When you are flying through clouds at night, the anti-collision and strobe lights may produce a false sensation that the aircraft is turning. MAINTAINING SPATIAL ORIENTATION The false sensations of instrument flight are experienced by most individuals. You will become less susceptible to those false sensations and their effects as you acquire additional instrument experience. Although these sensations cannot be completely prevented, you can and must suppress them by self-discipline, conscientious instrument practice, and experience. You must learn to control your aircraft by visual reference to the flight instruments. You must also learn to ignore or control the urge to believe any false inputs from the supporting senses. You must focus absolute concentration on the aircraft's performance as depicted on the attitude indicator and confirmed by the supporting instruments. A few simple precautions to take on entry into instrument flight conditions can help you avoid disorientation: 1. Bring instruments into your scan one at a time (attitude indicator first). 2. Be wings level. 3. Have the aircraft trimmed for level flight. 4. Make all subsequent configuration changes while wings level.
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Continuous changes between visual flight and instrument flight during periods of reduced visibility can easily result in disorientation. While in an environment of actual instrument flight conditions, disruption from a scan focused predominantly on instruments to an outside reference, such as the horizon or ground, can induce spatial disorientation. In instrument flight, factors such as fatigue, boredom, and hypnosis are more likely to occur. To counteract this, you may occasionally move about in the seat, shake your head, or change the intensity of cockpit lighting.
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FLIGHT PREPARATION In preparing for an instrument flight in the simulator or aircraft, you should first look at the Briefing Guide to determine what maneuvers and tasks you'll be responsible for during the flight. Based on the contents of the Briefing Guide, consult the FTI, the T-45C NATOPS manual, and your other study materials to gain a full understanding of the procedures and maneuvers before you climb in the cockpit. Simulator time and especially flight time are precious resources: always employ this training time as efficiently and effectively as possible. The time to study is before the flight.
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LIST OF EFFECTIVE PAGES Dates of issue for original and changed pages are: Original...0...30 Apr 01 (this will be the date issued) Revision 1…0…20 Aug 08 Change Transmittal…1…16 Feb 10 TOTAL NUMBER OF PAGES IN THIS PUBLICATION IS 197 CONSISTING OF THE FOLLOWING:
Page No. Change No. Page No. Change No
COVER 0
LETTER 0
INTERIM CHANGE SUMMARY The following Changes have been previously incorporated in this manual:
CHANGE NUMBER
The following interim Changes have been incorporated in this Change/Revision:
INTERIM CHANGE NUMBER
CHAPTER TWO - GROUND PROCEDURES...................................................................... 2-1
CHAPTER FOUR - CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS ...................... 4-1
400. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 4-1 401. CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMB .............................................................................. 4-1 402. CONSTANT AIRSPEED DESCENT ......................................................................... 4-2 403. CONSTANT RATE CLIMBS AND DESCENTS...................................................... 4-3 404. LEVEL TURNS........................................................................................................... 4-5 405. LEVEL SPEED CHANGES........................................................................................ 4-8 406. "S" PATTERNS......................................................................................................... 4-11 407. SLOW FLIGHT MANEUVER ................................................................................. 4-14 408. STALLS AND UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERIES......................................... 4-16 409. AEROBATICS .......................................................................................................... 4-20
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CHAPTER FIVE - GENERAL COMMUNICATION PROCEDURES.............................. 5-1
500. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 5-1 501. NAVIGATION & COMMUNICATION COCKPIT MANAGEMENT .................... 5-1 502. IFR VOICE PROCEDURES ....................................................................................... 5-2
CHAPTER SIX - INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PLANNING..................................................... 6-1
700. INTRODUCTION ....................................................................................................... 7-1 701. DEPARTURE PHASE ................................................................................................ 7-1 702. ENROUTE PHASE ..................................................................................................... 7-5 703. POINT-TO-POINT NAVIGATION.......................................................................... 7-24 704. ARRIVAL PHASE .................................................................................................... 7-28 705. APPROACH PHASE ................................................................................................ 7-38
CHAPTER EIGHT - SAFETY/EMERGENCY PROCEDURES......................................... 8-1
APPENDIX A - GLOSSARY................................................................................................... A-1 APPENDIX B - SELF-TEST ....................................................................................................B-1 APPENDIX C - STUDY RESOURCES.................................................................................. C-1 APPENDIX D - INDEX............................................................................................................ D-1
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TABLE OF FIGURES Figure 1-1 Attitude Director Indicator Display ................................................................. 1-3 Figure 1-2 Failed ILS Glideslope ....................................................................................... 1-3 Figure 1-3 Horizontal Situation Indicator Display ........................................................... 1-4 Figure 1-4 Data Entry Panel................................................................................................ 1-5 Figure 1-5 MFD Engine Page ............................................................................................. 1-6 Figure 1-6 Head-Up Display ............................................................................................... 1-7 Figure 2-1 Instrument Training Hood ............................................................................... 2-2 Figure 4-1 S-1 Pattern ....................................................................................................... 4-11 Figure 4-2 S-3 Pattern ....................................................................................................... 4-13 Figure 4-3 Slow Flight Maneuver ..................................................................................... 4-14 Figure 4-4 Aileron Roll ...................................................................................................... 4-21 Figure 4-5 Wingover .......................................................................................................... 4-22 Figure 4-6 Barrel Roll ....................................................................................................... 4-24 Figure 4-7 Loop .................................................................................................................. 4-25 Figure 4-8 Half-Cuban Eight ............................................................................................ 4-27 Figure 4-9 Immelmann ...................................................................................................... 4-28 Figure 4-10 Split-S ............................................................................................................... 4-29 Figure 6-1 IFR Filing Criteria ............................................................................................ 6-2 Figure 6-2 Fuel Card ........................................................................................................... 6-4 Figure 7-1 Pilot NAV SID ................................................................................................... 7-2 Figure 7-2 Vector SID ......................................................................................................... 7-4 Figure 7-3 Proceeding Direct .............................................................................................. 7-8 Figure 7-4 Wind Drift Correction .................................................................................... 7-10 Figure 7-5 30-Degree Method............................................................................................ 7-12 Figure 7-6 Double Angle Off Bow Method ...................................................................... 7-13 Figure 7-7 Course Intercept Immediately After Station Passage .................................. 7-15 Figure 7-8 45-Degree Method - Outbound ...................................................................... 7-16 Figure 7-9 Radial-To-Arc Intercept ................................................................................. 7-18 Figure 7-10 Maintaining an Arc (Chord Method) ............................................................ 7-20 Figure 7-11 Arc-To-Radial Intercept Procedure -- 1 ....................................................... 7-21 Figure 7-12 Arc-To-Radial Intercept Procedure -- 2 ....................................................... 7-23 Figure 7-13 Point-To-Point Navigation ............................................................................. 7-25 Figure 7-14 Waypoint Data Display .................................................................................. 7-26 Figure 7-15 Global Positioning System Data Display .......................................................... 7-27 Figure 7-16 Waypoint Data Entry ....................................................................................... 7-28 Figure 7-17 Standard Holding Pattern (TACAN) ............................................................... 7-29 Figure 7-18 Non-DME Holding Pattern .............................................................................. 7-30 Figure 7-19 No-Wind Holding Offset ................................................................................... 7-32 Figure 7-20 Determining Holding Entry .............................................................................. 7-33 Figure 7-21 Holding Entry ................................................................................................... 7-34
