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FLED 312.01-SOCIOLINGUISTICS. CELAL TOSUN SEHER KOÇ ASLIHAN EMİRMUSTAFAOĞLU ÇAĞLA NİKBAY SİNEM AYDOĞAN. Language, Dialects and Varieties. Wardhaugh: “All languages exhibit a great deal of internal variation.” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



FLED 312.01-SOCIOLINGUISTICSCELAL TOSUNSEHER KOASLIHAN EMRMUSTAFAOLUALA NKBAYSNEM AYDOAN1Language, Dialects and VarietiesWardhaugh: All languages exhibit a great deal of internal variation.

Hudson (1980) defines variety a set of linguistic items with similar distribution.

All the languages are varieties from this point of view.

How does interrelationship between linguistic items and the social evaluations apply?

a. butter, budder, buerb. Fishing, fishinc. Farm, fahmd. width pronounced like wit or withe. ate pronounced like eight

3Language and DialectsWhich one do you speak? Language or dialect?

Language and dialect are ambiguous terms.

Ordinary people vs. Scholars4German vs. Dutch borders.In ScandinaviaCantonese and Mandarin (cultural connection)

Dialect and language are also used in historical sense.How will we differenciate between language and dialect?

Seher will tell you.5 Most of us want to call languages rather than dialects.6WHAT ARE THE CRITERIA TO DISCUSS ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF LANGUAGES?7Bell has listed seven criteria to discuss about different kinds of languages:StandardizationVitalityHistoricityAutonomyReductionMixtureDe facto norms



9It is the process by which a language has been codified in some way.

10*Development of grammars, spelling books, dictionaries, literature*A measure of agreement on what is in the language and what is not*Possible to teach a language in a certain way11Haugen talks about certain steps in standardization.Formal matters of codification: the development of grammar, dictionariesFormal matters of elaboration: use of language in litarature, education12Without community agreement on a norm(standard), both formal matters of codification and elaboration may not proceed very far. 13WHAT IS A NORM?Unity of individuals and groups in a larger communitySymbol of regional, social, ethnic identityPrestige to speakersA kind of goal of linguistic behavior14Government establishes official bodies to regulate language matters or to encourage changes that are desirable. (eg Trk Dil Kurumu)


16Assertation of independence (eg Finnish from Swedes and Russians)Some result in more than one standart variety(eg Norwegian: Nynorsk and Bokmal)Some result in resistance by the community because they fear that regional languages will diminish. Eg Hindi as underused L2in India) 17Elimination of variety and diversity Strain on those taking the task of standardization. (Translation and innovation)

18VITALITYIt refers to the existence of a living community of speakers.It is useful to distinguish between dead and alive languages.Dead languages: eg Manx, Cornish, Latin19

I am the last speaker of Manx. Manx die when I die.WORLD WAR II20A dead language may have great force even after it is no longer spoken as anyones first language like Classical Greek and Latin.21HISTORICITY

People find a sense of social, political, religious, or ethnic identity through using a language22AUTONOMYA language should be felt by its speakers to be different from other languages.This criterion is subjective23

I speak Black English. It is a seperate language not a variety of English.24REDUCTIONA particular variety may be regarded as sub-variety rather than as an independent entity.The variety may lack a writing system.


I am a speaker of Turkish not Trabzonish. I am not a representative speaker of Turkish. You know there are lots of varieties, mine is one of them.26


Bells 6. criteria Purity of the language Important for French or German speakers rather than English speakers. Pidgins & creoles: mixed, marginal or degenerate varieties.

27De Facto Norms Good speakers vs poor speakers Good speakers: represent the norms of proper usage. Examples: Parisian French or Florentine varity of Italian

!! So, peoples feelings about norms are important for variation in language !! 28??? What is a dialect ??? A subordinate variety of a language.

Some languages have more than one dialect. Some only have one dialect: dialect = language

29 Standard variety of a language = the preferred dialect. E.g : Parisian French, Florentine Italian

So, what is the preffered dialect of Turkish?? stanbul Dialect

30 Why is it so?? Why not Ankara or zmir dialects??

A standard dialect is chosen for political, social, religious and economical reasons to be the norm for the others.

Remember!! A standard dialect isnt often a dialect; it is the language itself!!

