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FLED 312.01-SOCIOLINGUISTICS. CELAL TOSUN SEHER KOÇ ASLIHAN EMİRMUSTAFAOĞLU ÇAĞLA NİKBAY SİNEM AYDOĞAN. Language, Dialects and Varieties. Wardhaugh: “All languages exhibit a great deal of internal variation.” - PowerPoint PPT Presentation



FLED 312.01-SOCIOLINGUISTICSCELAL TOSUNSEHER KOASLIHAN EMRMUSTAFAOLUALA NKBAYSNEM AYDOAN1Language, Dialects and VarietiesWardhaugh: All languages exhibit a great deal of internal variation.

Hudson (1980) defines variety a set of linguistic items with similar distribution.

All the languages are varieties from this point of view.

How does interrelationship between linguistic items and the social evaluations apply?

a. butter, budder, buerb. Fishing, fishinc. Farm, fahmd. width pronounced like wit or withe. ate pronounced like eight

3Language and DialectsWhich one do you speak? Language or dialect?

Language and dialect are ambiguous terms.

Ordinary people vs. Scholars4German vs. Dutch borders.In ScandinaviaCantonese and Mandarin (cultural connection)

Dialect and language are also used in historical sense.How will we differenciate between language and dialect?

Seher will tell you.5 Most of us want to call languages rather than dialects.6WHAT ARE THE CRITERIA TO DISCUSS ABOUT DIFFERENT KINDS OF LANGUAGES?7Bell has listed seven criteria to discuss about different kinds of languages:StandardizationVitalityHistoricityAutonomyReductionMixtureDe facto norms



9It is the process by which a language has been codified in some way.

10*Development of grammars, spelling books, dictionaries, literature*A measure of agreement on what is in the language and what is not*Possible to teach a language in a certain way11Haugen talks about certain steps in standardization.Formal matters of codification: the development of grammar, dictionariesFormal matters of elaboration: use of language in litarature, education12Without community agreement on a norm(standard), both formal matters of codification and elaboration may not proceed very far. 13WHAT IS A NORM?Unity of individuals and groups in a larger communitySymbol of regional, social, ethnic identityPrestige to speakersA kind of goal of linguistic behavior14Government establishes official bodies to regulate language matters or to encourage changes that are desirable. (eg Trk Dil Kurumu)


16Assertation of independence (eg Finnish from Swedes and Russians)Some result in more than one standart variety(eg Norwegian: Nynorsk and Bokmal)Some result in resistance by the community because they fear that regional languages will diminish. Eg Hindi as underused L2in India) 17Elimination of variety and diversity Strain on those taking the task of standardization. (Translation and innovation)

18VITALITYIt refers to the existence of a living community of speakers.It is useful to distinguish between dead and alive languages.Dead languages: eg Manx, Cornish, Latin19

I am the last speaker of Manx. Manx die when I die.WORLD WAR II20A dead language may have great force even after it is no longer spoken as anyones first language like Classical Greek and Latin.21HISTORICITY

People find a sense of social, political, religious, or ethnic identity through using a language22AUTONOMYA language should be felt by its speakers to be different from other languages.This criterion is subjective23

I speak Black English. It is a seperate language not a variety of English.24REDUCTIONA particular variety may be regarded as sub-variety rather than as an independent entity.The variety may lack a writing system.


I am a speaker of Turkish not Trabzonish. I am not a representative speaker of Turkish. You know there are lots of varieties, mine is one of them.26


Bells 6. criteria Purity of the language Important for French or German speakers rather than English speakers. Pidgins & creoles: mixed, marginal or degenerate varieties.

27De Facto Norms Good speakers vs poor speakers Good speakers: represent the norms of proper usage. Examples: Parisian French or Florentine varity of Italian

!! So, peoples feelings about norms are important for variation in language !! 28??? What is a dialect ??? A subordinate variety of a language.

Some languages have more than one dialect. Some only have one dialect: dialect = language

29 Standard variety of a language = the preferred dialect. E.g : Parisian French, Florentine Italian

So, what is the preffered dialect of Turkish?? stanbul Dialect

30 Why is it so?? Why not Ankara or zmir dialects??

A standard dialect is chosen for political, social, religious and economical reasons to be the norm for the others.