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Figure 7-22 Wind Correction for Holding ........................................................................... 7-35 Figure 7-23 Instrument Approach Chart ............................................................................ 7-39 Figure 7-24 Airport Diagram ............................................................................................... 7-41 Figure 7-25 GCA Pattern ..................................................................................................... 7-43 Figure 7-26 Radar Instrument Approach Minimums ......................................................... 7-45 Figure 7-27 Non-DME Penetration and Approach ............................................................. 7-49 Figure 7-28 TACAN Approach .......................................................................................... 7-51 Figure 7-29 ILS Indications ................................................................................................. 7-53 Figure 7-30 ILS Components ............................................................................................... 7-54 Figure 7-31 ILS Approach Plate .......................................................................................... 7-56 Figure 7-32 ILS Minimums .................................................................................................. 7-57 Figure 7-33 Circling Approach Maneuvers ......................................................................... 7-62 Figure 8-1 Display Power Switch ......................................................................................... 8-6 Figure 8-2 Heading Input Failure Indications ..................................................................... 8-7 Figure 8-3 Position Advisory Legend ................................................................................... 8-8 Figure 8-4 Training Page – Frozen HSI ............................................................................... 8-9 Figure 8-5 Attitude Advisory Legend ................................................................................ 8-11 Figure 8-6 Failed 2" Standby Gyro .................................................................................... 8-15 Figure 8-7 Failed AOA Indicator ....................................................................................... 8-16 Figure 8-8 Failed Radar Altimeter ..................................................................................... 8-17 Figure 8-9 Bit Page ............................................................................................................. 8-17 Figure 8-10 Failed VOR ....................................................................................................... 8-18 Figure 8-11 Failed TACAN Bearing .................................................................................... 8-19 Figure 8-12 Failed ILS Glideslope Indication ...................................................................... 8-20 Figure 8-13 Failed ILS Localizer ......................................................................................... 8-21
CHAPTER ONE AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
100. INTRODUCTION Aircraft flight instruments are divided into three categories according to their specific function: control instruments, performance instruments, and position instruments. Except for engine instruments, all primary instrument flight information is presented on either the ADI display or the HSI display. The engine instruments are on the right side of the instrument panel and the standby instruments, airspeed, altitude display, attitude indicator, and vertical speed indicator (VSI) are located on the left side of the instrument panel. The magnetic compass is located on the canopy bow. Refer to the Forward and Aft Cockpit foldout in the T-45C NATOPS of specific instrument location. 101. CONTROL INSTRUMENTS The control instruments enable you to provide a proper combination of pitch, roll, yaw (attitude), and power control to achieve the desired aircraft performance. These instruments include: the ADI display, rpm gauge, fuel flow gauge, and the slip indicator. 102. PERFORMANCE INSTRUMENTS/DISPLAYS The performance instruments indicate how the aircraft is performing as a result of control changes. These instruments include: airspeed, the various heading indicators (magnetic compass, HSI display, and ADI display), vertical speed indicator, angle of attack indicator, clock, and turn needle. Although the altitude display is primarily used as a position instrument, in some maneuvers it can be used as a cross-check on aircraft performance. 103. POSITION INSTRUMENTS The position instruments convey the aircraft's location in space and will determine what control changes are required to achieve the desired aircraft performance. These instruments include: altitude, bearing pointers, TACAN and Waypoint data blocks, Planimetric or Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) course lines, ILS azimuth and glideslope deviation bars. A course deviation situation steering arrow, and azimuth and glideslope deviation bars are also displayed on the HUD. 104. ATTITUDE DIRECTOR INDICATOR (ADI) DISPLAY The ADI display is the primary control instrument. It replicates a conventional electromechanical ADI instrument. It provides your primary indication for the aircraft's attitude using the horizon bar, bank pointer, pitch reference scale, and the attitude display. Whenever a deviation from a desired performance is indicated on one of the performance instruments, the correction should be made referencing the ADI display.
AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS 1-1
CHAPTER ONE INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
In addition to the typical ADI, the ADI display includes additional flight parameters (Figure 1-1). True airspeed, AOA, Mach, g, and peak g are shown digitally on the left-hand side of the display. Indicated airspeed and barometric altitude, trend indicators and a heading scale are across the top of the display. The digital indicated airspeed has a resolution of one kt. The indicated airspeed trend indicator wiper blade rotates clockwise for increasing airspeeds and counterclockwise for decreasing airspeed. The airspeed trend scale is graduated in 10-kt increments with multiples of 100 kts at the 12 o'clock position. The digital barometric altitude resolution is 20 ft. The barometric altitude trend indicator wiper blade rotates clockwise for increasing altitude and counterclockwise for decreasing altitude. The altitude trend scale is graduated in 100-ft increments with multiples of 1,000 ft at the 12 o'clock position. The heading scale, with heading numbers and scale tick marks, scrolls left or right above a fixed caret. A command heading bug, a vertical line, is referenced to the heading scale. The command heading is referenced to the selected navigation aid unless ILS or no steering is selected. With ILS or no steering selected, the command heading bug location is determined by the heading value set on the HSI display heading option. A digital radar altitude and a vertical velocity trend indicator are to the right of the display. The vertical velocity scale limits are -2,000 ft/min and 1,500 ft/min. Dashes are located at -2,000, -1,000 and 1,000 ft/min. Tics are located at -750, -250, 250, and 750 ft/min. The digital vertical velocity resolution is 10 ft/min. The vertical velocity caret is open when vertical velocity exceeds -2000 or + 1600 ft/min. The digital vertical velocity range is +/- 9,990 ft/min. A turn and slip indicator is at the bottom of the display. The shaded reference areas to the left and right of the shaded center marker represent a +/- 3 degrees per second turn rate (standard-rate turn). BNGO fuel and Low Altitude Warning (LAW) height settings are also on the ADI display. The ADI display pitch can be adjusted +/- 5 degrees in relation to the waterline with the "PT" selection. With a valid ILS channel station selected and ILS steering selected, ILS needles are shown. The needles are referenced to the waterline. The localizer and glideslope needles range +/- 1/2 inch from the waterline. Full deflection represents +/- 2.5 degrees of azimuth deviation (with a 5-degree localizer signal) and +/- 0.7 degrees of glideslope deviation. The localizer or glideslope needle will flash when limited. The needles for an invalid input are removed and an MFD advisory window, "GLIDESLOPE" (Figure 1-2), "LOCALIZER," OR "ILS" will flash on all MFDs. The advisory window will remain on the MFDs until either the REJ button is depressed or the failed data becomes valid again. The ADI display is normally placed on the left MFD to facilitate cross-checking the standby instruments on the left side of the main instrument panel. 105. HORIZONTAL SITUATION INDICATOR (HSI) DISPLAY The HSI display performs the course deviation indication function of a conventional electromechanical instrument. With the capabilities of the Global Positioning/Inertial Navigation Assembly (GINA) and display electronic unit (DEU), additional display options and navigation information are available on the HSI display (Figure 1-3).