[stanbul dialect = stanbul Turkish]31

32Vernacular is: a speech of a particular country or region. transmitted from parent to child as a primary medium of communication.

A koine is: a speech form shared by many people of different vernaculars. common language, but not necessarily a standard one. e.g,Hindi for many people in India.33SOCIAL DIALECT

34Social DialectsSocial dialects are referred to differences in speech associated with various social groups and classes.There are several factors which determine the social position and affect the sppech of the people. What are these factors?35Factors: Place of residence Racial/ ethnic origin Cultural background Education Occupation Religion Income etc.36 !!!The principle factors that affect the social dialects are:

social class system of caste in India religion Christian, Jews and Muslim inhabitants in Baghdad. ethinity Black English, Jewish / Italian speech

37Social Dialectology Social Dialectology is a term used to refer to the lingusitic study based on social dialects. This kind of study is more difficult in the cities than in rural areas. Because the cities have much more variety in terms of family structure, employment and the effect of migration etc.

38STYLES AND REGISTERS Style and register are two factors that further complicate the study of dialects.

Style: Variation in the speech of every individual governed by circumstancesExample:What do you intend to do, your majesty? (Formal)Waddya intend doin, Rex? (Informal)39Factors influencing style:The kind of occasion (wedding, conference, lecture, etc.)Social, age, and other differences that exist between the participantsThe task involved (writing, speaking)Emotional involvement of participants

Do you think that stylistic choices are predictable?40 Yes, we can predict the stylistic features that a native speaker will tend to employ on certain occasions.

These are stylistic features:Tone of voiceFormality vs. InformalityChoice of grammatical formsBody language41Register: Sets of vocabulary items associated with discrete occupational or social groups Example: Vocabulary used by surgeons, airline pilots, bank managers, sales clerks, jazz fans, etc. Just like style, a variety of registers may be controlled by a person. You can be a teacher, a painter and a mother, OR an engineer, mountain climber and a father.42 Dialect, style and register differences are largely independent. You can talk about casually (style) about painting (register) in a local variety of language (dialect) .43Sometimes we use judgments such as better and worse or correct and incorrect. Bloomfield says (1927, pp. 423-3):

The popular explanation of correct and incorrect speech reduces the matter one of knowledge versus ignorance. There is such a thing as correct English. AN ignorant person does not know the correct forms; therefore he cannot help using incorrect ones. In the process of education one learns the correct forms and, by practice and an effort of will(careful speaking), acquires the habit of using them. If one associates with ignorant speakers, or relaxes the effort of will (careless speaking), one will lapse into the correct forms there is one error in the popular view which is of special interest. The incorrect forms cannot be the result of ignorance or carelessness, for they are by no means haphazard, but, on the contrary, very stable. For instance, if a person is so ignorant as not to know how to say I see it in the past time in past time, we might expect him to use all kinds of chance forms, and, especially, to resort ot easily formed locutions, such as I did see it, or to the addition of past-time suffix: I seed it. But instead, these ignorant people quite consistently say I seen it. Now it is evident that one fixed and consistent form will be no more difficult than another: a person who has learned I seen it as the past of I see has learned just as much as one who says I saw. He has simply learned something different. Although most of the people who say I seen are ignorant, their ignorance does not account for this form of speech.(Page 50 in the book)44 Although many varieties of language exist, languages do not vary in every possible way. It is still quite possible to listen to an individual speaker and infer very specific things about that speaker after hearing relatively little of his or her speech. How can we account for this ability? There are several possible answers:We rely on relatively few cuesWe are sensitive to the consistency or inconsistency in the use of these cuesOur receptive linguistic ability is much greater than our productive linguistic ability

45LANGUAGE VARIATIONFOCUS ON USERS46Regional and social dialectsMonolingual communities

status, gender, age, ethnicity

membership of a group

47Regional and social dialectsTelephone ringsPat:Hello.Caller:Hello, is Mark there?Pat:Yes. Just hold on a minute.Pat (to Mark):There is a rather well-educated young lady from Scotland on the phone for you.48Regional and social dialectsSpeech to differentiate groups

Like languages, speech characteristics unify and seperate.

Your style reflects your group and identity.i.e. Aegean vs. BlackSea regions49Regional variationInternational varietiesYoung boy: Gidday, what can I do for you?