Remember!! A standard dialect isnt often a dialect; it is the language itself!!

[stanbul dialect = stanbul Turkish]31

32Vernacular is: a speech of a particular country or region. transmitted from parent to child as a primary medium of communication.

A koine is: a speech form shared by many people of different vernaculars. common language, but not necessarily a standard one. e.g,Hindi for many people in India.33SOCIAL DIALECT

34Social DialectsSocial dialects are referred to differences in speech associated with various social groups and classes.There are several factors which determine the social position and affect the sppech of the people. What are these factors?35Factors: Place of residence Racial/ ethnic origin Cultural background Education Occupation Religion Income etc.36 !!!The principle factors that affect the social dialects are:

social class system of caste in India religion Christian, Jews and Muslim inhabitants in Baghdad. ethinity Black English, Jewish / Italian speech

37Social Dialectology Social Dialectology is a term used to refer to the lingusitic study based on social dialects. This kind of study is more difficult in the cities than in rural areas. Because the cities have much more variety in terms of family structure, employment and the effect of migration etc.

38STYLES AND REGISTERS Style and register are two factors that further complicate the study of dialects.

Style: Variation in the speech of every individual governed by circumstancesExample:What do you intend to do, your majesty? (Formal)Waddya intend doin, Rex? (Informal)39Factors influencing style:The kind of occasion (wedding, conference, lecture, etc.)Social, age, and other differences that exist between the participantsThe task involved (writing, speaking)Emotional involvement of participants

Do you think that stylistic choices are predictable?40 Yes, we can predict the stylistic features that a native speaker will tend to employ on certain occasions.

These are stylistic features:Tone of voiceFormality vs. InformalityChoice of grammatical formsBody language41Register: Sets of vocabulary items associated with discrete occupational or social groups Example: Vocabulary used by surgeons, airline pilots, bank managers, sales clerks, jazz fans, etc. Just like style, a variety of registers may be controlled by a person. You can be a teacher, a painter and a mother, OR an engineer, mountain climber and a father.42 Dialect, style and register differences are largely independent. You can talk about casually (style) about painting (register) in a local variety of language (dialect) .43Sometimes we use judgments such as better and worse or correct and incorrect. Bloomfield says (1927, pp. 423-3):

The popular explanation of correct and incorrect speech reduces the matter one of knowledge versus ignorance. There is such a thing as correct English. AN ignorant person does not know the correct forms; therefore he cannot help using incorrect ones. In the process of education one learns the correct forms and, by practice and an effort of will(careful speaking), acquires the habit of using them. If one associates with ignorant speakers, or relaxes the effort of will (careless speaking), one will lapse into the correct forms there is one error in the popular view which is of special interest. The incorrect forms cannot be the result of ignorance or carelessness, for they are by no means haphazard, but, on the contrary, very stable. For instance, if a person is so ignorant as not to know how to say I see it in the past time in past time, we might expect him to use all kinds of chance forms, and, especially, to resort ot easily formed locutions, such as I did see it, or to the addition of past-time suffix: I seed it. But instead, these ignorant people quite consistently say I seen it. Now it is evident that one fixed and consistent form will be no more difficult than another: a person who has learned I seen it as the past of I see has learned just as much as one who says I saw. He has simply learned something different. Although most of the people who say I seen are ignorant, their ignorance does not account for this form of speech.(Page 50 in the book)44 Although many varieties of language exist, languages do not vary in every possible way. It is still quite possible to listen to an individual speaker and infer very specific things about that speaker after hearing relatively little of his or her speech. How can we account for this ability? There are several possible answers:We rely on relatively few cuesWe are sensitive to the consistency or inconsistency in the use of these cuesOur receptive linguistic ability is much greater than our productive linguistic ability

45LANGUAGE VARIATIONFOCUS ON USERS46Regional and social dialectsMonolingual communities

status, gender, age, ethnicity

membership of a group

47Regional and social dialectsTelephone ringsPat:Hello.Caller:Hello, is Mark there?Pat:Yes. Just hold on a minute.Pat (to Mark):There is a rather well-educated young lady from Scotland on the phone for you.48Regional and social dialectsSpeech to dif