1-2 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
Figure 1-1 Attitude Director Indicator Display
Figure 1-2 Failed ILS Glideslope
AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS 1-3
CHAPTER ONE INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
Figure 1-3 Horizontal Situation Indicator Display The aircraft symbol is fixed in the center of the display, heading up. Groundspeed, and wind direction and speed are below the aircraft symbol. The compass rose rotates according to the aircraft magnetic heading, referenced to a lubber line and the actual ground-track marker. Reference benchmarks are spaced every 45 degrees around the periphery of the compass rose. A split heading bug is located on the periphery of the compass rose. The heading bug is positioned according to the heading set with the increment and decrement arrows on the HSI display or by selecting HDG on the HUD data entry panel (DEP) (Figure 1-4) and entering the heading with the number keys. The head and tail of the TACAN bearing pointer are located on the outer edge of the compass rose. The head and tail of the VOR or waypoint bearing pointer are located on the inner edge of the compass rose. Only the bearing pointer for the selected steering reference is displayed. In the Course Deviation Indicator (CDI) mode, the inner bar represents deviation from the selected course. If TACAN or VOR is the selected steering, each dot represents 5 degrees of course deviation. For waypoint or waypoint offset steering, the scale varies based on landing gear position. With the landing gear up, full scale deflection of the inner CDI bar represents a +/- 4.0-nm cross track deviation. With the landing gear down, a full scale deflection represents a +/- 0.3-nm cross track deviation. When ILS is the only steering selected, the CDI deviation scale is relative and must be interpreted by the pilot depending on the width of the localizer course. If the localizer course is 5 degrees wide, a full scale deflection represents a 2.5-degree deviation. In
1-4 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER ONE
addition to the typical CDI course line, a planimetric (PLAN) course line can be selected. The planimetric course line is only available for TACAN or Waypoint steering. The planimetric course line is drawn through the selected steering symbol (TACAN, waypoint, or waypoint offset). Course intercept angle and deviation are shown by the relationship of the planimetric course line to the aircraft symbol. The course line is only shown when CRS is selected on the HSI display. The course is set with the increment and decrement arrows on the HSI display or by selecting CRS on the HUD data entry panel and entering the course with the number keys. The scale of the compass rose can be set to 10, 20, 40, 80, or 160 nautical miles. TACAN, waypoint, and waypoint offset symbols are shown within the compass rose relative to their bearing and distance from the aircraft symbol and the selected scale of the compass rose. Digital bearing, slant range distance, and time-to-go are provided for waypoints and valid TACAN stations. Digital bearing is also shown for a valid VOR station. A sequential steering string of two or more waypoints can also be displayed as a dashed line on the HSI display. Navigation control selection is also made on the HSI display indicating either FWD or AFT.
Figure 1-4 Data Entry Panel 106. FUEL FLOW AND RPM GAUGES These instruments both provide a reference to the proper control of the aircraft's engine. In many of the different maneuvers, a specified rpm or fuel flow can be set to allow for the proper thrust to complete the maneuver. In some cases, a range can be used to allow for other possible variables. Fuel flow and rpm can also be monitored on the MFD ENGINE Page (Figure 1-5).
AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS 1-5
CHAPTER ONE INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
Figure 1-5 MFD Engine Page 107. STANDBY FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS The standby instruments include airspeed, altimeter, VSI, turn and slip and attitude indicators. These instruments are used as a cross-check of multi-function display (MFD) indications or if there is a failure of the ADI display or failure of one or both of the MFD's. The standby performance instruments, airspeed, altimeter, and VSI all have lag. This factor must be accepted as an inherent factor. When the attitude and power are smoothly controlled, the lag factor is negligible and the indications on the performance instruments will stabilize or change smoothly. 108. HEAD-UP DISPLAY (HUD) The head-up display (Figure 1-6) presents control, performance, and position information. The pitch ladder, AOA bracket, course deviation steering needle and dots, and ILS needles are referenced to the velocity vector. These symbols are referenced to the waterline of the aircraft if velocity vector information becomes invalid (velocity vector occulted). The pitch ladder attitude bars are in five-degree increments. Solid attitude bars represent a noseup pitch and dashed attitude bars represent a nosedown pitch. The attitude bars are angled toward the horizon at one-half the pitch attitude, also the tips of the attitude bars point toward the horizon. The bank scale is located at the bottom of
1-6 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER ONE
the HUD and indicates 0, 5, 15, 30, and 45 degrees of bank. The bank pointer limits and flashes at 47.5 degrees and is occulted at bank angles greater than 90 degrees (the bank scale on the ADI display is different than the bank scale on the HUD). The currently selected steering mode on the HSI display is displayed on the lower right side of the instantaneous field-of-view.
Figure 1-6 Head-Up Display
AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS 1-7
The displayed steering mode acronyms are: TCN—TACAN
W##—Waypoint (waypoint number)
VOR—VOR
TILS—TACAN and ILS
WILS—Waypoint and ILS
OILS—Waypoint offset and ILS The distance and time-to-go to the selected steerpoint are displayed when applicable. When TACAN, waypoint or waypoint offset steering is selected, and course line (CRS) is selected on the HSI display, a situation steering arrow and two reference dots are displayed. Orientation of the situation arrow indicates the difference between the aircraft ground track and the selected course. The position of the arrow in relation to the two dots represents course deviation commensurate with the CDI scaling on the HSI display. The reference dots are removed when deviation from the selected course is within one degree with TACAN steering. With waypoint or waypoint offset steering selected, the dots are removed when course deviation is less than 0.4 nm, gear up, or 0.03 nm, gear down. When ILS needles are shown on the ADI display, they are also displayed on the HUD. The ILS needle scaling is commensurate with the scaling on the ADI display. The needles will flash when limited. 109. INSTRUMENT SCAN During instrument flight, the pilot must divide his attention between the control, performance, and position instrument/displays. Proper division of attention and the sequence of checking the displays varies throughout the various phases of flight. There is no one set order for scanning the instrument/displays; it depends on the type of maneuver to be executed as to which instruments are of prime importance. The pilot should become familiar with the factors to be considered when dividing his attention between instrument/displays. The pilot should know the indications which will enable him to identify correct and incorrect scan techniques. The best way to improve proficiency is through practice. Some common errors in instrument scanning include the following: having no scan pattern plan, omitting a display entirely from the scan, fixating on a single or a few display indications, or misusing a display indication. Scan Technique A major factor influencing scan technique is the characteristic manner in which instruments respond to attitude and power changes. Because of signal filtering, raw data processing, and display time, there is inherent lag in a digital display. The lag will not appreciably affect the tolerances within which the pilot controls the aircraft; however, at times, a slight unavoidable delay in knowing the results of attitude and/or power changes will occur.
1-8 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER ONE
When the attitude and power are smoothly controlled, the lag factor is negligible and the indications on the performance instruments will stabilize or change smoothly. Do not make abrupt control movements in response to the lagging indications on the performance instruments, without first checking the control instruments. Failure to do so leads to erratic aircraft maneuvers which will cause additional fluctuations and lag in the performance instruments. Frequent scanning of the control instruments/displays assists in maintaining smooth aircraft control. For every maneuver, the ADI display is the primary reference that should be scanned most frequently. The majority of the pilot's time should be spent on the control of the aircraft attitude by referencing the ADI display, supported by the control instruments. The remainder of the pilot's time should be spent confirming the desired performance and position by quickly scanning those displays.
AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS 1-9
1-10 AIRCRAFT FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS
CHAPTER TWO GROUND PROCEDURES
200. INTRODUCTION Prior to taking off on an instrument flight, you must ensure that the instruments/displays, navigation equipment, radios, aircraft lighting, and the hood are in proper operational condition. 201. INSTRUMENT CHECKLIST Before each IFR flight, ensure that all the instruments/displays, communications gear, and navigational equipment are in proper operating order by completing the instrument checklist in NATOPS, Chapter 19, reprinted below. Check the following list of equipment while in the chocks, prior to taxi. Items marked with an asterisk must be checked during taxi. 1. Check all communications and navigation equipment for correct operation. 2. Set navigation equipment to local station. 3. Check cockpit lighting, if necessary, and set as low as possible in order to retain night vision. Adjust the kneeboard lights for use in reading approach plates, charts, kneeboard cards, etc. 4. Vertical speed indicator (VSI) - The VSI on the ADI display is set to zero with weight-on- wheels. Check the standby VSI for ZERO (note error if not zero). 5. Airspeed indication - Minimum airspeed indication on ADI display is 50 knots. Check standby airspeed indicator – ZERO. 6. ADI display - Adjust ADI display pitch with the pitch trim selection on the ADI display (+/- 5 degrees), ensure waterline is on horizon. Adjust the standby AI, ensure waterline is on the horizon. 7. Altimeter - Set the standby altimeter to field barometric pressure. Note the barometric altitude on the ADI display. (Note error if not equal to field height. The aircraft is down for IFR flight if the error exceeds +/- 75 ft.). ADI display altitude is based on the barometric altimeter setting on the standby altimeter. 8. Clock - Set and running. 9. Standby compass - Swings freely, fluid full. 10. HUD, HSI display, ADI display heading indications - Check for proper operation while taxiing. 11. Check turn needle and ball for proper function during turns while taxiing.
