FISIOLOGI OLAHRAGA Rahmatina B. Herman Bagian Fisiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas

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FISIOLOGI OLAHRAGA Rahmatina B. Herman Bagian Fisiologi Fakultas Kedokteran Universitas Andalas Slide 2 Introduction No other normal stresses that nearly approach the extreme stresses of heavy exercise If some of extremes of exercise were continued for even slightly prolonged periods, they might easily be lethal Therefore, Sports Physiology, in the main, is a discussion of the ultimate limits to which most of the bodily mechanisms can be stressed Comparison: - Extremely high fever approaching the level of lethality, body metabolism increases to about 100% -During marathon race, body metabolism increases to 2000 % above normal Slide 3 Strength of Muscles in Exercise Determined mainly by its size Maximum contractile force: 3-4 kg/cm 2 of muscle cross-sectional area The holding strength is 40% greater than contractile strength Slide 4 Power of Muscles in Exercise Power: -a measure of the total amount of work that the muscle performs in a unit of time: -determined by: >strength of muscle contraction >distance of contraction >number of times it contracts each minute -measured in kg-m/ minute -power of 1 kg-m/minute, that is a muscle >that can lift 1 kg weight to a height of 1 m in 1 min, or >that can move object laterally against a force of 1 kg for a distance of 1 m in 1 min Slide 5 Endurance Final measures of muscle performance The efficiency for translation of muscle power output into athletic performance is often much less during rapid activity than during less rapid but sustained activity Depends on nutritive support for muscle, more than anything else on the amount of glycogen that has been stored in muscle before the period of exercise A person on a high-carbohydrate diet stores far more glycogen in muscles than a person on mixed diet or high-fat diet endurance is greatly enhanced by a high-carbohydrate diet Slide 6 ..Endurance Type of Diet Glycogen stored (gm/ kg muscles) Complete exhaustion (minutes) High-carbohydrate40240 Mixed20120 High-fat685 Slide 7 Muscle Metabolic System in Exercise The same basic metabolic systems are present in muscle as in all other parts of body However, the activities of 3 metabolic systems are exceedingly important in understanding the limits of physical activity: 1. Phosphagen system 2.Glycogen-lactic acid system (anaerobic) 3.Aerobic system The amount of ATP present in the muscles, even in well-trained athlete, is sufficient to sustain maximal muscle power for only 3 seconds/ one half of a 50-m dash Slide 8 ..Muscle Metabolic System in Exercise Phosphocreatine Glycogen Glucose Fatty acid Amino acids Creatine + PO 3 Lactic acid CO 2 + H 2 O + O 2 + Urea ATP ADP AMP Energy For Muscle contraction Slide 9 ..Muscle Metabolic System in Exercise Metabolic systemM of ATP/ min Time Phosphagen system48 10 sec Glycogen-lactic acid system 2.51.3 1.6 min Aerobic system1 Unlimited time (as long as nutrients last) Slide 10 Recovery of Metabolic System After Exercise 1. Repaid of oxygen debt: 11.5 L Body normally contains 2 L of stored O2: -0.5 L in lungs -0.25 L dissolved in body fluids -1 L combined with Hb -0.3 L combined with myoglobin In heavy exercise, almost all O2 is used After exercise over, the stored oxygen must be replenished by breathing 9 L more to provide for reconstituting phosphagen and lactic acid system Slide 11 ....Recovery of Metabolic System After Exercise 2. Recovery of muscle glycogen Not a simple matter Often requires days -A high carbohydrate diet: full recovery in 2 days - A high -fat/ high-protein diet: little recovery even after 5 days -Important for athlete to have a high carbohydrate diet before a grueling athletic event -not to participate in exhaustive exercise during the 48 hours preceding the event Slide 12 Effect of Training on Muscles Muscles that function under no load, even if they are exercised for hours on end, increase little in strength Muscle that contract at > 50% maximal force of contraction will develop strength rapidly even if the contractions are performed only a few times each day Experiments on muscle building: maximal muscle contractions performed in three sets 3 days a week give approximately optimal increase in muscle strength and without producing chronic muscle fatigue Slide 13 Fast-twitch and Slow-twitch Muscle Fibers Fast-twitch: -twice as large in diameter -the enzymes that promote rapid release of energy are 2-3 times as active in fast-twitch as in slow- twitch Slow-twitch: -mainly organized for endurance especially for generation of aerobic energy -contain more myoglobin - the enzymes of aerobic metabolic system more active than fast-twitch -the number of capillaries per mass of fibers is greater than in fast-twitch Slide 14 Cardio-respiratory Function in Exercise Oxygen consumption and total pulmonary ventilation increase 20-fold between the resting state and maximum intensity of exercise in the well-trained athlete O2 diffusing capacity, that is the rate at which O2 can diffuse from alveoli into the blood: 3-fold increase Respiration is stimulated mainly by neurogenic mechanisms Venous return and COP Hypertrophy of myocardium Slide 15 Effect of Training on VO2 Max VO2 max is abbreviation for the rate of oxygen usage under maximal aerobic metabolism Experiments: -Athletic training for 7-13 weeks: VO2 max increased only 10 %, and the frequency of training had little effect on the increase in VO2 max -Marathon training: VO2 max increased > 10 % Slide 16 Body Heat in Exercise During endurance athletics, body temperature often rises to 40C even under normal environmental conditions With very hot and humid conditions or excess clothing, the body temperature can easily rise to 42C heat stroke destructive to tissue cells, especially to brain cells: -extreme weakness -exhaustion -headache, dizziness, nausea -profuse sweating -confusing, staggering gait, collapse, unconsciousness Slide 17 Body Fluids in Exercise 5-10 pound weight loss has been recorded in athletes in a period of 1 hour during endurance athletic events under hot and humid conditions Essentially results from loss of sweat Loss of sweat to decrease body weight -3%: can significantly diminish performance -5-10% rapid decrease can often be serious, leading to muscle cramps, nausea and other effects Therefore it is essential to replace fluid as it is lost including replacement of salt and potassium Slide 18