Old man:Ive called to see me old mate Don Stone.

Young boy:Oh hes dead now mate.

(Old man is about to express condolences when he is thumped on the back by Don Stone himself.)

(The young man said, Heres dad now mate. as his father came in the gate.)50Regional and social dialectsNew Zealand: dad ,bad British: dead, bed

American, Australian, New Zealander British pens, pans pins, pens.

And there are vocabulary differences in variations.Australians: sole parentsBritish: single parentsNew Zealander: solo parents51International varietiesPavement or sidewalk?Subway or metro?Trunk or boot (car)?Bonnet or hood?Gas or petrol?Jersey or sweater?Piaper or nappy (for babies)?Elevator of lift?Can of beans or tin of beans?Luggage or baggage?Eraser or rubber?52International varietiesGrammatical differences (British or US?)

Do you have a match?Have you got a cigarette?

She has gotten used to the noise.Shes got used to the noise.

Did you eat yet?Have you eaten yet?53

INTRA-NATIONAL OR INTRA-CONTINENTAL VARIATIONDifference inGrammatical usagesLexical itemsAccents

54Lets guess the word meaning

You are supposed to form a sentence with a word that is speacial to your region. The others will guess the meaning.55Cross-continental Variation: Dialect Chains Languages arent seperated; they blend into one another. A good example: Miriam is a fluent speaker of French and Italian. She decides to travel accross France to Italy to see the varieties of those languages in different towns. During travel, she sees French is spoken in Italy borders and Italian is spoken in French village borders, but in different dialects from Paris and Rome dialects respectively. So, she understands that the French spoken in the border towns and villages of Italy has more in common with the language of the next village than the language of Paris.56 The chain or continuum between the towns or villages. Dialect chains are very common accross the whole Europe. For example: one chain links: dialects of German, Dutch and Flemish through Austria and Germany. another chain: Spanish, Catalan, French and Italian. 57

Many dialect chains in europe ??? Puff !!58What can we infer from this chain map?? French and Italian in close areas can communicate easily despite their different languages because of this language chain.An exception to this: Chinese has two dialects: Cantonese and Mandarin. So,

A language should be defined not only in linguistic features but also in social and political functions!



61RP: a social accentDiana: Have you heard- Jonothans engaged to that northern girl- from Cumbria!Reg: She may be northern; but I assure you she is very acceptable. Her father is a lord, and a rich one at that! She has had the best education money can buy. Those traces of northern accent are fashionable these days my dear!62Some insights about accents: A person who spoke with a regional accent in England is most unlikely to belong to the upper class. Because they don not get upper-class education, they do not get RP (Received Pronounciation)63 On the contrary, a person who is from upper-class can have a proper education. As a result of such a prvate education, they can reach RP, that is Received Pronounciation. RP is the accent of the best educated and most prestigious members of the society.

64RP Quenns EnglishLook at the figure 6.1 (page: 131) the lowest socio-economic level has the most linguistic variation and they use most localized accent. the highest socio-economic level has the least linguistic variation and they use RP.

65Social Dialects The dialects are linguaistic varieties which are distinguishable by:vocabularygrammarpronunciation e.g. Standart English66Standard EnglishExample :Ive not washed the dishes yet today.I havent washed the dishes yet today Which is the sentence of Standart English?67Standard English is more accommodating than RP; so it allows a limited amount of grammatical variation.It is a dialect used by well-educated English speakers.It is the variety used for national news broadcasts, in print and in English speaking schools.68Non-Standard Dialect In fact, the non-standard forms are associated with the speech of less prestigious social groups But, it should be clear that there is nothing linguistically inferior about non-standard forms. So, some sociolinguists use the term vernacular instead of non-standard forms.

69Non-Standard Dialect Vernacular (non-standard) forms tend to be learned at home and used in informal contexts. It lacks public or overt prestigeIt is valued by their users, especially when using for expressing solidarity and affective meaning.70SOCIAL STATUSCASTES Social dialects are easier to see in places such as Indonesia and India where caste systems exist determined by birth and strict social rules governing groups behavior. The rules cover jobs, marriage, dressing, eating, behavior and of course language. In such countries, one can observe stylistic levels.