GROUND PROCEDURES 2-1
CHAPTER TWO INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
202. LOW ALTITUDE WARNING (LAW) Procedures for Low Altitude Warning usage are outlined: 1. Takeoff - the LAW is set to the 100- to 200-ft range for low altitude warning during climbout. 2. Enroute - the LAW is set to at 5,000 ft (platform) if above 5,000 ft; and at the desired altitude; less by approximately 10 percent if below 5,000 ft. 3. Penetration - during penetrations, the LAW advisory shall be set at 5,000 ft (platform) so the LAW advisory will serve as a warning to break the rate of descent. 4. Set the LAW to Height Above Touchdown (HAT) for precision approaches, Height Above Touchdown (HAT) minus 10% for straight in non-precision approaches and Height Above Airport (HAA) minus 10% for circling non-precision approaches. (For airports at higher elevations; setting the RADALT/LAW at the MDA -10% would cause a warning well above the desired altitude.) 203. HOOD USE You will perform the majority of your instrument flights in the T-45C "under the bag," simulating instrument conditions in a VFR environment (Figure 2-1). The T-45C NATOPS manual contains specific instructions on installing and stowing the hood. Become familiar enough with the operation of the hood so that it does not impair your performance in other aircraft duties.
Figure 2-1 Instrument Training Hood
2-2 GROUND PROCEDURES
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER TWO
204. COCKPIT LIGHTING When preparing for a night flight, set the cockpit lighting as low as possible to safeguard your night vision and reduce glare on the canopy while still enabling you to see your instruments. You should use a white lens in your flashlight for a night preflight (to detect hydraulic fluid leaks). Once in the cockpit, put a diffuser lens over the flashlight to reduce its intensity for use in the cockpit.
GROUND PROCEDURES 2-3
2-4 GROUND PROCEDURES
CHANGE 1
CHAPTER THREE BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS
300. INTRODUCTION No matter how accomplished your instrument pilotage—regardless of how well you navigate on the airways or handle any type of approach—your skills originate with basic instruments. Flying the aircraft effectively, accurately, and safely reflects your ability to fly basic instrument maneuvers. Everything that you do with an airplane in flight is accomplished through the application of a few basic maneuvers, singly or in combination—climbs and descents, turns, speed changes, and the transitions in and out of those maneuvers are the building blocks. For example, a complex TACAN or ILS approach is made up of nothing more than a series of turns, descents, speed changes, and transitions performed in a specific sequence. Your success in the instrument phase, particularly in the advanced stages of Radio Instruments and Airways Navigation, will ultimately depend on your ability to fly the basic instrument flight maneuvers.
NOTE
Students should read and be familiar with the Training Wing In- Flight Guide, but will not normally be responsible for area management while conducting BI events.
Two things that will be repeatedly emphasized during instrument training are scan and trim. The key to executing basic instrument maneuvers successfully is to know the procedures and integrate control and scan efficiently. The ADI display is at the center of your scan for most maneuvers and you will have to trim continuously to maintain smooth and precise control of the aircraft. 301. INSTRUMENT TAKEOFF (ITO) The instrument takeoff maneuver is designed to give you confidence in taking off into a low ceiling or conditions of poor visibility. For student instrument flights conducted from the aft cockpit, your instructor shall taxi, takeoff, and clean up the aircraft from the front cockpit. The instructor will then trim the aircraft for a 10 degree nose high (ADI/waterline), maximum rated thrust (MRT) climb and execute a positive three-way exchange of controls IAW the Aircrew Coordination paragraph in the Introduction Section of the Familiarization FTI. Exchange of controls should occur between approximately 200-230 KIAS. When executing this maneuver from the front cockpit of the aircraft, utilize normal takeoff and crosswind takeoff procedures as described in the Familiarization FTI. Maintain a 10 degree noseup attitude (ADI /waterline) and check the altitude display and VSI prior to configuration changes and increase pitch as required to avoid settling as flaps/slats come up.
BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS 3-1
3-2 BASIC INSTRUMENT MANEUVERS
In the simulator, begin the ITO by lining the aircraft up on the centerline of the runway and noting the heading as displayed on the ADI. Be aware that runways are numbered to the nearest 10 degrees, so you may see as much as 5 degrees difference in your heading system when aligned with centerline. Hold the brakes and advance the power to MRT (maximum-rated thrust). Perform engine instrument checks, release the brakes, and start the takeoff roll. Maintain directional control with nose wheel steering while scanning the engine instruments and monitoring airspeed. At 120 KIAS, smoothly rotate to a takeoff attitude of 10 degrees noseup. Transition your scan to the ADI display for pitch, bank, heading and airspeed at rotation airspeed. Maintain directional control with the rudder and expect lift-off to occur at approximately 126-130 KIAS. Do not exceed optimum AOA during rotation or climb out. When you have a positive indication of climb on both the VSI and altitude display and are safely airborne, retract the gear with a minimum of 100 ft AGL. Retract the flaps/slats with a minimum of 300 ft AGL and 140 KIAS, wings level. From rotation speed until you clean up the aircraft, center your scan on the ADI display for pitch, bank, heading and airspeed; also check the altitude display and VSI prior to configuration changes. As the aircraft accelerates, hold your climb attitude and trim out stick pressure. Maintain the nose attitude of 10 degrees noseup until climb speed is attained. Five knots prior to desired climb speed, increase nose attitude to approximately 15-20 degrees to intercept and maintain climb airspeed.
NOTE
When crewed with an instructor pilot, you will be required to
receive acknowledgement from your instructor prior to moving the landing gear handle or flap switch.
302. LEVEL OFF CHECK After level off, compare front and rear cockpit airspeed and altitude (i.e., "ONE FIVE THOUSAND, MARK; TWO FIFTY, MARK"). If required, perform time hack: "Standby for time hack; THREE, TWO, ONE, HACK.” The time hack can also be performed on deck and checked at altitude.
CHAPTER FOUR CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS
400. INTRODUCTION Constant airspeed climbs and descents will introduce you to the principle that changing the aircraft nose attitude (pitch) is the primary method of controlling airspeed when your aircraft is climbing or descending. Thus, the critical and challenging component of these maneuvers lies in establishing a pitch angle that results in a climb or descent with little or no change in airspeed. You will use constant airspeed climbs during departure and constant airspeed descents for cruise and penetration descents. Because you are using nose attitude (pitch) to maintain airspeed during these maneuvers, the primary instruments to scan are the ADI display for pitch and bank control and airspeed for performance. You will need to start picking up the altitude trend wiper blade in your scan as the maneuver progresses so that you can identify the point at which you'll transition to level flight. VSI indications are instantaneous, so avoid making abrupt adjustments or you will find yourself chasing it. Your scan should center on the ADI display ball and the altitude trend wiper blade during the period from lead point to assigned altitude because you will be trying to arrive at a pitch attitude that represents level flight at the same time you reach your altitude. To perform a smooth level off at the correct speed, you will always need to start your transition to level flight by coordinating power and nose attitude. 401. CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMB When beginning at normal cruise airspeed, maintain heading and advance the throttle to MRT. Simultaneously establish a noseup attitude of 8 to 10 degrees on the ADI display to maintain 250 KIAS. During the climb, use small nose attitude changes to maintain airspeed. Trim as necessary during the climb to maintain a very light feel on the stick. Use the ADI display ball (for pitch and bank control) and airspeed and airspeed trend wiper blade (for airspeed information) during the entry and to maintain the climb. An occasional glance at the altitude and altitude trend wiper blade during the climb will let you know when you are nearing the lead point, at which time you'll incorporate the altitude fully into your scan. When the aircraft reaches a lead point of 10 percent of VSI (for example, if the climb rate is 3,000 fpm, initiate the level off 300 ft prior to reaching the desired altitude), simultaneously reduce power to cruise and set nose attitude to maintain level flight. You should scan the ADI display and altitude trend wiper blade during the period, with occasional checks of airspeed from lead point to altitude, because you will be trying to arrive at a pitch attitude that represents level flight at the same time you reach the altitude. Once you are established in level flight, retrim the aircraft.
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-1
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
Constant airspeed climb—normal cruise entry and exit: Throttle: MRT
Pitch: Initially 8-10 degrees noseup to maintain 250 KIAS, then as required to maintain airspeed. Beginning in RI stage, lower the nose to approximately 3 degrees and accelerate to 300 KIAS at 10,000 ft. Adjust nose and trim as necessary to maintain 300 KIAS climb until intercepting 0.72 indicated Mach number (IMN). This occurs at approximately 25,000 ft.
Level off: Lead by 10 percent of VSI.
Throttle: Cruise (see table of cruise airspeeds and fuel flows in INSTRUMENT FLIGHT PLANNING). For BI stage, maintain 250 KIAS in the climb. Plan to level at 250 KIAS at an altitude specified by your instructor. For level flight at 250 KIAS, set approximately 1,200 pph at 15,000 ft MSL.
Pitch: Adjust for level flight
Trim: Adjust for level flight To initiate a climb from a cruise airspeed lower than desired climb airspeed, advance power to MRT while trimming the nose down as required to maintain level flight. When the airspeed approaches a 5-kt lead point, smoothly raise the nose to maintain climb airspeed (250 KIAS less than 10,000 ft MSL, 300 KIAS/ 0.72 IMN above). You are actually accomplishing two separate maneuvers in this instance: a level speed change followed by a constant airspeed climb. Your scan needs to change with the maneuver being performed. Be sure that your scan includes the ADI display for pitch, bank, and heading control. Use the ADI display VSI and altitude trend wiper blade for pitch performance during the acceleration to desired airspeed. During the climb, be sure that you scan the ADI display for pitch and bank control and the ADI display airspeed trend wiper blade for airspeed performance. 402. CONSTANT AIRSPEED DESCENT The constant airspeed descent mirrors the constant airspeed climb, with the power being reduced, instead of advanced, and pitch decreased as required to maintain cruise airspeed. As with constant airspeed climbs, you will maintain airspeed by adjusting pitch, and you should hold a constant heading throughout the maneuver. Use the same scan as for the climb. When beginning this maneuver from cruise airspeed, reduce power to idle and smoothly establish a nosedown attitude of 3-6 degrees to maintain 250 KIAS. As in a constant airspeed climb, control airspeed by making small pitch changes. Use a lead point of 10 percent of the VSI for exiting the maneuver; when you reach the lead point, increase power to the cruise setting and establish a pitch attitude that results in level flight. Retrim the aircraft at the end of the maneuver. Constant airspeed descent—normal cruise entry and exit: Throttle: Reduce to idle
Pitch: 3-6 degrees nosedown to maintain 250 KIAS
4-2 CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER FOUR
Level off: Lead by10 percent of VSI
Throttle: Increase to cruise power (approximately 1,200 pph at 15,000 ft MSL)
Pitch: Level flight attitude
Trim: Adjust for level flight If you are at an airspeed of less than 250 KIAS, begin the constant airspeed descent by smoothly decreasing the nose attitude 3-6 degrees nose-low, allowing the airspeed to approach 250 KIAS (5-kt lead) and then reducing the power to idle and continuing the descent in the normal manner. 403. CONSTANT RATE CLIMBS AND DESCENTS Serving as the foundation of the more complex "S-pattern" maneuvers, constant rate climbs and descents are somewhat more difficult than the constant airspeed climbs and descents because you must maintain a given airspeed, heading, and a specific rate of climb or descent. In constant rate climbs and descents, control the rate of climb with power while simultaneously maintaining airspeed by adjusting nose attitude. A common mistake in these maneuvers is to attempt to control airspeed with power and climb rate with pitch. Also, pitch and power are interrelated and an adjustment to either one will affect the other, so you will have to coordinate an adjustment to one with an adjustment to the other. For example, if you advance power to increase your climb rate without simultaneously increasing pitch enough, your climb rate will increase and your airspeed will tend to increase. Your primary scan for these maneuvers must include the ADI display for pitch, bank, heading control, climb or descent rate, and airspeed. VSI indications are instantaneous so avoid making abrupt corrections or you will find yourself chasing it. The importance of keeping the aircraft correctly trimmed throughout these maneuvers can't be overemphasized. If you don't have the aircraft trimmed, it is much more likely that you'll end up chasing the performance instruments. Constant Rate Climb. Entry speed for this maneuver is 200 KIAS (approximately 1,100 pph) at a specified altitude and heading. Initiate a 1,000-fpm climb by advancing power to approximately 1,500 pph while establishing a noseup attitude of approximately 2-3 degrees on the ADI display to maintain airspeed at 200 KIAS. Monitor your heading on the ADI display and ensure that it does not vary during the climb. As a heading reference, set your desired heading using the HDG option on the HSI display and deselect all navigation steering options on the HSI display. By doing this, the command heading bug on the ADI display is positioned at the heading you set on the HSI display HDG option. During the climb, you will control airspeed with pitch and rate of climb with power. Accomplish the transition to level flight just as you would for constant airspeed climbs. Lead the desired altitude by 10 percent of VSI, simultaneously reducing the throttle to cruise power and lowering the nose to level flight attitude.
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-3
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
NOTE
Plan enroute cruise airspeed with fuel conservation in mind. Unless directed differently by an IP, plan to fly the max range cruise IMN upon level off at altitude.