Javanese social status is reflected in the combination of forms:

Two Javanese words at different stylistic levels (Holmes 2001, p. 135)YouNowStylistic levelPadjenengan samenika 3aSampjan samenika 3Sampjan saniki 2Sampjan saiki 1aPandjenengan saiki 1aKow saiki 1

71SOCIAL CLASS-Vocabulary Social class refers to differences between people which are associated with differences in social prestige, wealth and education.Example: School managers dont talk like sales clerks. Bus drivers dont talk like teachers. Social dialect research in many different countries has revealed that a consistent relationship between social class and language patterns.

Do we have vocabulary variation in Turkish among social classes?

72PRONUNCIATIONKim: Only uneducated people drop their hs.

Stephen: Lets hear you say Have you heard about Hildas new house that her husband left her? It cost her a heck of alot to fix up. If you dont drop a single h in that sentence youll sound like one of Robert Colleges upper-class nerds!!

Did you drop any h ?73PRONUNCIATIONh-dropping

Usha Pragji, a New Zealand student

Marjorie Lee didnt drop a single [h].%0

George Davis dropped %83 of the [h]s.74PRONUNCIATION

Percentage [h]-droppingSocial groups or classesThis diagram was constructed from data in Trudgill 1974 and Petyt 198575William Labov interviewed 120 people in New York City.

[i] vs. [in] swimming, sleeping

The percentage of vernacular [in] pronunciation for four social groups in speech communities in Britain, America and Australia._____________________________________________Social Group1234_____________________________________________Norwich314291100West Yorkshire5346183New York7324575Brisbane1731496376[r] PRONUNCIATION

English speaking speech communities, some pronounced [r], some do not.In some regions, pronouncing [r] is prestigous like in Scotland, Ireland. They pronounce [r] after vowel (post-vocaliclly)According to Labov experiment, the higher the status of people, the more frequent the pronounciation of [r] 77However, in some regions pronouncing [r] is not prestigious like in Reading in England. [h]-dropping is also prestigious in the regions where [r] pronounciation is prestigious.


I am from Edirne. When I go to Scotland, I will be prestigous because of [h]-dropping 79 Labov developed a method: giving a score to different pronounciations according to how close they are to the prestige/standard pronounciation in the community.Results of New Zelanders in diphtong pronounciation.The highest social group: 60+Middle group: 50-55The lowest social group: 25-43 According to these results, the higher the social is, the closer the pronounciation is to the standard. (RP is the standard accent for New Zeland)80

VOWELS81 Labov developed a method: giving a score to different pronounciations according to how close they are to the prestige/standard pronounciation in the community.Results of New Zelanders in diphtong pronounciation.The highest social group: 60+Middle group: 50-55The lowest social group: 25-43 According to these results, the higher the social is, the closer the pronounciation is to the standard. (RP is the standard accent for New Zeland)82Other Languages The sociolinguistic patterns have been extensively researched in English-speaking communities. However, they have been found in other languages, too. Look at the table 6.3 (page: 142). This table is related to [l]-deletion in two social classes in Montreal French.83 This table shows that working class deletes [l] sound more than the professional ones. There is also another factor affecting the pronunciation apart from social class. It is linguistic contexts. As a general, it is known that the higher social groups use more of the standart forms, while the lowest groups use the fewest standart forms.84-Grammatical Patterns

It aint no cat cant get in no coop. ?85It aint no cat cant get in no coop. (vernacular form-adolescent gang member)IIThere isnt any cat that can get into any coop. (standard form)

This example shows that multiple negation (negative concord ) is a very salient vernacular form. Middle class speakers avoid using it, whereas lower class speakers prefer using it.86 One should be careful about the linguistic environment in which a word occurs before determining the effects of social variation on speech.

E.g. You got to go. vs. Youve done that. Auxiliary verb have is omitted in the first sentence whereas it is not in the second sentence. One might jump to the conclusion that they are uttered by people of different social classes. However, they may be uttered by the same person. The point here is that people tend to omit have more freguently before got so this is not related to social variation but linguistic environment.87CONCLUSIONHow you speak indicates your social background.Some variations are stable, which means they are reliable sources for deciding on sociolinguistic patterns.Some variations are unstable, which means they just indicate that there is some language change in progress. 88