Constant rate climb entry and exit: Throttle: 1,500 pph
Pitch: Adjust to maintain 200 KIAS (approximately 2-3 degrees noseup)
Trim: Adjust for airspeed
VSI: Maintain 1,000-fpm climb
Throttle: Reduce to approximately 1,100 pph
Pitch: Lower to level flight attitude
Trim: Adjust for level flight Constant Rate Descent. The constant rate descent is a mirror image of the constant rate climb. In a constant rate descent, you will hold the rate of descent constant at 1,000 fpm and maintain an airspeed of 200 KIAS by simultaneously using power and pitch to control the rate of descent and airspeed. Entry speed for this maneuver is 200 KIAS. Initiate a 1,000-fpm descent by reducing power to approximately 700 pph while establishing a nosedown pitch of approximately 1-2 degrees on the ADI display to maintain airspeed at 200 KIAS. Monitor your heading on the ADI display and ensure that it does not vary during the descent. During the descent, you will control airspeed with pitch and rate of descent with power. A common mistake in this maneuver is to attempt to control airspeed with power and descent rate with pitch. Avoid making abrupt adjustments in response to VSI indications because you will find yourself chasing it. Accomplish the transition to level flight just as you would for constant airspeed descents. Lead the desired altitude by 10 percent of VSI, simultaneously advancing throttle to cruise power while establishing a pitch reference for level flight. Constant rate descent entry and exit: Throttle: Reduce to 700 pph
Pitch: Adjust to maintain 200 KIAS (approximately 1-2 degrees nosedown)
Trim: Adjust for airspeed
VSI: Maintain 1,000-fpm descent
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER FOUR
Level off: Lead by10 percent of VSI
Throttle: Add power to approximately 1,100 pph
Pitch: Raise to level flight attitude
Trim: Adjust for level flight 404. LEVEL TURNS An essential element of many instrument procedures, level turns establish the foundation on which you will build more complex maneuvers. The key to executing these maneuvers successfully is to know the procedures and to integrate control and scan efficiently. As you roll into a turn, the vertical component of lift will decrease, requiring a nose attitude correction to maintain a constant altitude—and, of course, the amount of correction required will increase as the turn becomes steeper. As the bank angle and aft stick pressure increase, airspeed will tend to decrease, so you will have to add power to maintain airspeed. Prior to entering a turn, trim your aircraft on the correct heading, airspeed, and altitude. When you transition into a turn, use the ADI display to establish the proper bank and pitch references, cross-check altitude trend indicator and VSI for a level turn. After you are established in the turn, include the airspeed trend indicator in your scan. Monitor the ADI display heading scale for roll- out point. Since the ADI display heading scale only shows +/- 15 degrees of heading from the heading reference, you will need to anticipate when your roll-out point will come into view or cross-check the HSI display to monitor the approach of your roll-out point. During the roll-out, use the ADI display to monitor both bank and pitch. As with all other instrument maneuvers, trim throughout the turn to keep pressure off the stick. Normal Turns. For turns of less than 30 degrees of heading change, use a bank angle that equals that change. For example, if a heading change from 020 degrees to 045 degrees were required (a 25-degree change), you would use a bank angle of 25 degrees. If the heading change is 30 degrees or greater, use a bank angle of 30 degrees. Prior to entering the turn, you should be in straight-and-level flight with trim properly set. As you roll into the turn, you will lose some of the vertical component of lift, so you'll have to add power and aft stick (trim) to compensate. Use a lead point of approximately one-third of the angle of bank for initiating your roll-out. As you roll out of the turn, the vertical component of lift will increase and the aircraft will have a tendency to climb. To counteract this, lower the nose attitude back to level flight reference and reduce power to the pre-turn setting. Any aft stick or trim added during the turn will have to come out when the turn is complete.
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-5
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
Heading change of 30 degrees or more: 30 degrees AOB
Heading change of less than 30 degrees: AOB equal to heading change
Throttle: Increase as needed to maintain airspeed
Pitch: As required to maintain level flight
Lead point for roll-out: 1/3 of the AOB Turn Pattern. Consisting of three pairs of left and right turns, the turn pattern gives you practice in smoothly performing a series of linked turns at a constant altitude and airspeed. The turn consists of two 30 degree angle of bank turns for 60 degrees of heading change each, two 45 degree AOB turns for 90 degrees of heading change each, and two 60 degree AOB turns for 120 degrees of heading change each. Since there are no 45-degree bank angle scale markers on the ADI display, you must place the bank angle pointer halfway between the 30-degree and 60-degree bank angle scale markers. Execute the turn reversals smoothly, with no straight-and- level legs. At the end of the maneuver, recover wings level on original heading. Throughout the maneuver, maintain altitude and 250 KIAS, adding more aft stick and more power for each set of turns. When reversing turns, ease the back stick as you apply reverse aileron in order to avoid gaining altitude. 1/2 Standard Rate Turns. A 1/2 standard-rate turn (1/2 SRT) is performed at 1-1/2 degrees per second. Therefore, a heading change of 30 degrees will take 20 seconds to complete. To accomplish this rate at different airspeeds, you will have to vary the bank angle. A good rule of thumb for determining bank angle between 15,000 and 20,000 ft is to use approximately 10 percent of indicated airspeed. At higher altitudes, you will need more bank than 10 percent of indicated airspeed, while at lower altitudes you will need less bank than 10 percent of indicated airspeed to maintain a 1/2 SRT. For example, at 250 KIAS and 18,000 ft, the bank angle would be approximately 25 degrees. Establishing and maintaining a 1/2 standard-rate turn at any altitude requires that you monitor the turn needle and adjust the bank angle as necessary to achieve one needle-width of deflection. Timed Turns, 1/2 Standard Rate. For practice, you should start your 1/2 SRTs from a cardinal heading using a lead point of 3 seconds prior to the clock's second hand passing the 6 or 12 position. Roll into the turn on the ADI display (approximately 25 degrees of bank at an airspeed of 250 KIAS) and adjust the pitch attitude to maintain level flight. Initially, scan the ADI display for bank and pitch control, the VSI or altitude trend indicator for pitch, and the airspeed trend indicator for speed. Once you have made the necessary pitch and power changes, check the turn needle and adjust the bank as necessary to maintain 1 needle-width of deflection. Check that 20 seconds have elapsed on the clock for every 30 degrees of heading change. Always check the time when you reach the correct number of degrees of turn (not vice versa) to ensure that you are keeping your scan on the flight instruments rather than on the clock. Since the HSI display compass rose is numbered in 30-degree increments, it provides a good reference when you should check the clock.
4-6 CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER FOUR
Continue to check the clock at least every 30 degrees of turn and adjust (AOB) rate of turn accordingly. If you are ahead of the clock, decrease AOB; if you are behind the clock, increase AOB. When you have the turn back on time, readjust your bank angle to a 1/2 SRT. Use no more than 30 or fewer than 10 degrees of bank when making your corrections. Lead your roll-out by one-third of the angle of bank, simultaneously reducing power to the level flight setting if it has been advanced. Bank angle: Approximately 10 percent of IAS (25 degrees at 250 KIAS)
Rate: 1-1/2 degrees per second
Throttle: As required to maintain airspeed
Pitch: As required to maintain level flight
Lead point for roll-out: 1/3 of the AOB Standard Rate Turns. Standard rate turns are performed at 3 degrees per second. Therefore a heading change of 30 degrees should take 10 seconds to complete. To accomplish standard rate turns at different airspeeds, you will have to vary the bank angle. A good rule of thumb for determining bank angle is to use approximately 20 percent of indicated airspeed. Because your maximum-allowed angle of bank for maneuvering the aircraft in instrument flight is 30 degrees, you will not normally perform standard rate turns at cruise altitude and airspeed. You will, however, use SRTs in the slow flight maneuver and the GCA pattern. Timed Turns Standard Rate. Use the same procedures and AOB limitations as 1/2 SRT except: establishing and maintaining a standard rate turn requires that you monitor the turn needle and adjust the bank angle as necessary to achieve a 2 needle-width deflection. Bank angle: Approximately 20 percent of IAS
Rate: 3 degrees per second
Throttle: As required to maintain airspeed
Pitch: As required to maintain altitude
Lead point for roll-out: 1/3 of the AOB Timed Turns (Partial Panel). Timed turns are standard or 1/2 standard rate turns performed for a specific duration of time to enable you to turn to a specific heading. Because of the unreliability of the standby compass in turns, you will find it necessary to perform timed turns from a known heading in the event of a heading system failure. Use the standby compass to determine the total number of degrees of the desired heading change. Compute the time required for the turn by dividing the heading change by the turn rate (1-1/2 or 3 per second).
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-7
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
NOTE
For a half standard rate, a simpler method to determine timing is to count the heading change in 30-degree increments, each of which equals 20 seconds. In a 90-degree turn, there are 3, 30-degree increments (30, 60, 90). Therefore, a 90-degree turn at 1/2 standard rate will take one minute. (3 increments X 20 seconds each = 60 seconds)
As the clock's second hand passes a cardinal point (3, 6, 9, or 12), smoothly roll into the turn, do not lead time. Adjust the bank angle as necessary to establish a 1/2 standard rate turn (approximately 25 degrees at 250 KIAS and 15,000 to 20,000 ft), and adjust pitch and power to maintain altitude and airspeed. If just the heading is frozen or blanked, continue to use the attitude information on the ADI display, otherwise use the standby AI for attitude reference. Because of its smaller size, the standby AI will appear to move faster and less smoothly, and you should be careful not to overcontrol the aircraft when flying partial panel. Correct only as necessary. Roll out of the turn at the end of the computed time, readjusting pitch and power for level flight. Then check the standby compass to confirm that you are on the desired heading. It is very important, especially during partial panel work, that you keep the airplane trimmed at all times. Bank angle: Approximately 10 percent of IAS
Throttle: As required to maintain airspeed
Pitch: As required to maintain altitude
Lead point for roll-out: None—roll out at the end of the computed time 405. LEVEL SPEED CHANGES Because pitch attitude must continuously change to maintain constant altitude during the speed change, you will need to pay close attention to pitch and trim. Thus, attitude control will be your primary problem in all level speed changes. As you adjust the power to begin the maneuver, the change in thrust will tend to cause the nose attitude to rise or fall. As the airspeed and consequently the aerodynamic forces acting on the aircraft change, you will have to adjust and trim the nose attitude to maintain level flight. Your scan, then, needs to include the ADI for pitch and bank and the VSI and altitude trend indicator as the performance instruments for pitch. If you decide to use the VSI as the performance instrument for pitch, you must guard against chasing its movements. Proper trim technique will help you combat the tendency to chase the performance instruments. Because of the rapid changes in aerodynamic forces during the maneuver, you will need to adjust and trim the nose attitude continuously to maintain level flight.
4-8 CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS
INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER FOUR
Wings Level Speed Increase. The power setting you use for increasing airspeed depends on the magnitude of the desired change. For an airspeed increase of less than 20 kts, you should advance the throttle beyond the power setting for the new airspeed, allowing the airspeed to increase, and then reduce the power to the approximate setting to maintain the new airspeed. For airspeed increases greater than 20 kts, advance the power to MRT. Then, at a lead of 5 kts from the desired airspeed, reduce the throttle setting to approximately that required for the new speed. Use this method when you practice the speed change from 200 to 250 KIAS in the T-45C. Throttle: Beyond power setting for desired airspeed or MRT for changes greater than 20 kts
Pitch: Decrease as required to maintain level flight
Trim: As required
Lead point for power reduction: 5 kts prior to new airspeed Wings Level Speed Decrease. To perform normal airspeed decreases, reduce the power below the power requirement for the desired airspeed, allowing the airspeed to decrease, and then at a lead point of 5 kts, advance power as required for the new airspeed. As airspeed decreases, more noseup trim will be required to maintain level flight. When making large or rapid airspeed decreases, reduce the throttle to the power setting for the new airspeed and extend and verify that the speed brakes are fully extended. When you extend the speed brakes, expect a pitchup and anticipate the need to retrim the aircraft to maintain altitude. Because the airspeed will rapidly decrease, you will need to use a 5-kt lead point to retract the speed brakes to avoid undershooting your desired airspeed. Use this method when you practice the speed change from 250 to 200 KIAS in the T-45C. To execute a small change in airspeed: Throttle: Below power setting for desired airspeed
Pitch: Increase as required to maintain level flight
Trim: As required
Lead point for power advancement: 5 kts prior to new airspeed To execute large or rapid changes in airspeed: Throttle: Power setting to idle
Speed brakes: Extend
Trim: As required
Lead point for power advancement: 5 kts prior to new airspeed
Lead point for speed brake retraction: 5 kts prior to new airspeed
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-9
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
Level Speed Changes in 1/2 SRT. The procedures for performing turning speed changes combine the same procedures you used for level speed changes and 1/2 standard rate turns. These maneuvers require a full understanding of the effects of bank, airspeed, pitch, and power on lift. Proper trim is of paramount importance during these turning speed changes because of the constantly changing pitch attitude needed to maintain level flight and the constantly changing AOB needed to maintain a 1/2 SRT. Accelerating Timed Turn. Using a 3-second lead, begin the maneuver by simultaneously advancing the throttle to MRT and rolling the aircraft to a bank angle (approximately 10 percent of the airspeed) for a 1/2 standard rate turn. You can accurately predict that the bank will require an increase in back-stick pressure to maintain level flight. On the other hand, as the airspeed increases, the aircraft will tend to pitch up, requiring less aft stick to maintain level flight. To maintain solid aircraft control during the maneuver, you must perform a very efficient scan. Scan the ADI display for pitch and bank control, the altitude trend indicator and/or VSI for pitch performance information, the airspeed trend indicator for power performance information, and the clock for turn performance information. Additionally, as airspeed builds, you will have to increase AOB to maintain a turn rate of 1 needle-width deflection. You will normally perform this accelerating airspeed turn from 200 to 250 KIAS. Throttle: MRT (for 20 KIAS increase or greater)
Bank angle: Approximately 10 percent of IAS (1 needle-width)
Clock: Every 20 seconds for 30 degrees of heading change
Pitch: As required to maintain altitude
Lead point for roll-out: 1/3 of the AOB
Lead point for power reduction: 5 kts
Trim: As required Proper trim is key to maintaining good aircraft control during the maneuver. Decelerating Timed Turn. Begin the decelerating airspeed turn by using a 3-second lead, simultaneously reducing the throttle to the power setting for the new airspeed while extending the speed brakes. Roll the aircraft to a bank angle giving a 1/2 standard rate turn (approximately 10 percent of the airspeed at altitude). When you extend the speed brakes, expect a pitchup and anticipate the need to retrim the aircraft to maintain altitude. You can accurately predict that the bank will require an increase in back stick to maintain level flight. As the airspeed decreases, the aircraft will tend to pitch down, requiring further back stick to maintain level flight. Include in your scan the ADI display for pitch and bank control, the altitude trend indicator and/or VSI for pitch performance information, the airspeed trend indicator for power performance information, and the clock for turn performance information. As airspeed falls, you will have to decrease bank angle to maintain a 1/2 SRT. Normally, this maneuver is performed from 250 to 200 KIAS.
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Throttle: Setting for desired airspeed
Bank angle: Approximately 10 percent of IAS (1 needle-width)
Speed brakes: Extend (if 20 KIAS change or greater)
Pitch: As required to maintain altitude
Clock: Every 20 seconds for 30 degrees of heading change
Lead point for speed brake retraction: 5 kts
Lead point for roll-out: 1/3 of the AOB
Trim: As required Again, keeping the pressure trimmed off the stick during the maneuver is an important element in accomplishing the maneuver smoothly. 406. "S" PATTERNS The "S" patterns are scan builders that increase your skills in transitioning into and maintaining a rate of descent and climb. Additionally, the S-3 requires you to perform a 1/2 SRT while climbing and descending. S-1 Pattern. The S-1 pattern consists of a 1,000-fpm descent for 1,000 ft followed by a 1,000- fpm climb for 1,000 ft (each maneuver lasting 1 minute in duration). This descent/climb sequence is performed a minimum of two times (Figure 4-1). Fly the entire maneuver on a constant heading and at a constant airspeed of 200 KIAS.
Figure 4-1 S-1 Pattern
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
Initiate the maneuver at an airspeed of 200 KIAS by reducing power to approximately 700 pph and lowering the nose approximately 1-2 degrees, 3 seconds before the second hand reaches the 12 o'clock position on the clock. Descend at 1,000 fpm for 1,000 ft and then climb at 1,000 fpm for 1,000 ft. In order to transition from descent to climb and back to descent at the proper altitudes, start your transition 100 ft or 3 seconds (whichever occurs first) prior to the end of a climb or descent. To maintain the climb/descent timed rate and airspeed, you will have to vary the pitch and power setting. Avoid making large power and pitch corrections by cross-checking the VSI and keeping the vertical speed within +/- 300 fpm of your target rate. You use power to control the rate of climb/descent and pitch to control airspeed. When you reach the lead point for a climb or descent, set the throttle to the appropriate power setting and begin to rotate the nose smoothly to the new pitch angle. During climbs and descents, check the clock against the altitude to ensure that your altitude has changed by 250 ft every 15 seconds. During climbs, the altitude trend indicator wiper blade and second hand should mirror each other. Near the end of the last climb in the maneuver, prepare for the transition back to level flight: 3 seconds or 100 ft (whichever occurs first) prior to level off, reduce power to the level flight setting and begin lowering the nose to the horizon. Be sure to control the rate of pitch change in order to reach level flight at the same time you reach level off altitude. Power setting: Climb approximately 1,500 pph; Descent approximately 700 pph
Pitch: Climb = 2-3 degrees noseup; Descent = 1-2 degrees nosedown
Clock: Cross-check with altitude for 250 ft every 15 seconds
VSI: Steady at 1,000 fpm
Airspeed: 200 KIAS
Heading: Hold constant S-3 Pattern. The S-3 pattern combines the climbs and descents of the S-1 pattern with two 180- degree 1/2 standard rate turns. The turn is reversed at the beginning of the second descent. (Figure 4-2)
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INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER FOUR
Figure 4-2 S-3 Pattern Once established at 200 KIAS, trimmed, and on assigned heading, begin the maneuver using a 3-second lead on the clock and simultaneously initiating a timed 1/2 SRT and timed 1,000 fpm descent. Adjust the AOB and 200-kt descent rate to arrive at the transition point of the descent or climb on time and on heading. (Approximately 3 seconds prior to the twelve o'clock position, 5 degrees short of the 90-degree turn, and 50 ft prior to the end of the 1,000-ft descent.) At the transition point, begin 200 KIAS, 1,000 fpm rate climb while continuing the 1/2 SRT in the same direction for another 90 degrees of turn. During the climb, adjust AOB to maintain rate of turn and power and pitch to maintain 200 KIAS, 1,000 fpm climb on the clock. At the appropriate lead point of the climb, simultaneously reverse 1/2 SRT for another 180 degrees of turn and begin the 1,000 fpm descent on the clock. The maneuver is complete at the end of the second climb. Use the same checkpoints on the clock as used for the timed turn 1/2 SRT and S-1 pattern timed climbs and descents. Trim throughout the maneuver to keep pressure off the stick. Power setting: Climb approximately 1,500 pph; descent approximately 700 pph
Pitch: Climb = 2-3 degrees noseup; descent = 1-2 degrees nosedown
Bank angle: Adjust to maintain 1/2 SRT and reverse turn at start of each descent
Airspeed: 200 KIAS
Heading: 90 degrees of change for each climb and descent
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-13
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
NOTE
If you get ahead of the turn schedule, reduce AOB so to arrive on heading and on time. Always begin reversal turn with descent on the clock.
407. SLOW FLIGHT MANEUVER The slow flight maneuver allows you to practice instrument landing procedures, at altitude, prior to your first actual instrument approach. Although this maneuver may appear complex, it is actually just a compilation of individual maneuvers that you have already performed (Figure 4-3).
Figure 4-3 Slow Flight Maneuver
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INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT CHAPTER FOUR
Begin the maneuver from level flight at 250 KIAS. Decelerate to 200 KIAS by performing a level-speed change using the speed brakes. When you change the power setting and extend the speed brakes, you'll have to trim the nose up to maintain level flight. Retract the speed brakes 5 kts before you reach 200 KIAS and retrim the nose to maintain level flight. You should expect a change in pitch when you extend or retract the speed brakes. Next, roll into a 30-degree AOB turn and hold it for 90 degrees of heading change, adjusting pitch and power as needed to maintain altitude and airspeed. Lead the roll-out by about one-third of your bank angle, readjusting pitch and power to maintain level flight. After completing the turn, lower the gear, and set full flaps/slats. Adjust pitch to maintain level flight throughout the transition. At 155 KIAS, advance power to maintain 150 KIAS and retrim the nose. Complete the landing checklist at this time. Once you are stabilized at 150 KIAS, initiate a 20-degree AOB turn for 45 degrees of heading change, first in one direction and then back to the original heading. When rolling into the turns, adjust pitch and power as necessary to maintain airspeed and altitude. At the finish of these turns, adjust nose attitude and power to maintain level flight at optimum AOA. Perform a 10-degree AOB turn for 30 degrees of heading change and then make a 10-degree AOB turn back to the original heading. Extend the speed brakes and establish and maintain a 500-fpm descent for 1,000 ft. Using 10 percent of your VSI as a lead point, adjust pitch and power for level flight at optimum AOA. When you have the aircraft stabilized at optimum AOA in level flight, initiate a climb (missed approach) back to your original altitude by advancing the throttle to MRT, retracting the speed brakes, and raising the nose 10 degrees to establish a positive rate of climb. Once you can confirm a positive rate of climb on the VSI and altitude trend indicator, raise the landing gear. At or above 140 KIAS, raise the flaps/slats. When your airspeed reaches 200 KIAS, raise the nose to maintain this airspeed. Using 10 percent of VSI as a lead point, reduce power to the slow cruise setting and adjust pitch for level flight at 200 KIAS at the original altitude. Finally, perform a level-speed change to return to normal cruise airspeed (250 KIAS). The slow flight maneuver is nothing more than a series of basic maneuvers, linked into a continuous sequence. Pay particular attention to executing smooth transitions from one element of the maneuver to the next.
CONSTANT AIRSPEED CLIMBS AND DESCENTS 4-15
CHAPTER FOUR INSTRUMENT T-45TS, TAILHOOK, and IUT
The following lists the elements comprising the slow flight maneuver, in the sequence of performance: 1. Perform level speed change from 250 to 200 KIAS 2. Execute level 30-degree AOB turn for 90 degrees of heading change 3. Configure aircraft for landing and stabilize airspeed at 150 KIAS 4. Perform level 20-degree AOB turn for 45 degrees heading change and reverse to original heading 5. Slow to optimum AOA 6. Perform level 10-degree AOB turn for 30 degrees and reverse to original heading 7. Extend speed brakes and descend at 500 fpm for 1,000 ft with aircraft at optimum AOA 8. Establish level flight at optimum AOA 9. Advance throttle to MRT, retract speed brakes, initiate a climb, raise gear and flaps/slats, and climb at 200 KIAS to original altitude 10. Establish level flight at slow cruise (200 KIAS) 11. Perform a level speed change from 200 to 250 KIAS 408. STALLS AND UNUSUAL ATTITUDE RECOVERIES Practicing stalls and unusual attitude recoveries will give you confidence and experience in recognizing abnormal situations and in promptly taking the appropriate corrective action. You will perform these maneuvers entirely on instruments. No Stalls will be conducted during night or IMC conditions. STALLS The stalls consist of recoveries initiated from two types of entries: clean and dirty. Prior to executing these stalls, complete the stall and aerobatic checklist. You must begin all stalls at a minimum altitude of 10,000 ft AGL. Clean.